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1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1319-1326, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353862

RESUMO

A recurrent de novo missense variant in KCNC1, encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed in inhibitory neurons, causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia, and a nonsense variant is associated with intellectual disability. We identified three new de novo missense variants in KCNC1 in five unrelated individuals causing different phenotypes featuring either isolated nonprogressive myoclonus (p.Cys208Tyr), intellectual disability (p.Thr399Met), or epilepsy with myoclonic, absence and generalized tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, and developmental delay (p.Ala421Val, three patients). Functional analyses demonstrated no measurable currents for all identified variants and dominant-negative effects for p.Thr399Met and p.Ala421Val predicting neuronal disinhibition as the underlying disease mechanism.

2.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968969

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate clinical manifestations of tongue-tie as well as short-term and long-term outcomes following frenotomy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, for 329 patients (295 infants and 34 children) who underwent frenotomy between 2011 and 2017, symptoms, short-term and long-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 295 infants (median age six weeks), 199 (=60%) showed inadequate breastfeeding. Symptoms were painful or sore maternal nipples, poor weight gain, dribbling milk from the corner of the mouth, reduced milk supply, inadequate latch during bottle-feeding and maternal mastitis. In the 34 children, predominant symptoms were articulation disorders, misaligned teeth and problems with swallowing solid food. Of the 141 patients with short-term feedback, 86% reported improvement, 13% an unchanged situation. In a former premature, the reported worsening of symptoms ('breath spells') are likely related to prematurity. Of the 164 patients where the questionnaire for long-term outcome was provided, 82% reported improvement, 16% an unchanged situation. For two infants worsening was reported, referring to refusal to drink from breast or bottle for two hours after the procedure and fever for one day, respectively. CONCLUSION: Frenulum breve is a potential cause of breastfeeding difficulties and can be treated safely and efficiently by frenotomy.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982989

RESUMO

In 2012, we published guidelines summarizing and evaluating late 2011 evidence for diagnosis and therapy of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). With 1:35 000 estimated incidence, UCDs cause hyperammonemia of neonatal (~50%) or late onset that can lead to intellectual disability or death, even while effective therapies do exist. In the 7 years that have elapsed since the first guideline was published, abundant novel information has accumulated, experience on newborn screening for some UCDs has widened, a novel hyperammonemia-causing genetic disorder has been reported, glycerol phenylbutyrate has been introduced as a treatment, and novel promising therapeutic avenues (including gene therapy) have been opened. Several factors including the impact of the first edition of these guidelines (frequently read and quoted) may have increased awareness among health professionals and patient families. However, under-recognition and delayed diagnosis of UCDs still appear widespread. It was therefore necessary to revise the original guidelines to ensure an up-to-date frame of reference for professionals and patients as well as for awareness campaigns. This was accomplished by keeping the original spirit of providing a trans-European consensus based on robust evidence (scored with GRADE methodology), involving professionals on UCDs from nine countries in preparing this consensus. We believe this revised guideline, which has been reviewed by several societies that are involved in the management of UCDs, will have a positive impact on the outcomes of patients by establishing common standards, and spreading and harmonizing good practices. It may also promote the identification of knowledge voids to be filled by future research.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 32(6): 755-763, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723298

RESUMO

Both lysosomal storage diseases and mitochondrial diseases are a group of genetic-inherited metabolic disorders. In an era, where "old fashioned methods" are apparently being replaced by evolving molecular techniques (i.e. exome and whole genome sequencing), the "old fashioned methods" might help to characterise and thus narrow down the potential differential diagnosis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the relevance of electron microscopy of axillary skin for the diagnosis of lysosomal storage or mitochondrial diseases (=inherited metabolic disorders of energy metabolism). Methods and patients: We included 74 patients with developmental delay with regression or neurodegeneration who underwent an axillary skin biopsy for both fibroblast culture and electron microscopy. Because of insufficient skin biopsy quality, for 8 patients no electron microscopy result was obtained. The electron microscopy biopsies revealed abnormalities in 37/66 (56.1%) patients. 29/66 electron microscopy biopsies showed normal results. A definite diagnosis was established in 21/66 (31.8%) patients with a pathological results of axillary skin electron microscopy analysis. In total, in 25/66 (37.8%) of the patients who underwent an axillary skin electron microscopy analysis, a definite diagnosis was finally established. Taking an axillary skin biopsy during anaesthesia or with use of local intradermal lidocaine application is an inexpensive alternative and useful to establish a diagnosis in patients suspected to have a lysosomal storage disease (or inherited metabolic disorder of energy metabolism).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747084

RESUMO

In patients having undergone the Fontan operation, besides the well discussed changes in the cardiac, pulmonary and gastrointestinal system, alterations of further organ systems including the hematologic, immunologic, endocrinological and metabolic are reported. As a medical adjunct to Fontan surgery, the systematic study of the central role of the liver as a metabolizing and synthesizing organ should allow for a better understanding of the pathomechanism underlying the typical problems in Fontan patients, and in this context the profiling of endocrinological and metabolic patterns might offer a tool for the optimization of Fontan follow-up, targeted monitoring and specific adjunct treatment.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 817-825, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401461

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL2, reverse the reaction. We used exome sequencing to identify five different bi-allelic pathogenic ADPRHL2 variants in 12 individuals from 8 families affected by a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in childhood or adolescence with key clinical features including developmental delay or regression, seizures, ataxia, and axonal (sensori-)motor neuropathy. ADPRHL2 was virtually absent in available affected individuals' fibroblasts, and cell viability was reduced upon hydrogen peroxide exposure, although it was rescued by expression of wild-type ADPRHL2 mRNA as well as treatment with a PARP1 inhibitor. Our findings suggest impaired protein ribosylation as another pathway that, if disturbed, causes neurodegenerative diseases.

7.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298599

RESUMO

MPV17 encodes a putative channel-forming protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is involved in mitochondrial deoxynucleotide homeostasis. MPV17 mutations were first reported in patients with Navajo neurohepatopathy, an autosomal recessive mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, characterized by early-onset liver failure, failure to thrive as well as central and peripheral neurological involvement. Recently, two patients with juvenile-onset peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy associated with an MVP17 c.122G>A (p.Arg41Gln) variant have been reported. Here, we describe five additional patients from two unrelated families with sensorimotor axonal neuropathy without hepatocerebral affection caused by homozygous MPV17 variants. Patients of the first family carried the known c.122G>A variant and affected individuals of the second family had a novel c.376-9T>G near-splice variant, which was shown to result in an in-frame deletion of 11 amino acids. This report provides further evidence that MPV17 mutations should be considered in patients with pure, non-syndromic axonal neuropathy.

8.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In general, a mitochondrial disorder is diagnosed on the basis of symptom combinations and confirmed by genetic findings. However, patients carrying the m.3243A>G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA leucine 1 (MT-TL1) do not always meet all the proposed criteria for the most frequently encountered mitochondrial syndrome "MELAS," an acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and at least one Stroke-like episode. We here present various phenotypic characteristics of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G with particular focus on cardiac manifestations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed nine patients (1 month to 68 years old; median 42 years; four female and five male) from nine different families with this m.3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1. The classical "MELAS" criteria are met by only three of these patients. Electrocardiography (ECG) shows preexcitation pattern with short PR intervals and delta waves (Wolff-Parkinson-White) in three patients and sick sinus syndrome plus atrioventricular block I in one patient. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found in eight patients with moderate to severe regurgitation of various valves. CONCLUSION: Cardiac manifestation can encompass hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, as well as preexcitation syndromes or conduction delay. In general, the clinical presentation to meet the "MELAS" criteria varies due to heteroplasmy. Thus, cardiologists should screen patients with unexplained cardiac features in the context of deafness, short stature and learning disabilities for mtDNA mutations, especially the m.3243A>G mutation. A clear diagnosis is essential as a basis for prognostic advice concerning the disease course and clinical impact on family testing.

9.
J Med Genet ; 55(11): 753-764, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of febrile illness-induced encephalopathy and rhabdomyolysis has thus far only been described in disorders that affect cellular energy status. In the absence of specific metabolic abnormalities, diagnosis can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented clinically with a similar phenotype that included neurodevelopmental delay, febrile illness-induced encephalopathy and episodes of rhabdomyolysis, followed by developmental arrest, epilepsy and tetraplegia. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Biochemical and cell biological analyses were performed on fibroblasts from these individuals and a yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to assess protein-protein interactions. RESULTS: Probands shared a homozygous TRAPPC2L variant (c.109G>T) resulting in a p.Asp37Tyr missense variant. TRAPPC2L is a component of transport protein particle (TRAPP), a group of multisubunit complexes that function in membrane traffic and autophagy. Studies in patient fibroblasts as well as in a yeast system showed that the p.Asp37Tyr protein was present but not functional and resulted in specific membrane trafficking delays. The human missense mutation and the analogous mutation in the yeast homologue Tca17 ablated the interaction between TRAPPC2L and TRAPPC10/Trs130, a component of the TRAPP II complex. Since TRAPP II activates the GTPase RAB11, we examined the activation state of this protein and found increased levels of the active RAB, correlating with changes in its cellular morphology. CONCLUSIONS: Our study implicates a RAB11 pathway in the aetiology of the TRAPPC2L disorder and has implications for other TRAPP-related disorders with similar phenotypes.

10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 149, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is often considered as the classical example of a genetic disorder in which severe symptoms can nowadays successfully be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. In contrast, untreated or late-treated PKU is known to result in severe intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral disturbances. Rarely, however, untreated or late-diagnosed PKU patients with high plasma phenylalanine concentrations have been reported to escape from intellectual disability. The present study aimed to review published cases of such PKU patients. METHODS: To this purpose, we conducted a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE up to 8th of September 2017 to identify cases with 1) PKU diagnosis and start of treatment after 7 years of age; 2) untreated plasma phenylalanine concentrations ≥1200 µmol/l; and 3) IQ ≥80. Literature search, checking reference lists, selection of articles, and extraction of data were performed by two independent researchers. RESULTS: In total, we identified 59 published cases of patients with late-diagnosed PKU and unexpected favorable outcome who met the inclusion criteria. Although all investigated patients had intellectual functioning within the normal range, at least 19 showed other neurological, psychological, and/or behavioral symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present findings, the classical symptomatology of untreated or late-treated PKU may need to be rewritten, not only in the sense that intellectual dysfunction is not obligatory, but also in the sense that intellectual functioning does not (re)present the full picture of brain damage due to high plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Further identification of such patients and additional analyses are necessary to better understand these differences between PKU patients.

11.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 122, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency are long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders with particularly high morbidity and mortality. Outcome can be favorable if diagnosed in time, prompting the implementation in newborn screening programs. Sporadic cases missed by the initial screening sample have been reported. However, little is known on pitfalls during confirmatory testing resulting in fatal misconception of the diagnosis. RESULTS: We report a series of three patients with MTP and LCHAD deficiency, in whom diagnosis was missed by newborn screening, resulting in life-threatening metabolic decompensations within the first half year of life. Two of the patients showed elevated concentrations of primary markers C16-OH and C18:1-OH but were missed by confirmatory testing performed by the maternity clinic. A metabolic center was not consulted. Confirmatory testing consisted of analyses of acylcarnitines in blood and organic acids in urine, the finding of normal excretion of organic acids led to rejection and underestimation of the diagnosis, respectively. The third patient, a preterm infant, was not identified in the initial screening sample due to only moderate elevations of C16-OH and C18:1-OH and normal secondary markers and analyte ratios. CONCLUSION: Our observations highlight limitations of newborn screening for MTP/LCHAD deficiency. They confirm that analyses of acylcarnitines in blood and organic acids in urine alone are not suitable for confirmatory testing and molecular or functional analysis is crucial in diagnosing MTP/LCHAD deficiency. Mild elevations of primary biomarkers in premature infants need to trigger confirmatory testing. Our report underscores the essential role of specialized centers in confirming or ruling out diagnoses in suspicious screening results.

12.
J Breath Res ; 12(3): 036021, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760294

RESUMO

Ketogenic diets (KDs) were initially introduced to clinical practices as alimentary approaches with the aim to control drug-resistant epilepsies. Over the decades, a large and growing body of research has addressed the antiseizure effect of various KDs, and worked out KD-based dietary regimens, including their acting factors and modes of action. KDs have also appeared in weight loss therapies. Therapy control, particularly at initiation, happens through regular blood analysis and control of urine ketone levels. However, there is a lack of fast, reliable, and preferably non-invasive methods to accomplish this. The detection of exhaled breath constituents may offer a solution. The exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can be modified by diet. VOC detection technology has resulted in low-cost sensors that can facilitate the self-monitoring of patients in the future if reliable breath markers are available. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the composition of exhaled breath in children on KDs. Twenty-two pediatric patients between 4 and 18 years of age were recruited in this study. Eleven of them received a KD and suffered from epilepsy, with the exception of one child, who was admitted to a weight-reduction therapy. The control group involved 11 patients with neurological disorders but not on KD. Breath volatiles were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after preconcentration of the analytes on needle traps (NTs). We found that the breath concentrations of a number of VOCs, namely acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-methylfuran, methyl-vinyl-ketone, and 2-pentanone were significantly elevated in the breath of children on a KD in comparison to their control counterparts. Interestingly, breath ethanol was lower in patients on a KD than in non-KD patients. Association studies revealed an interrelationship among (i) lipid parameters and ketone bodies, (ii) methacrolein, methyl-vinyl-ketone, and high-density lipoprotein, as well as (iii) methyl-vinyl-ketone, acetone, and 2-pentanone, thus raising the possibility of a common metabolic source. The duration of diet was positively and negatively associated with breath acetone and breath ethanol, respectively. Some of the changes were linked to ß-oxidation, but there are uncertainties in regard to metabolic sources of other metabolites. Lipid peroxidation and alteration of intestinal microbial composition may also be involved in the changes of VOC profiles during KD. Since lipids used for metabolism during KD originate from external sources, the processes occurring cannot simply be compared to and deduced from changes appearing in starvation; however, lipid mobilization is also evident in starvation. To find reliable and sensitive VOC markers that are linked to the respective ketogenic regimen, further investigations are needed to reveal the metabolic background.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 685-695, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576219

RESUMO

Biogenesis of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, which produces the bulk of ATP for almost all eukaryotic cells, depends on the translation of 13 mtDNA-encoded polypeptides by mitochondria-specific ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix. These mitoribosomes are dual-origin ribonucleoprotein complexes, which contain mtDNA-encoded rRNAs and tRNAs and ∼80 nucleus-encoded proteins. An increasing number of gene mutations that impair mitoribosomal function and result in multiple OXPHOS deficiencies are being linked to human mitochondrial diseases. Using exome sequencing in two unrelated subjects presenting with sensorineural hearing impairment, mild developmental delay, hypoglycemia, and a combined OXPHOS deficiency, we identified mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2, which has not previously been implicated in disease. Characterization of subjects' fibroblasts revealed a decrease in the steady-state amounts of mutant MRPS2, and this decrease was shown by complexome profiling to prevent the assembly of the small mitoribosomal subunit. In turn, mitochondrial translation was inhibited, resulting in a combined OXPHOS deficiency detectable in subjects' muscle and liver biopsies as well as in cultured skin fibroblasts. Reintroduction of wild-type MRPS2 restored mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly. The combination of lactic acidemia, hypoglycemia, and sensorineural hearing loss, especially in the presence of a combined OXPHOS deficiency, should raise suspicion for a ribosomal-subunit-related mitochondrial defect, and clinical recognition could allow for a targeted diagnostic approach. The identification of MRPS2 as an additional gene related to mitochondrial disease further expands the genetic and phenotypic spectra of OXPHOS deficiencies caused by impaired mitochondrial translation.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3254, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459657

RESUMO

Children diagnosed with Long-Chain-3-Hydroxy-Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase-Deficiency (LCHADD) or Very-Long-Chain-3-Hydroxy-Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase-Deficiency (VLCADD) frequently present with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or muscle weakness which is caused by the accumulation of fatty acid metabolites due to inactivating mutations in the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. By analyzing mitochondrial morphology we uncovered that mutations within the HADHA or the ACADVL gene not only affect fatty acid oxidation, but also cause significant changes in the DNM1L/MFN2 ratio leading to the significant accumulation of truncated and punctate mitochondria in contrast to network-like mitochondrial morphology in controls. These striking morphological abnormalities correlate with changes in OXPHOS, an imbalance in ROS levels, reduced mitochondrial respiration, reduced growth rates and significantly increased glucose uptake per cell, suggesting that HADHA and ACADVL mutations shift cellular energy household into glycolysis. Experiments using the NOX2-specific inhibitor Phox-I2 suggest that NOX2 is activated by accumulating long-chain fatty acids and generates ROS, which in turn changes mitochondrial morphology and activity. We thereby provide novel insights into the cellular energy household of cells from LCHADD/VLCADD patients and demonstrate for the first time a connection between fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial morphology and ROS in patients with these rare genetic disorders.

17.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 111, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders. Affected individuals often present with hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HE) and have an increased risk of severe neurologic disease and early death. The study aims to provide epidemiologic data and to describe the disease manifestation and short-term outcome. METHOD: Cross-border surveillance of newly diagnosed patients with UCDs - below 16 years of age - was performed from July 2012 to June 2015 in Germany and Austria and from January 2012 to December 2015 in Switzerland. Inquiries were sent monthly to all Pediatric Departments in Germany and Switzerland, and quarterly to the Austrian Metabolic Group. In addition, data were collected via a second source (metabolic laboratories) in all three countries. RESULTS: Between July 2012 and June 2015, fifty patients (Germany: 39, Austria: 7, Switzerland: 4) with newly diagnosed UCDs were reported and later confirmed resulting in an estimated cumulative incidence of 1 in 51,946 live births. At diagnosis, thirty-nine patients were symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic [10 identified by newborn screening (NBS), 1 by high-risk-family screening (HRF)]. The majority of symptomatic patients (30 of 39 patients) developed HE with (n = 25) or without coma (n = 5), 28 of them with neonatal onset. Despite emergency treatment 15 of 30 patients with HE already died during the newborn period. Noteworthy, 10 of 11 patients diagnosed by NBS or HRF remained asymptomatic. Comparison with the European registry and network for intoxication type metabolic diseases (E-IMD) demonstrated that cross-national surveillance identified a higher number of clinically severe UCD patients characterized by earlier onset of symptoms, higher peak ammonium concentrations in plasma and higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Cross-border surveillance is a powerful tool to identify patients with UCDs demonstrating that (1) the cumulative incidence of UCDs is lower than originally suggested, (2) the mortality rate is still high in patients with neonatal onset of symptoms, and (3) onset type and peak plasma ammonium concentration predict mortality.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Suíça/epidemiologia
18.
Arch Oral Biol ; 80: 222-228, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clarification of the molecular basis of a ciliopathy associated with molar-incisor malformation in a consanguineous Turkish family. DESIGN: Full dental and clinical examinations, histologic analysis, comprehensive genetic analyses including exome sequencing, ciliary function tests and transmission electron microscopy of ciliary biopsies in the surviving patient. RESULTS: Two siblings had situs inversus and complex heart defects suggestive of ciliary dysfunction. The affected girl who died in utero showed severe chest abnormalities compatible with Jeune syndrome which were not present in the affected boy. Dental investigations in the boy showed typical signs of molar-incisor-malformation. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous intragenic deletion in TCTEX1D2 which is predicted to completely remove protein function. Ciliary function tests and electron microscopy showed mild irregularities of motile cilia such as compound cilia and loss of membranes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the suggestion that TCTEX1D2 mutations have variable expressivity and may be associated with disturbances of embryonic development caused by both, ciliary signaling and motile dysfunction. The presence of molar-incisor-malformation in the living patient raises the possibility of a pathogenetic link of this rare dental anomaly to ciliary dysfunction during tooth development at least in some individuals.


Assuntos
Dineínas/genética , Síndrome de Ellis-Van Creveld/genética , Mutação/genética , Odontogênese/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Adulto , Criança , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos , Incisivo/anormalidades , Masculino , Dente Molar/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Turquia
19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 121(3): 216-223, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552678

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential cofactor of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and its deficiency has important implications for several inherited metabolic disorders of childhood. The biosynthesis of CoQ10 is a complicated process, which involves at least 12 different enzymes. One of the metabolic intermediates that are formed during CoQ10 biosynthesis is the molecule 6-demethoxyubiquinone (6-DMQ). This CoQ precursor is processed at the level of COQ7 and COQ9. We selected this metabolite as a marker substance for metabolic analysis of cell lines with inherited genetic defects (COQ2, COQ4, COQ7 and COQ9) or siRNA knockdown in CoQ biosynthesis enzymes using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In COQ4, COQ7 and COQ9 deficient cell lines, we detected significantly elevated levels of 6-DMQ. This suggests a functional interplay of these proteins. However, additional siRNA studies demonstrated that elevated 6-DMQ levels are not an exclusive marker of the COQ7/COQ9 enzymatic step of CoQ10 biosynthesis but constitute a more general phenomenon that occurs in disorders impairing the function or stability of the CoQ-synthome. To further investigate the interdependence of CoQ10 biosynthesis enzyme expression, we performed immunoblotting in various cell lines with CoQ10 deficiency, indicating that COQ4, COQ7 and COQ9 protein expression levels are highly regulated depending on the underlying defect. Supplementation of cell lines with synthetic CoQ precursor compounds demonstrated beneficial effects of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in COQ7 and COQ9 deficiency. Moreover, vanillic acid selectively stimulated CoQ10 biosynthesis and improved cell viability in COQ9 deficiency. However, compounds tested in this study failed to rescue COQ4 deficiency.


Assuntos
Ataxia/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Debilidade Muscular/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/deficiência , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/deficiência , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ubiquinona/biossíntese , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Ácido Vanílico/farmacologia
20.
JIMD Rep ; 37: 27-35, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study is part of the "European network and registry for intoxication type metabolic diseases" (E-IMD) project. Intoxication-type inborn errors of metabolism (IT-IEM) such as urea cycle disorders (UCD) and organic acidurias (OA) have a major impact on patients' lives. Patients have to adhere to strict diet and medication and may suffer from metabolic crises and neurocognitive impairment. Disease-specific health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment questionnaires are the method of choice to estimate the subjective burden of a disease. To date, no such instrument is available for IT-IEM. METHODS: Disease-specific patient- and parent-reported HrQoL questions were constructed in German based on focus group interviews with patients and parents. Questionnaires for patients from 8 to 18 years were piloted with 14 participants (n = 9 children and adolescents, n = 5 parents) by cognitive debriefing and tested psychometrically with 80 participants (n = 38 patients, n = 42 parents) for item characteristics, validity, and reliability to construct the first version of a disease-specific HrQoL questionnaire. RESULTS: Twenty-eight questions were selected based on item descriptives. Scales of self- and proxy questionnaires demonstrated acceptable to excellent reliability in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.70-0.93). Scales and total scores correlated with those of generic HrQoL questionnaires, showing convergent validity. DISCUSSION: The MetabQoL 1.0 questionnaire exhibits sound psychometric properties and is a promising step towards assessing patient-reported outcomes in research and clinical practice. It provides a solid basis for translation into other languages and further elaboration and psychometric exploration in larger populations.

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