Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

2.
Biomed Mater ; 14(5): 055002, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185462

RESUMO

We report the osteogenic potential of silver (Ag), gold (Au), or silver-gold doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag-Au-HA) in zebrafish (ZF) jawbone regeneration (JBR) model. The hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), Ag-HA, Au-HA, and Ag-Au-HA nanomaterials were synthesized by the co-precipitation procedure. The surface structures of Ag-HA, Au-HA, HA, and Ag-Au-HA were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-vis, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), elemental mapping, and laser fluorescent spectroscopy. The TEM and EDS analysis confirmed that the Ag and Au are associated with the surface of HA nanoparticle. The chemical structure of HA, Ag-HA, Au-HA, and Ag-Au-HA nanoparticles was validated by FTIR and EDS analysis. We observed that Ag and Au are associated with HA nanoparticles by electrostatic, wander wall, and electrostatic and H-bonding interaction. The effect of Ag-HA, Au-HA, and Ag-Au-HA nanoparticles on bone regeneration was confirmed by ZF JBR model. The significant growth of ZF bone regeneration was observed in Ag-Au-HA nanoparticles as compared with HA, Ag-HA, and Au-HA nanoparticles. These results indicating a therapeutic potential of Ag-Au-HA compositions suggest these nanomaterials would be excellent for bone regeneration and fracture healing.

4.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 17(2): 86-95, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820831

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the evidence from recent studies on the shared genetics between bone and muscle in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a multitude of loci influencing the variability of different bone or muscle parameters, with multiple loci overlapping between the traits. In addition, joint analyses of multiple correlated musculoskeletal traits (i.e., multivariate GWAS) have underscored several genes with possible pleiotropic effects on both bone and muscle including MEF2C and SREBF1. Notably, several of the proposed pleiotropic genes have been validated using human cells or animal models. It is clear that the study of pleiotropy may provide novel insights into disease pathophysiology potentially leading to the identification of new treatment strategies that simultaneously prevent or treat both osteoporosis and sarcopenia. However, the role of muscle factors (myokines) that stimulate bone metabolism, as well as osteokines that affect muscles, is in its earliest stage of understanding.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Impedância Elétrica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Versicanas/genética , Adulto Jovem
6.
Bone ; 126: 37-50, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763636

RESUMO

While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revolutionized our understanding of the genetic architecture of skeletal diseases, animal models are required to identify causal mechanisms and to translate underlying biology into new therapies. Despite large-scale knockout mouse phenotyping efforts, the skeletal functions of most genes residing at GWAS-identified loci remain unknown, highlighting a need for complementary model systems to accelerate gene discovery. Over the past several decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful system for modeling the genetics of human diseases. In this review, our goal is to outline evidence supporting the utility of zebrafish for accelerating our understanding of human skeletal genomics, as well as gaps in knowledge that need to be filled for this purpose. We do this by providing a basic foundation of the zebrafish skeletal morphophysiology and phenotypes, and surveying evidence of skeletal gene homology and the use of zebrafish for post-GWAS analysis in other tissues and organs. We also outline challenges in translating zebrafish mutant phenotypes. Finally, we conclude with recommendations of future directions and how to leverage the large body of tools and knowledge of skeletal genetics in zebrafish for the needs of human skeletal genomic exploration. Due to their amenability to rapid genetic approaches, as well as the large number of conserved genetic and phenotypic features, there is a strong rationale supporting the use of zebrafish for human skeletal genomic studies.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 258-266, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598549

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10-75) from cell-specific features, including chromatin conformation and accessible chromatin sites. We next performed rapid-throughput skeletal phenotyping of 126 knockout mice with disruptions in predicted target genes and found an increased abnormal skeletal phenotype frequency compared to 526 unselected lines (P < 0.0001). In-depth analysis of one gene, DAAM2, showed a disproportionate decrease in bone strength relative to mineralization. This genetic atlas provides evidence linking associated SNPs to causal genes, offers new insight into osteoporosis pathophysiology, and highlights opportunities for drug development.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The interaction between malignant cells and surrounding healthy tissues is a critical factor in the metastatic progression of breast cancer (BC). Extracellular vesicles, especially exosomes, are known to be involved in inter-cellular communication during cancer progression. In the study presented herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of circulating plasma exosomes in the metastatic dissemination of BC and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon. METHODS: Exosomes isolated from plasma of healthy female donors were applied in various concentrations into the medium of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. Motility and invasive properties of BC cells were examined by random migration and Transwell invasion assays, and the effect of plasma exosomes on the metastatic dissemination of BC cells was demonstrated in an in vivo zebrafish model. To reveal the molecular mechanism of interaction between plasma exosomes and BC cells, a comparison between un-treated and enzymatically modified exosomes was performed, followed by mass spectrometry, gene ontology, and pathway analysis. RESULTS: Plasma exosomes stimulated the adhesive properties, two-dimensional random migration, and transwell invasion of BC cells in vitro as well as their in vivo metastatic dissemination in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulatory effect was mediated by interactions of surface exosome proteins with BC cells and consequent activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in the tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma exosomes have a potency to stimulate the metastasis-promoting properties of BC cells. This pro-metastatic property of normal plasma exosomes may have impact on the course of the disease and on its prognosis.

10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320955

RESUMO

We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10-9 , adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look-up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3-2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis-regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC-seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1848-1858, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108283

RESUMO

Genetic studies in isolated populations often increase power for identifying loci associated with complex diseases and traits. We present here the Kibbutzim Family Study (KFS), aimed at investigating the genetic basis of cardiometabolic traits in extended Israeli families characterized by long-term social stability and a homogeneous environment. Extensive information on cardiometabolic traits, as well as genome-wide genotypes, were collected on 901 individuals. We observed that most KFS participants were of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) genetic origin, confirmed a recent severe bottleneck in the AJ recent history, and detected a subtle within-AJ population structure. Focusing on genetic variants relatively common in the KFS but very rare in Europeans, we observed that AJ-enriched variants appear in cancer-related pathways more than expected by chance. We conducted an association study of the AJ-enriched variants against 16 cardiometabolic traits, and found seven loci (24 variants) to be significantly associated. The strongest association, which we also replicated in an independent study, was between a variant upstream of MSRA (frequency ≈1% in the KFS and nearly absent in Europeans) and weight (P = 3.6∙10-8). In conclusion, the KFS is a valuable resource for the study of the population genetics of Israel as well as the genetics of cardiometabolic traits.

12.
Bone Rep ; 8: 239-243, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955643

RESUMO

The long term skeletal effects of antenatal exposure to teratogen 5-deoxy-2'-cytidine (5-AZA) were studied using two inbred strains, C3H/HeJ (C3H, with inherently stronger bones) and C57Bl/6J (C57, with weaker bones). We previously reported that in-utero exposure to 5-AZA resulted in loss of bone quality in 3- and 6-mo-old C3H offspring. In this study, we further examined whether the long-term effects of an acute teratogenic exposure are still evident in older mice. Bone phenotypes of 12 mo-old mice exposed to a single injection of 5-AZA on day 10 of their mother's pregnancy were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and compared to the untreated controls. The main observation of this study is that 5-AZA-induced loss of bone length was registered in 12-mo-old C57 and C3H males. As expected, we did not find differences in the 3rd lumbar vertebra since in-utero exposure to 5-AZA was shown to affect the limb buds but not the axial skeleton. Trajectory of changes in bone phenotypes from ages 3 mo through 6 mo to 12 mo was also compared; 5-AZA-exposed C57 males had consistently lower femoral length and trabecular BMD than age-matched controls. In summary, by characterizing teratogen-exposed C57 and C3H mice, we further confirmed that the adaptive response to antenatal insults continue into mid-life of the mice as well as there is a sex-specificity of these responses.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(23): 19373-19385, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782148

RESUMO

We investigated the osteogenic potential of nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) conjugated with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell functions and in a zebrafish (ZF) jawbone regeneration (JBR) model. The NCDs-HA nanoparticles were fabricated by a hydrothermal cum co-precipitation technique. The surface structures of NCDs-HA nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-vis, and laser fluorescence spectroscopies; and scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and NMR analyses. The TEM data confirmed that the NCDs are well conjugated on the HA nanoparticle surfaces. The fluorescent spectroscopy results indicated that the NCDs-HA exhibited promising luminescent emission in vitro. Finally, we validated the chemical structure of NCDs-HA nanoparticles on the basis of FTIR, EDS, and 31P NMR analysis and observed that NCDs are bound with HA by electrostatic interaction and H-bonding. Cell proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase, and Alizarin red staining were used to confirm the effect of NCDs-HA nanoparticles on MC3T3-E1 osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization, respectively. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of the osteogenic genes like runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. ZF-JBR model was used to confirm the effect of NCDs-HA nanoparticles on bone regeneration. NCDs-HA nanoparticles demonstrated cell imaging ability, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and expression of the osteogenic genes in osteoblast cells, indicating possible theranostic function. Further, NCDs-HA nanoparticles significantly enhanced ZF bone regeneration and mineral density compared to HA nanoparticles, indicating a therapeutic potential of NCDs-HA nanoparticles in bone regeneration and fracture healing.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 88-102, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304378

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been identified as associated with BMD. To investigate the genetic determinants of TB-BMD variation along the life course and test for age-specific effects, we performed a meta-analysis of 30 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of TB-BMD including 66,628 individuals overall and divided across five age strata, each spanning 15 years. We identified variants associated with TB-BMD at 80 loci, of which 36 have not been previously identified; overall, they explain approximately 10% of the TB-BMD variance when combining all age groups and influence the risk of fracture. Pathway and enrichment analysis of the association signals showed clustering within gene sets implicated in the regulation of cell growth and SMAD proteins, overexpressed in the musculoskeletal system, and enriched in enhancer and promoter regions. These findings reveal TB-BMD as a relevant trait for genetic studies of osteoporosis, enabling the identification of variants and pathways influencing different bone compartments. Only variants in ESR1 and close proximity to RANKL showed a clear effect dependency on age. This most likely indicates that the majority of genetic variants identified influence BMD early in life and that their effect can be captured throughout the life course.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 260, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343764

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7×10-9 at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9×10-14 at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

16.
Arch Oral Biol ; 85: 120-129, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan-metformin based intrapocket dental film (CMIDF) for applications in the treatment of periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in an rat model of periodontitis. DESIGN: CMIDF inserts were fabricated by the solvent casting technique. The fabricated inserts were evaluated for physical characteristics such as folding endurance, surface pH, mucoadhesive strength, metformin content uniformity, and release. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates no crystallinity of metformin in presence of chitosan which confirmed successful entrapment of metformin into the CMIDF. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed stability of CMIDF and compatibility between metformin and chitosan. Periodontitis was induced by a combination of Porphyromonas gingivalis- lipopolysaccharide injections in combinations with ligatures around the mandibular first molar. We divided rats into 5 groups (8 rats/group): healthy, untreated periodontitis; periodontitis plus CMIDF-A (1.99±0.09mg metformin; total mass-4.01±0.05mg), periodontitis plus CMIDF-B (2.07±0.06mg metformin; total mass-7.56±0.09mg), and periodontitis plus chitosan film (7.61±0.08mg). After four weeks, mandibles were extracted to evaluate alveolar bone loss by micro-computerized tomography and histological techniques. RESULTS: Alveolar bone was intact in the healthy group. Local administration of CMIDF resulted in significant improvements in the alveolar bone properties when compared to the untreated periodontitis group. The study reported here demonstrates that novel CMIDF showed good antibacterial activity and effectively reduced alveolar bone destruction in a rat model of experimental periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Novel CMIDF showed good antibacterial activity and improved alveolar bone properties in a rat model.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Implantes de Medicamento , Metformina/farmacologia , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Propriedades de Superfície , Difração de Raios X
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 17(1): 156, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A near-peer instructors (NPI) program was designed for 1st year medical students who successfully finished the Anatomy course, in order to develop their didactic ability and teaching skills, mostly for cadaver dissection. METHODS: Graduates of the training program were administered a voluntary survey at the end of the program, annually. Best graduates of the training program were offered a NPI position in the next academic year. They were evaluated by the first-year students, at the end of the Anatomy block. RESULTS: In a debriefing questionnaire at the end of the NPI training, on the five-point Likert scale (1 = lowest to 5 = highest), the overall rating ranged from 3.63 in 2013 to 3.71 in 2015. Learning prosection and anatomy demonstration skills scored on average from 4.30 to 4.36, respectively. The NPIs were then evaluated by first-year students at the end of the next year's Anatomy block. On the Likert scale, the average score of NPIs ranged from 4.10 in 2014 to 4.75 in 2016, on the par with the general satisfaction score for the professional preclinical teachers during the same period (which ranged from 3.80 to 4.26). CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that students as near-peer instructors can make a valuable contribution to the teaching faculty, especially in a new medical school.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Dissecação/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino , Anatomia/normas , Cadáver , Currículo , Dissecação/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Israel , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Treinamento por Simulação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 227-238, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757204

RESUMO

Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 × 10-88). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 × 10-12). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 × 10-5) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(11): 2151-2156, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722129

RESUMO

Genetic factors contribute to the risk of bone fractures, partly because of effects on bone strength. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) estimates bone strength using micro-finite element analysis (µFEA). The goal of this study was to investigate if the bone failure load estimated by HR-pQCT-based µFEA is heritable and to what extent it shares genetic regulation with areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Bone microarchitecture was measured by HR-pQCT at the ultradistal tibia and ultradistal radius in adults from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1087, mean age 72 years; 57% women). Radial and tibial failure load in compression were estimated by µFEA. Femoral neck (FN) and ultradistal forearm (UD) aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Heritability (h2 ) of failure load and aBMD and genetic correlations between them was estimated adjusting for covariates (age and sex). Failure load values at the non-weight-bearing ultradistal radius and at the weight-bearing ultradistal tibia were highly correlated (r = 0.906; p < 0.001). Estimates of h2 adjusted for covariates were 0.522 for the radius and 0.497 for the tibia. Additional adjustment for height did not impact on the h2 results, but adjustment for aBMD at the UD and FN somewhat decreased h2 point estimates: 0.222 and 0.380 for radius and tibia, respectively. In bivariate analysis, there was a high phenotypic and genetic correlation between covariate-adjusted failure load at the radius and UD aBMD (ρP = 0.826, ρG = 0.954, respectively), whereas environmental correlations were lower (ρE = 0.696), all highly significant (p < 0.001). Similar correlations were observed between tibial failure load and femoral neck aBMD (ρP = 0.577, ρG = 0.703, both p < 0.001; ρE = 0.432, p < 0.05). These data from adult members of families from a population-based cohort suggest that bone strength of distal extremities estimated by micro-finite element analysis is heritable and shares some genetic composition with areal BMD, regardless of the skeletal site. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Suporte de Carga
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA