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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 178, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prompt detection and appropriate treatment of malaria prevents severe disease and death. The quality of care for adult malaria in-patients is not well documented in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda. The study sought to describe the patterns of malaria diagnosis and treatment among adult in-patients admitted to the medical and gynaecological wards of Uganda's 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital from December 2013 to April 2014. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 762 consented in-patients aged ≥ 18 years was assembled. Proportions of in-patients who received preadmission and in-hospital anti-malarials, missed Day 1 dosing of hospital-initiated anti-malarials and/or had malaria microscopy done were determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk-factors for missed Day 1 dosing of anti-malarials. RESULTS: One in five (19%, 146/762) in-patients had an admission or discharge malaria diagnosis or both; with median age of 29 years (IQR, 22-42 years). Microscopy was requested in 77% (108/141) of in-patients with an admission malaria diagnosis; results were available for 46% (50/108), of whom 42% (21/50) tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasitaemia. Only 13% (11/83) of in-patients who received in-hospital injectable artesunate (AS) or quinine (Q) received follow-up oral artemether-lumefantrine (AL); 2 of 18 severe malaria cases received follow-up oral AL. Injectable AS only (47%, 47/100) was the most frequent hospital-initiated anti-malarial treatment followed by injectable Q only (23%, 23/100) amongst in-patients who received in-hospital anti-malarials. A quarter (25%, 25/100; 95% CI: 17-35%) of in-patients missed Day 1 dosing of hospital-initiated anti-malarials. Each additional admission diagnosis was more than two-fold likely to increase the odds of missed Day 1 dosing of in-hospital anti-malarials (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.52-4.56; P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Half the malaria microscopy results were not available; yet, the rate of testing was high. The majority of in-patients initiated on injectable AS or Q did not receive the recommended follow-up oral AL. One in four in-patients delayed to initiate hospital anti-malarials by at least one calendar day. The hospital should encourage prompt availability of malaria test-results to promote the timely initiation and completion of anti-malarial treatment, thereby improving the quality of care for hospitalized malaria patients in Uganda.

2.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(1): e13074, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830434

RESUMO

Children with concurrent wasting and stunting (WaSt) and children with severe wasting have a similar risk of death. Existing evidence shows that wasting and stunting share similar causal pathways, but evidence on correlates of WaSt remains limited. Research on correlates of WaSt is needed to inform prevention strategies. We investigated the factors associated with WaSt in children 6-59 months in Karamoja Region, Uganda. We examined data for 33,054 children aged 6-59 months using June 2015 to July 2018 Food Security and Nutrition Assessment in Karamoja. We defined WaSt as being concurrently wasted (weight-for-height z-scores <-2.0) and stunted (height-for-age z-score <-2.0). We conducted multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression to assess factors associated with WaSt. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. In multivariate analysis, being male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.60-2.00]), aged 12-23 months (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI [1.85-2.74]), 36-47 months (aOR = 0.65; 95% CI [0.50-0.84]) and 48-59 months (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI [0.54-0.93]) were associated with WaSt. In addition, acute respiratory infection (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI [1.15-1.48]), diarrhoea (aOR = 1.25; 95% CI [1.06-1.48]) and malaria/fever (aOR = 0.83; 95% CI [0.73-0.96]) episodes were associated with WaSt. WaSt was significantly associated with maternal underweight (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 ), short stature (height <160 cm), low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <23 cm) and having ≥4 live-births. WaSt was prevalent in households without livestock (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI [1.13-1.59]). Preventing the occurrence of WaSt through pragmatic and joint approaches are recommended. Future prospective studies on risk factors of WaSt to inform effective prevention strategies are recommended.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are exclusively recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda; however, their functionality can be affected by parasite-related factors that have not been investigated in field settings. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we analysed 219 RDT-/microscopy+ and 140 RDT+/microscopy+ dried blood spots obtained from symptomatic children aged 2-10 years from 48 districts in Uganda between 2017 and 2019. We aimed to investigate parasite-related factors contributing to false RDT results by molecular characterization of parasite isolates. ArcGIS software was used to map the geographical distribution of parasites. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, with P ≤ 0.05 indicating significance. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to assess associations, while logistic regression was performed to explore possible factors associated with false RDT results. RESULTS: The presence of parasite DNA was confirmed in 92.5% (332/359) of the blood samples. The levels of agreement between the HRP2 RDT and PCR assay results in the (RDT+/microscopy+) and (RDT-/microscopy+) sample subsets were 97.8% (137/140) and 10.9% (24/219), respectively. Factors associated with false-negative RDT results in the (RDT-/microscopy+) samples were parasite density (<1,000/µl), pfhrp2/3 gene deletion and non-P. falciparum species (aOR 2.65, 95% CI: 1.62-4.38, P = 0.001; aOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.72-13.66, P = 0.004; and aOR 18.65, 95% CI: 5.3-38.7, P = 0.001, respectively). Overall, gene deletion and non-P. falciparum species contributed to 12.3% (24/195) and 19.0% (37/195) of false-negative RDT results, respectively. Of the false-negative RDTs results, 80.0% (156/195) were from subjects with low-density infections (< 25 parasites per 200 WBCs or <1,000/µl). CONCLUSION: This is the first evaluation and report of the contributions of pfhrp2/3 gene deletion, non-P. falciparum species, and low-density infections to false-negative RDT results under field conditions in Uganda. In view of these findings, the use of HRP2 RDTs should be reconsidered; possibly, switching to combination RDTs that target alternative antigens, particularly in affected areas, may be beneficial. Future evaluations should consider larger and more representative surveys covering other regions of Uganda.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/instrumentação , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 322, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few recent descriptions of severe childhood malaria have been published from high-transmission regions. In the current study, the clinical epidemiology of severe malaria in Mbale, Eastern Uganda, is described, where the entomological inoculation rate exceeds 100 infective bites per year. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence, clinical spectrum and outcome of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Eastern Uganda. All children aged 2 months-12 years who presented on Mondays to Fridays between 8.00 am and 5.00 pm from 5th May 2011 until 30th April 2012 were screened for parasitaemia. Clinical and laboratory data were then collected from all P. falciparum positive children with features of WHO-defined severe malaria by use of a standardized proforma. RESULTS: A total of 10 208 children were screened of which 6582 (64%) had a positive blood film. Of these children, 662 (10%) had clinical features of severe malaria and were consented for the current study. Respiratory distress was the most common severity feature (554; 83.7%), while 365/585 (62.4%) had hyperparasitaemia, 177/662 (26.7%) had clinical jaundice, 169 (25.5%) had severe anaemia, 134/660 (20.2%) had hyperlactataemia (lactate ≥ 5 mmol/L), 93 (14.0%) had passed dark red or black urine, 52 (7.9%) had impaired consciousness and 49/662 (7.4%) had hypoxaemia (oxygen saturations < 90%). In-hospital mortality was 63/662 (9.5%) overall but was higher in children with either cerebral malaria (33.3%) or severe anaemia (19.5%). Factors that were independently associated with mortality on multivariate analysis included severe anaemia [odds ratio (OR) 5.36; 2.16-1.32; P = 0.0002], hyperlactataemia (OR 3.66; 1.72-7.80; P = 0.001), hypoxaemia (OR) 3.64 (95% CI 1.39-9.52; P = 0.008), and hepatomegaly (OR 2.29; 1.29-4.06; P = 0.004). No independent association was found between mortality and either coma or hyperparasitaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Severe childhood malaria remains common in Eastern Uganda where it continues to be associated with high mortality. An unusually high proportion of children with severe malaria had jaundice or gave a history of having recently passed dark red or black urine, an issue worthy of further investigation.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2574-2580, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901609

RESUMO

The role of inflammation in severe anemia (SA) in African children has not been well characterized. We conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for SA in young children admitted at a tertiary unit in Uganda. Clinical, infectious, and micronutrient risk factors for anemia, along with markers of inflammation, were evaluated in children aged < 5 years in Jinja Hospital, Uganda. Participants included 284 children with SA (Hemoglobin [Hb] < 5.0 g/dL), and two control groups: 63 children admitted with acute illness without SA (Hb > 9.3 g/dL) and 53 asymptomatic community control children. Appropriate logistic analysis was performed to determine factors associated with SA. Of the 284 children with SA, 36.5% had Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia, 32.7% had blackwater fever (one of the types of severe malaria), and 15.5% had vitamin B12 deficiency. HIV infection, bacteremia, hookworm infection, severe acute malnutrition, and folate deficiency were relatively uncommon (each accounting for < 8%). Factors independently associated with SA compared with the combined control groups included (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; 95% CI) the following: P. falciparum parasitemia (OR: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.4-13.8), total white blood count (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), C-reactive protein (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4), and ferritin (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.9-4.0). In this area of Uganda, malaria and markers of inflammation were independently associated with SA in children. Additional studies are required to determine the role of inflammation in children with SA in this population.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite overall increase in HIV testing, more men than women remain untested. In 2018, 92% of Ugandan women but only 67% of men had tested for HIV. Understanding men's needs and concerns for testing could guide delivery of HIV testing services (HTS) to them. We assessed the prevalence of testing, associated factors and men's perspectives on HIV testing in urban and peri-urban communities in Central Uganda. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a parallel-convergent mixed-methods study among men in Kampala and Mpigi districts from August to September 2018. Using two-stage sampling, we selected 1340 men from Mpigi. We administered a structured questionnaire to collect data on HIV testing history, socio-demographics, self-reported HIV risk-related behaviors, barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. We also conducted 10 focus-groups with men from both districts to learn their perspectives on HIV testing. We used modified Poisson regression to assess factors associated with HIV testing and inductive thematic analysis to identify barriers and facilitators. Though 84.0% of men reported having tested for HIV, only 65.7% had tested in the past 12-months despite nearly all (96.7%) engaging in at least one HIV risk-related behavior. Men were more likely to have tested if aged 25-49 years, Catholic, with secondary or higher education and circumcised. Being married was associated with ever-testing while being widowed or divorced was associated with testing in past 12-months. Men who engaged in HIV risk-related behavior were less likely to have tested in the past 12-months. Qualitative findings showed that men varied in their perspectives about the need for testing, access to HTS and were uncertain of HIV testing and its outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Recent HIV testing among men remains low. Modifying testing strategies to attract men in all age groups could improve testing uptake, reduce gender disparity and initiate risk reduction interventions.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
7.
Malar J ; 19(1): 300, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the only RDTs recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda. However, the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 and 3 (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) gene deletions threatens their usefulness as malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools. The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions surveillance was conducted in P. falciparum parasite populations in Uganda. METHODS: Three-hundred (n = 300) P. falciparum isolates collected from cross-sectional malaria surveys in symptomatic individuals in 48 districts of eastern and western Uganda were analysed for the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. Presence of parasite DNA was confirmed by PCR amplification of the 18s rRNA gene, msp1 and msp2 single copy genes. Presence or absence of deletions was confirmed by amplification of exon1 and exon2 of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 using gene specific PCR. RESULTS: Overall, pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions were detected in 29/300 (9.7%, 95% CI 6.6-13.6%) parasite isolates. The pfhrp2 gene was deleted in 10/300 (3.3%, 95% CI 1.6-6.0%) isolates, pfhrp3 in 9/300 (3.0%, 95% CI 1.4-5.6%) while both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 were deleted in 10/300 (3.3%, 95% CI 1.6-6.0%) parasite isolates. Proportion of pfhrp2/3 deletions was higher in the eastern 14.7% (95% CI 9.7-20.0%) compared to the western region 3.1% (95% CI 0.8-7.7%), p = 0.001. Geographical location was associated with gene deletions aOR 6.25 (2.02-23.55), p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale survey reporting the presence of pfhrp2/3 gene deletions in P. falciparum isolates in Uganda. Roll out of RDTs for malaria diagnosis should take into consideration the existence of pfhrp2/3 gene deletions particularly in areas where they were detected. Periodic pfhrp2/3 surveys are recommended to inform future decisions for deployment of alternative RDTs.

8.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(4): e13000, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212249

RESUMO

We assessed prevalence of concurrently wasted and stunted (WaSt) and explored the overlaps between wasted, stunted, underweight and low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) among children aged 6-59 months in Karamoja, Uganda. We also determined optimal weight-for-age (WAZ) and MUAC thresholds for detecting WaSt. We conducted secondary data analysis with 2015-2018 Food Security and Nutrition Assessment (FSNA) cross-sectional survey datasets from Karamoja. Wasting, stunting and underweight were defined as <-2.0 z-scores using WHO growth standards. Low MUAC was defined as <12.5 cm. We defined WaSt as concurrent wasting and stunting. Prevalence of WaSt was 4.96% (95% CI [4.64, 5.29]). WaSt was more prevalent in lean than harvest season (5.21% vs. 4.53%; p = .018). About half (53.92%) of WaSt children had low MUAC, and all were underweight. Younger children aged <36 months had more WaSt, particularly males. Males with WaSt had higher median MUAC than females (12.50 vs. 12.10 cm; p < .001). A WAZ <-2.60 threshold detected WaSt with excellent sensitivity (99.02%) and high specificity (90.71%). MUAC threshold <13.20 cm had good sensitivity (81.58%) and moderate specificity (76.15%) to detect WaSt. WaSt prevalence of 5% is a public health concern, given its high mortality risk. All children with WaSt were underweight and half had low MUAC. WAZ and MUAC could be useful tools for detecting WaSt. Prevalence monitoring and prospective studies on WAZ and MUAC cut-offs for WaSt detection are recommended. Future consideration to integrate WAZ into therapeutic feeding programmes is recommended to detect and treat WaSt children.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196526

RESUMO

This study assessed the prevalence of concurrently wasted and stunted (WaSt) children, their characteristics, treatment outcomes and response; and factors associated with time to recovery among children aged 6-59 months admitted to Outpatient Therapeutic Care (OTC) in Karamoja, Uganda. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with data from January 2016 to October 2017 for children admitted to nine OTCs in Karamoja. We defined wasted, stunted and underweight as 2.0 Z-scores below the median per WHO growth standards and < 12.5 cm for low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). WaSt was defined as concurrently wasted and stunted. Out of 788 eligible children included in the analysis; 48.7% (95% CI; 45.2-52.2) had WaSt. WaSt was common among males; 56.3% (95% CI; 51.3-61.3). Median age was 18 months in WaSt versus 12 months in non-WaSt children (p < 0.001). All WaSt children were underweight; and more severely wasted than non-WaSt children. During recovery, WaSt children gained weight more rapidly than non-WaSt children (2.2g/kg/day vs. 1.7g/kg/day). WaSt children had lower recovery rate (58.0% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.037). The difference in median time of recovery between WaSt and non-WaSt children (63 days vs. 56 days; p = 0.465) was not significant. Factors associated with time to recovery were children aged 24-59 months (aHR = 1.30; 95% CI;1.07-1.57;), children with MUAC 10.5-11.4 cm (aHR = 2.03; 95% CI; 1.55-2.66), MUAC ≥ 11.5 cm at admission (aHR = 3.31; 95% CI; 2.17-5.02) and living in Moroto (aHR = 3.34; 95% CI; 2.60-4.30) and Nakapiripirit (aHR = 1.95; 95% CI; 1.51-2.53) districts. The magnitude of children with WaSt in OTC shows that existing therapeutic feeding protocols could be used to detect and treat WaSt children. Further research is needed to identify and address the factors associated with sub-optimal recovery in WaSt children for effective OTC programming in Karamoja.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Nutrição Enteral , Síndrome de Emaciação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/terapia
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(11): 2247-2254, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blackwater fever (BWF), one of the complications of severe malaria, has recently re-emerged as a cause of severe anemia (SA) in African children. However, postdischarge morbidity in children with BWF has previously not been described. METHODS: This was a descriptive cohort study in which children, aged 0-5 years, admitted to Jinja Regional Referral Hospital with acute episodes of SA (hemoglobin ≤5.0 g/dL) were followed up for 6 months after hospitalization. Incidence of readmissions or deaths during the follow-up period was compared between SA children with BWF and those without BWF. RESULTS: A total of 279 children with SA including those with BWF (n = 92) and no BWF (n = 187) were followed for the duration of the study. Overall, 128 (45.9%) of the study participants were readmitted at least once while 22 (7.9%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, sex, nutritional status, and parasitemia, SA children with BWF had higher risk of readmissions (hazard ratio [HR], 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.5) and a greater risk of death (HR. 3.37; 95% CI, 1.3-8.5) compared with those without BWF. Malaria and recurrence of SA were the most common reasons for readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of readmissions and deaths in the immediate 6 months after initial hospitalization among SA children in the Jinja hospital. SA children with BWF had increased risk of readmissions and deaths in the postdischarge period. Postdischarge malaria chemoprophylaxis should be considered for SA children living in malaria endemic areas.

11.
Malar J ; 18(1): 355, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests based on histidine-rich protein-2 have played a vital role in improving malaria case management and surveillance particularly in Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is predominant. However, their usefulness has been threatened by the emergence of gene deletion on P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and P. falciparum histidine rich protein 3 (pfhrp3). Use of standard and recommended methods is key for accurate investigation, confirmation and reporting of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to assess the status, methods and approaches that have been used for investigation, confirmation and reporting of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion in Africa. An online search was done using PubMed and MEDLINE Google Scholar for all articles published in English on pfhrp2/3 gene deletion in Africa. Relevant articles that met the inclusion criteria were summarized and assessed based on the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization for confirmation and reporting of pfhrp2/3 gene deletion. RESULTS: The search identified a total of 18 articles out of which 14 (77.7%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and were retained for review. The articles were distributed across 12 countries where the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion studies were conducted and reported. The level of pfhrp2/3 gene deletion across selected studies in Africa ranged from the highest 62% to the lowest 0.4%. There was wide variation in methods and approaches including study designs, size and sampling and whether both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 double deletions or pfhrp2 single deletion were investigated, with a wide variation in laboratory methods. CONCLUSION: Based on the review, there is evidence of the presence of pfhrp2/3 gene-deleted P. falciparum parasites in Africa. The approaches and methods used for investigation, confirmation and reporting of pfhrp2/3 deleted parasites have varied between studies and across countries. Countries that are considering plans to investigate, confirm and report pfhrp2/3 deletion should use recommended standard and harmonized methods to prevent unnecessary recommendations for costly switch of RDTs in Africa.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Deleção de Genes , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , África
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 628, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) from care among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is thought to be more common in the public setting compared to the private health care. It is anticipated that the problem may become worse with the current "test and treat" policy in Uganda due to the likely increases in patient loads and its attendant pressure on health care providers to support patient counseling. This study determined the incidence and factors associated with LTFU from HIV care among adult PLHIV in public health facilities in Wakiso district, Uganda. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that involved the review of 646 records of patients initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2017 at 13 randomly selected public health facilities in Wakiso district. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the factors associated with LTFU. The results were supported by sequential in-depth and key informant interviews to explore reasons for LTFU. RESULTS: Of the 646 patients enrolled, 391 were female (60.5%), 282 were below 30 years (43.6%) and 207 were married (50.1%). A total of 216 patients (33.4%) had no documented outcomes and were considered LTFU. The incidence of LTFU was 21 per 1000 person months (95% confidence interval (CI): 18-25 per 1000 person months). Factors associated with LTFU included having normal weight compared to underweight (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.90, p = 0.011), receiving HIV care from hospitals compared to lower level facilities (aHR 0.22, 95% CI: 0.12-0.41, p < 0.001), and no telephone contact compared to those with a telephone contact (aHR 2.16, 95% CI: 1.33-3.51, p = 0.002). Stigmatization and long waiting times were the prominent reasons for LTFU reported from the in-depth and key informant interviews. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of LTFU in public health facilities in Uganda is quite high and is associated with being underweight, not having a telephone contact to receive reminders and receiving care at lower level facilities. Early diagnosis, routine use of patient address locator forms and improved quality of HIV care at lower level health facilities may reduce LTFU among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217262, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A large proportion of children with uncomplicated malaria receive appropriate treatment late, contributing to progression of illness to severe disease. We explored contexts of caregiver delays in seeking appropriate care for children with severe malaria. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted at the Children's Ward of Jinja Hospital, where children with severe malaria were hospitalized. A total of 22in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of children hospitalized with severe malaria. Issues explored were formulated based on the Partners for Applied Social Sciences (PASS) model, focusing on facilitators and barriersto caregivers'promptseeking and accessing ofappropriate care. The data were coded deductively using ATLAS.ti (version 7.5). Codes were then grouped into families based on emerging themes. RESULTS: Caregivers' rating of initial symptoms as mild illness lead to delays in response. Use of home initiated interventions with presumably ineffective herbs or medicines was common, leading to further delay. When care was sought outside the home, drug shops were preferred over public health facilities for reasons of convenience. Drug shops often provided sub-optimal care, and thus contributed to delays in access to appropriate care. Public facilities were often a last resort when illness was perceived to be progressing to severe disease. Further delays occurred at health facilities due to inadequate referral systems. CONCLUSION: Communities living in endemic areas need to be sensitized about the significance of fever, even if mild, as an indicator of malaria. Additionally, amidst ongoing efforts at bringing antimalarial treatment services closer to communities, the value of drug shops as providers ofrationalantimalarialtreatment needs to be reviewed.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Assistência à Saúde , Hospitalização , Malária , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas Medicinais , Autocuidado , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda
14.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a global health problem. Trainees in the health-related fields are exposed to occupational risk of Hepatitis B Virus. In Uganda, there is scarcity of information on vaccination among students in health-care. The objective of this study was to assess hepatitis B vaccination status of the students and factors associated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Makerere University College of Health Sciences among undergraduate students who were eligible. A self-report on Hepatitis B vaccination status and various characteristics were collected on each participant, using a standardized structured self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done using Stata 14. RESULTS: Out of 760 participants, 44.3% (95% CI 35.2-52.8) reported full vaccination. Vaccination was associated with gender, course, year of study and student's sponsorship. Males were less likely to be vaccinated, Prevalence Ratio (PR) 0.79; P-value <0.001, while self-sponsored students were also most likely to be vaccinated, PR 2.08; P-value <0.001. About 37% reported an accidental needle injury during their training. CONCLUSION: Full vaccination was low and given the high prevalence of needle injuries, it raises a safety concern. Vaccination should be mandatory for all students prior to clinical exposure. There is need for targeted interventions to increase uptake.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Autorrelato , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210982, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In resource limited settings, there is variability in the level of adherence to clinical guidelines in the inpatient management of children with common conditions like severe anemia. However, there is limited data on the effect of adherence to clinical guidelines on inpatient mortality in children managed for severe anemia. METHODS: We analyzed data from an uncontrolled before and after in-service training intervention to improve quality of care in Lira and Jinja regional referral hospitals in Uganda. Inpatient records of children aged 0 to 5 years managed as cases of 'severe anemia (SA)' were reviewed to ascertain adherence to clinical guidelines and compare inpatient deaths in SA children managed versus those not managed according to clinical guidelines. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between clinical care factors and inpatient deaths amongst patients managed for SA. RESULTS: A total of 1,131 children were assigned a clinical diagnosis of 'severe anemia' in the two hospitals. There was improvement in the level of care after the in-service training intervention with more children being managed according to clinical guidelines compared to the period before, 218/510 (42.7%) vs 158/621 (25.4%) (p < 0.001). Overall, children managed according to clinical guidelines had reduced risk of inpatient mortality compared to those not managed according to clinical guidelines, [OR 0.28, (95%, CI 0.14, 0.55), p = 0.001]. Clinical care factors associated with decreased risk of inpatient death included, having pre-transfusion hemoglobin done to confirm diagnosis [OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.29, 0.87], a co-morbid diagnosis of severe malaria [OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.25, 0.76], and being reviewed after admission by a clinician [OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.18, 0.59], while a co-morbid diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition was associated with increased risk of inpatient death [OR 4.2; 95% CI 2.15, 8.22]. CONCLUSION: Children with suspected SA who are managed according to clinical guidelines have lower in-hospital mortality than those not managed according to the guidelines. Efforts to reduce inpatient mortality in SA children in resource-limited settings should focus on training and supporting health workers to adhere to clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Anemia/mortalidade , Anemia/terapia , Anemia/sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Mortalidade da Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
Malar J ; 17(1): 476, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaps remain in understanding the role of caregiver responses on time to seek appropriate care. The objective of this study was to describe caregiver responses to illness and the impact of these responses on time to seek appropriate care among children with malaria. METHODS: A case-control study of 325 children with severe (cases) and 325 children with uncomplicated (controls) malaria was conducted in Jinja, Uganda. Caregivers' responses to their children's illnesses and time to seek appropriate care were documented. Responses included staying at home, seeking care at drug shops, and seeking care at public health facilities classified into two types: (1) health facilities where caregiver initially sought care before enrollment, and (2) health facilities where children were provided appropriate care and enrolled in the study. Weighted Cox regression was used to determine risk factors for delays in time to seek appropriate care within 24 h of illness onset. RESULTS: Children staying home on self-medication was the most common initial response to illness among caregivers of controls (57.5%) and cases (42.4%, p < 0.001), followed by staying at home without medication (25.2%) and seeking care at drug shops (32.0%) for caregivers of controls and cases, respectively. Seeking care at drug shops was more common among caregivers of cases than of controls (32.0% vs. 12.3%; p < 0.001). However, compared to public health facilities, drug shops offered sub-optimal services with children less likely to have been examined (50.0% vs. 82.9%; p < 0.001) or referred to another facility (12.5% vs. 61.4%; p < 0.001). Upon adjustment for known risk factors for delay, initially seeking care at a drug shop (HR 0.37, p = 0.036) was associated with delay in seeking care at a health facility where appropriate care was provided. In contrast, those initially seeking care at public health facility before enrollment were more likely to subsequently seek care at another public health facility where appropriate care was provided (HR 5.55, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Caregivers should be educated on the importance of promptly seeking care at a health facility where appropriate care can be provided. The role of drug shops in providing appropriate care to children with malaria needs to be reviewed.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/psicologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Uganda
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 355, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries and yet the most preventable. In developing countries clinical algorithms are used to diagnose clinical neonatal sepsis because of inadequate microbiological services. Most information on incidence and risk factors of neonatal sepsis are from hospital studies which may not be generalized to communities where a significant proportion of mothers do not deliver from health facilities. This study, conducted in urban Uganda, sought to determine the community based incidence of clinical neonatal sepsis and the factors associated. METHODS: This was a cohort of mother-neonate pairs in Kampala, Uganda from March to May 2012. The enrolled neonates were assessed for clinical sepsis and factors associated, and followed up till the end of the neonatal period. STATA version 10 was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The community based incidence of neonatal sepsis was 11% (95% CI: 7.6-14.4). On bivariate analysis, lack of financial support from the father (OR 4.09, 95% CI 1.60-10.39) and prolonged rupture of membranes more than 18 h prior to delivery (OR 11.7, 95% CI 4.0-31.83) were significantly associated with neonatal sepsis. Maternal hand washing prior to handling the baby was found to be protective of neonatal sepsis (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.94). Of the 317 infants who completed the follow up period, one died within the neonatal period giving a neonatal mortality of 0.003%. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of clinical neonatal sepsis in this urban community with high rates of antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery places a demand on the need to improve the quality of antenatal, perinatal and postnatal care in health facilities with regards to infection prevention including promoting simple practices like hand washing. The astoundingly low mortality rate is most likely because this was a low risk cohort. However it may also suggest that the neonatal mortality in developing countries may be reduced with promotion of simple low cost interventions like community follow up of neonates using village health teams or domiciliary care.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Sepse Neonatal/mortalidade , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana
18.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e022338, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with dyslipidaemias in women using hormonal contraceptives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and eighty-four consenting women, aged 18-49 years, who had used hormonal contraceptives for at least 3 months prior to the study. STUDY OUTCOME: Dyslipidaemias (defined as derangements in lipid profile levels which included total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL, triglyceride >150 mg/dL or low-density lipoprotein ≥160 mg/dL) for which the prevalence and associated factors were obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidaemias was 63.3% (95% CI: 58.4 to 68.1). Body mass index (BMI) (PR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.54, p<0.001) and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (PR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.42, p=0.020) were the factors significantly associated with dyslipidaemias. CONCLUSION: Dyslipidaemias were present in more than half the participants, and this puts them at risk for cardiovascular diseases. The high-risk groups were women with a BMI greater than 25 Kg/m2 and those who were on ART. Therefore, lipid profiles should be assessed in women using hormonal contraceptives in order to manage them better.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203229, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for association between sickle cell and alpha thalassemia trait and severe malaria is compelling. However, for these polymorphisms associations with uncomplicated malaria, and for G6PD deficiency associations with uncomplicated and severe malaria, findings have been inconsistent. We studied samples from a three-arm case-control study with the objective of determining associations between common host erythrocyte polymorphisms and both uncomplicated and severe malaria, including different severe malaria phenotypes. METHOD: We assessed hemoglobin abnormalities, α-thalassemia, and G6PD deficiency by molecular methods in 325 children with severe malaria age-matched to 325 children with uncomplicated malaria and 325 healthy community controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to measure associations between specified genotypes and malaria outcomes. RESULTS: No tested polymorphisms offered significant protection against uncomplicated malaria. α-thalassemia homozygotes (_α/_α) had increased risk of uncomplicated malaria (OR 2.40; 95%CI 1.15, 5.03, p = 0.020). HbAS and α-thalassemia heterozygous (_α/αα) genotypes protected against severe malaria compared to uncomplicated malaria (HbAS OR 0.46; 0.23, 0.95, p = 0.036; _α/αα OR 0.51; 0.24, 0.77; p = 0.001) or community (HbAS OR 0.23; 0.11, 0.50; p<0.001; _α/αα; OR 0.49; 0.32, 0.76; p = 0.002) controls. The α-thalassemia homozygous (_α/_α) genotype protected against severe malaria when compared to uncomplicated malaria controls (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.156, 0.73, p = 0.005), but not community controls (OR 1.03; 0.46, 2.27, p = 0.935). Stratifying by the severe malaria phenotype, compared to community controls, the protective effect of HbAS was limited to children with severe anemia (OR 0.17; 95%CI 0.04, 0.65; p = 0.009) and that of _α/αα to those with altered consciousness (OR 0.24; 0.09, 0.59; p = 0.002). A negative epistatic effect was seen between HbAS and _α/αα; protection compared to uncomplicated malaria controls was not seen in individuals with both polymorphisms (OR 0.45; 0.11, 1.84; p = 0.269). G6PD deficiency was not protective against severe malaria. CONCLUSION: Associations were complex, with HbAS principally protective against severe anemia, _α/αα against altered consciousness, and negative epistasis between the two polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Malária/sangue , Malária/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/sangue , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Hemoglobinas Anormais/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco , Traço Falciforme/sangue , Traço Falciforme/complicações , Traço Falciforme/genética , Uganda , Talassemia alfa/sangue , Talassemia alfa/complicações , Talassemia alfa/genética
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 566, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia (SA) is a common reason for hospitalisation of children in sub-Saharan Africa but the extent to which blood transfusion is used appropriately in the management of severe anemia has hitherto remained unknown. We report on the use of blood transfusion in the management of anemic children in two hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Inpatient records of children 0-5 years of age admitted to Lira and Jinja regional referral hospitals in Uganda were reviewed for children admitted on selected days between June 2016 and May 2017. Data was extracted on the results, if any, of pre-transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) level, whether or not a blood transfusion was given and inpatient outcome for all children with a diagnosis of 'severe anemia'. Qualitative data was also collected from health workers to explain the reasons for the clinical practices at the two hospitals. RESULTS: Overall, 574/2275 (25.2%) of the children admitted in the two hospitals were assigned a diagnosis of SA. However 551 (95.9%) of children assigned a diagnosis of SA received a blood transfusion, accounting for 551/560 (98.4%) of the blood transfusions in the pediatric wards. Of the blood transfusions in SA children, only 245 (44.5%) was given appropriately per criteria (Pre-transfusion Hb ≤ 6 g/dL), while 306 (55.5%) was given inappropriately; (pre-transfusion Hb not done, n = 216, or when a transfusion is not indicated [Hb > 6.0 g/dl], n = 90). SA children transfused appropriately per Hb criteria had lower inpatient mortality compared to those transfused inappropriately, (7 (2.9%) vs. 22 (7.2%), [OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.16, 0.90]). Major issues identified by health workers as affecting use of blood transfusion included late presentation of SA children to hospital and unreliable availability of equipment for measurement of Hb. CONCLUSION: More than half the blood transfusions given in the management of anemic children admitted to Lira and Jinja hospitals was given inappropriately either without pre-transfusion Hb testing or when not indicated. Verification of Hb level by laboratory testing and training of health workers to adhere to transfusion guidelines could result in a substantial decrease in inappropriate blood transfusion in Ugandan hospitals.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Uganda
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