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2.
Science ; 373(6558): 1030-1035, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385354

RESUMO

Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpretation for seven of these processes. We associate one process with bulky DNA lesions that are resolved asymmetrically with respect to transcription and replication. Two processes track direction of replication fork and replication timing, respectively. We identify a mutagenic effect of active demethylation primarily acting in regulatory regions and a mutagenic effect of long interspersed nuclear elements. We localize a mutagenic process specific to oocytes from population sequencing data. This process appears transcriptionally asymmetric.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG , Dano ao DNA , Desmetilação do DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Mutagênese , Oócitos/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética
3.
Stat Med ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404112

RESUMO

We consider Bayesian high-dimensional mediation analysis to identify among a large set of correlated potential mediators the active ones that mediate the effect from an exposure variable to an outcome of interest. Correlations among mediators are commonly observed in modern data analysis; examples include the activated voxels within connected regions in brain image data, regulatory signals driven by gene networks in genome data, and correlated exposure data from the same source. When correlations are present among active mediators, mediation analysis that fails to account for such correlation can be suboptimal and may lead to a loss of power in identifying active mediators. Building upon a recent high-dimensional mediation analysis framework, we propose two Bayesian hierarchical models, one with a Gaussian mixture prior that enables correlated mediator selection and the other with a Potts mixture prior that accounts for the correlation among active mediators in mediation analysis. We develop efficient sampling algorithms for both methods. Various simulations demonstrate that our methods enable effective identification of correlated active mediators, which could be missed by using existing methods that assume prior independence among active mediators. The proposed methods are applied to the LIFECODES birth cohort and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and identified new active mediators with important biological implications.

4.
West J Nurs Res ; : 1939459211029296, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238076

RESUMO

Nurse scientists are increasingly interested in conducting secondary research using real world collections of biospecimens and health data. The purposes of this scoping review are to (a) identify federal regulations and norms that bear authority or give guidance over reuse of residual clinical biospecimens and health data, (b) summarize domain experts' interpretations of permissions of such reuse, and (c) summarize key issues for interpreting regulations and norms. Final analysis included 25 manuscripts and 23 regulations and norms. This review illustrates contextual complexity for reusing residual clinical biospecimens and health data, and explores issues such as privacy, confidentiality, and deriving genetic information from biospecimens. Inconsistencies make it difficult to interpret, which regulations or norms apply, or if applicable regulations or norms are congruent. Tools are necessary to support consistent, expert-informed consent processes and downstream reuse of residual clinical biospecimens and health data by nurse scientists.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14604-14629, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083497

RESUMO

DNA methylation age acceleration, the discrepancy between epigenetic age and chronological age, is associated with mortality and chronic diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigate whether medications commonly used to treat these diseases in 15 drug categories are associated with four epigenetic age acceleration measures: HorvathAge acceleration (HorvathAA), HannumAge acceleration (HannumAA), PhenoAge acceleration, and GrimAge acceleration (GrimAA) using cross-sectional (Phase 1, N=1,100) and longitudinal (Phases 1 and 2, N=266) data from African Americans in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. In cross-sectional analyses, the use of calcium channel blockers was associated with 1.27 years lower HannumAA after adjusting for covariates including hypertension (p=0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed that, compared to those who never used antihypertensives, those who started to take antihypertensives after Phase 1 had a 0.97-year decrease in GrimAA (p=0.007). In addition, compared to those who never used NSAID analgesics, those who started to take them after Phase 1 had a 2.61-year increase in HorvathAA (p=0.0005). Our study demonstrates that three commonly used medications are associated with DNAm age acceleration in African Americans and sheds light on the potential epigenetic effects of pharmaceuticals on aging at the cellular level.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(3): 429-435, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of machine-interpretable representations of consent permissions precludes development of tools that act upon permissions across information ecosystems, at scale. OBJECTIVES: To report the process, results, and lessons learned while annotating permissions in clinical consent forms. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical consent forms. We developed an annotation scheme following the MAMA (Model-Annotate-Model-Annotate) cycle and evaluated interannotator agreement (IAA) using observed agreement (A o), weighted kappa (κw ), and Krippendorff's α. RESULTS: The final dataset included 6,399 sentences from 134 clinical consent forms. Complete agreement was achieved for 5,871 sentences, including 211 positively identified and 5,660 negatively identified as permission-sentences across all three annotators (A o = 0.944, Krippendorff's α = 0.599). These values reflect moderate to substantial IAA. Although permission-sentences contain a set of common words and structure, disagreements between annotators are largely explained by lexical variability and ambiguity in sentence meaning. CONCLUSION: Our findings point to the complexity of identifying permission-sentences within the clinical consent forms. We present our results in light of lessons learned, which may serve as a launching point for developing tools for automated permission extraction.

8.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 194, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field. RESULTS: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(10): 1977-1992, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861317

RESUMO

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase statistical power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data-set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data-sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which is generating genomic and other -omics data for more than 80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants (recruited in 1948-2012) from up to 17 studies per phenotype. Here we discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include 1) the software code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify, or extend these harmonizations to additional studies, and 2) the results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Fenômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Agregação de Dados , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
10.
Menopause ; 28(7): 819-828, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed associations of genetic loci that contribute to age at menarche and menopause with sentinel menopausal traits in multiple race/ethnic groups. METHODS: Genetic data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation include 738 White, 366 Black, 139 Chinese, and 145 Japanese women aged 42 to 52 at baseline. We constructed standardized polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from large-scale genome-wide association studies meta-analyses of ages at menopause and menarche, evaluating associations with each trait within each race/ethnic group. RESULTS: Menopause PRS was significantly associated with age at menopause in White women after Bonferroni correction (P < 0.004) and nominally associated in Chinese and Japanese women (P < 0.05) (7.4-8.5 mo delay for one standard deviation [SD] increase in PRS). Menarche PRS was significantly associated with age at menarche in White (P < 0.004) and nominally associated in Black and Japanese women (P < 0.05) (2.6-4.8 mo delay for one SD increase). In White women, menarche and menopause PRSs were significantly associated (P < 0.004) with shorter and longer (5.9 and 9.6 mo for one SD increase) reproductive lifespans, respectively, and menopause PRS with a longer menopausal transition (7.1 mo for one SD increase). We observed a significant positive association (P < 0.004) between menopause PRS and E2 level 2 years before menopause and a nominal association (P < 0.05) 2 years after menopause in Japanese women. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to menopausal timing, PRSs associated with onset and ending of reproductive life were associated with reproductive lifespan, length of the menopausal transition, and E2 levels in different race/ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Menarca , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hormônios , Humanos , Menarca/genética , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(15): 1443-1456, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856023

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.

13.
Menopause ; 28(8): 883-892, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), hot flashes, and night sweats are cardinal symptoms of the menopausal transition. Little is known about genetic influences on VMS. This study evaluated whether previously identified genetic factors predictive of VMS, age at menarche, and age at menopause were associated with VMS in a multiracial/ethnic cohort. METHODS: For 702 White, 306 Black, 126 Chinese, and 129 Japanese women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Genomic Substudy, we created polygenic risk scores (PRSs) from genome-wide association studies of VMS and ages at menarche and menopause. PRSs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a previously identified VMS locus (tachykinin receptor 3 [TACR3]) were evaluated for associations with frequent VMS (VMS ≥6 days in the past 2 weeks at any visit) and with VMS trajectories (persistently low, early onset, final menstrual period onset, persistently high). RESULTS: The C-allele of rs74827081 in TACR3 was associated with reduced likelihood of frequent VMS in White women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49 [95% CI, 0.29-0.83]). With higher menarche PRS (later menarche), Black women were less likely (OR = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.38-0.78]) to report frequent VMS. With higher PRS for age at menarche, Black women were also less likely to have a persistently high VMS trajectory (OR = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.34-0.91]), whereas White women (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.98]) were less likely to have a final menstrual period onset trajectory (vs persistently low). Chinese women with higher menopause PRS were more likely to have frequent VMS (OR = 2.29 [95% CI, 1.39-3.78]). Associations were substantively similar after excluding rs74827081 C-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors predictive of reproductive aging are also associated with VMS, suggesting that VMS have a polygenic architecture. Further study in this area may help to identify new targets for novel VMS therapies.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fogachos , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Fogachos/genética , Humanos , Menopausa/genética , Sistema Vasomotor , Saúde da Mulher
14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 55, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among US adults. African Americans have higher burden of CVD morbidity and mortality compared to any other racial group. Identifying biomarkers for clinical risk prediction of CVD offers an opportunity for precision prevention and earlier intervention. RESULTS: Using linear mixed models, we investigated the cross-sectional association between four measures of epigenetic age acceleration (intrinsic (IEAA), extrinsic (EEAA), PhenoAge (PhenoAA), and GrimAge (GrimAA)) and ten cardiometabolic markers of hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in 1,100 primarily hypertensive African Americans from sibships in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA). We then assessed the association between epigenetic age acceleration and time to self-reported incident CVD using frailty hazard models and investigated CVD risk prediction improvement compared to models with clinical risk scores (Framingham risk score (FRS) and the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk equation). After adjusting for sex and chronological age, increased epigenetic age acceleration was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (IEAA), higher pulse pressure (EEAA and GrimAA), higher fasting glucose (PhenoAA and GrimAA), higher fasting insulin (EEAA), lower low density cholesterol (GrimAA), and higher triglycerides (GrimAA). A five-year increase in GrimAA was associated with CVD incidence with a hazard ratio of 1.54 (95% CI 1.22-2.01) and remained significant after adjusting for CVD risk factors. The addition of GrimAA to risk score models improved model fit using likelihood ratio tests (P = 0.013 for FRS and P = 0.008 for ASCVD), but did not improve C statistics (P > 0.05). Net reclassification index (NRI) showed small but significant improvement in reassignment of risk categories with the addition of GrimAA to FRS (NRI: 0.055, 95% CI 0.040-0.071) and the ASCVD equation (NRI: 0.029, 95% CI 0.006-0.064). CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic age acceleration measures are associated with traditional CVD risk factors in an African-American cohort with a high prevalence of hypertension. GrimAA was associated with CVD incidence and slightly improved prediction of CVD events over clinical risk scores.

15.
Neurol Genet ; 7(2): e576, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688582

RESUMO

Objective: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common and costly neurodegenerative disorder. A large proportion of AD risk is heritable, and many genetic risk factors have been identified. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cumulative genetic risk of known AD markers contributed to odds of dementia in a population-based sample. Methods: In the US population-based Health and Retirement Study (waves 1995-2014), we evaluated the role of cumulative genetic risk of AD, with and without the APOE ε4 alleles, on dementia status (dementia, cognitive impairment without dementia, borderline cognitive impairment without dementia, and cognitively normal). We used logistic regression, accounting for demographic covariates and genetic principal components, and analyses were stratified by European and African genetic ancestry. Results: In the European ancestry sample (n = 8,399), both AD polygenic score excluding the APOE genetic region (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.20) and the presence of any APOE ε4 alleles (OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.99-2.95) were associated with the odds of dementia relative to normal cognition in a mutually adjusted model. In the African ancestry sample (n = 1,605), the presence of any APOE ε4 alleles was associated with 1.77 (95% CI: 1.20-2.61) times higher odds of dementia, whereas the AD polygenic score excluding the APOE genetic region was not significantly associated with the odds of dementia relative to normal cognition 1.06 (95% CI: 0.97-1.30). Conclusions: Cumulative genetic risk of AD and APOE ε4 are both independent predictors of dementia in European ancestry. This study provides important insight into the polygenic nature of dementia and demonstrates the utility of polygenic scores in dementia research.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): 372-387, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231259

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DESIGN: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium. SETTING: Population-based. MAIN OUTCOME: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation. RESULTS: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2%-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190 kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105-bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells that increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273, and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on electronic health record (EHR) data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides, and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of new health information technologies, health information can be shared across networks, with or without patients' awareness and/or their consent. It is often argued that there can be an ethical obligation to participate in biomedical research, motivated by altruism, particularly when risks are low. In this study, we explore whether altruism contributes to the belief that there is an ethical obligation to share information about one's health as well as how other health care experiences, perceptions, and concerns might be related to belief in such an obligation. METHODS: We conducted an online survey using the National Opinion Research Center's (NORC) probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Our final analytic sample included complete responses from 2069 participants. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine how altruism, together with other knowledge, attitudes, and experiences contribute to the belief in an ethical obligation to allow health information to be used for research. RESULTS: We find in multivariable regression that general altruism is associated with a higher likelihood of belief in an ethical obligation to allow one's health information to be used for research (OR = 1.22, SE = 0.14, p = 0.078). Trust in the health system and in care providers are both associated with a significantly higher likelihood of believing there is an ethical obligation to allow health information to be used (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.76, p<0.001; OR = 1.58, SE = 0.26, p<0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Belief that there is an ethical obligation to allow one's health information to be used for research is shaped by altruism and by one's experience with, and perceptions of, health care and by general concerns about the use of personal information. Altruism cannot be assumed and researchers must recognize the ways encounters with the health care system influence (un)willingness to share one's health information.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Atitude , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Obrigações Morais , Revelação da Verdade/ética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029650, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320264

RESUMO

Importance: Although considerable evidence exists on the association between negative health outcomes and daily experiences of discrimination, less is known about such experiences in the health care system at the national level. It is critically necessary to measure and address discrimination in the health care system to mitigate harm to patients and as part of the larger ongoing project of responding to health inequities. Objectives: To (1) identify the national prevalence of patient-reported experiences of discrimination in the health care system, the frequency with which they occur, and the main types of discrimination experienced and (2) examine differences in the prevalence of discrimination across demographic groups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional national survey fielded online in May 2019 used a general population sample from the National Opinion Research Center's AmeriSpeak Panel. Surveys were sent to 3253 US adults aged 21 years or older, including oversamples of African American respondents, Hispanic respondents, and respondents with annual household incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level. Main Outcomes and Measures: Analyses drew on 3 survey items measuring patient-reported experiences of discrimination, the primary types of discrimination experienced, the frequency with which they occurred, and the demographic and health-related characteristics of the respondents. Weighted bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to assess associations between experiences of discrimination and several demographic and health-related characteristics. Results: Of 2137 US adult respondents who completed the survey (66.3% response rate; unweighted 51.0% female; mean [SD] age, 49.6 [16.3] years), 458 (21.4%) reported that they had experienced discrimination in the health care system. After applying weights to generate population-level estimates, most of those who had experienced discrimination (330 [72.0%]) reported experiencing it more than once. Of 458 reporting experiences of discrimination, racial/ethnic discrimination was the most common type (79 [17.3%]), followed by discrimination based on educational or income level (59 [12.9%]), weight (53 [11.6%]), sex (52 [11.4%]), and age (44 [9.6%]). In multivariable analysis, the odds of experiencing discrimination were higher for respondents who identified as female (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% CI, 1.50-2.36) and lower for older respondents (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99), respondents earning at least $50 000 in annual household income (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.95), and those reporting good (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.46-0.75) or excellent (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.31-0.56) health compared with poor or fair health. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that experiences of discrimination in the health care system appear more common than previously recognized and deserve considerable attention. These findings contribute to understanding of the scale at which interpersonal discrimination occurs in the US health care system and provide crucial evidence for next steps in assessing the risks and consequences of such discrimination. The findings also point to a need for further analysis of how interpersonal discrimination interacts with structural inequities and social determinants of health to build effective responses.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Discriminação Social , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prevalência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/ética , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/normas , Discriminação Social/classificação , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Epigenetics ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100131

RESUMO

Target organ damage (TOD) manifests as vascular injuries in the body organ systems associated with long-standing hypertension. DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes can capture inflammatory processes and gene expression changes underlying TOD. We investigated the association between epigenome-wide DNA methylation and five measures of TOD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), and white matter hyperintensity (WMH)) in 961 African Americans from hypertensive sibships. A multivariate (multi-trait) model of eGFR, UACR, LVMI, and RWT identified seven CpGs associated with at least one of the traits (cg21134922, cg04816311 near C7orf50, cg09155024, cg10254690 near OAT, cg07660512, cg12661888 near IFT43, and cg02264946 near CATSPERD) at FDR q < 0.1. Adjusting for blood pressure, body mass index, and type 2 diabetes attenuated the association for four CpGs. DNA methylation was associated with cis-gene expression for some CpGs, but no significant mediation by gene expression was detected. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested causality between three CpGs and eGFR (cg04816311, cg10254690, and cg07660512). We also assessed whether the identified CpGs were associated with TOD in 614 African Americans in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study. Out of three CpGs available for replication, cg04816311 was significantly associated with eGFR (p = 0.0003), LVMI (p = 0.0003), and RWT (p = 0.002). This study found evidence of an association between DNA methylation and TOD in African Americans and highlights the utility of using a multivariate-based model that leverages information across related traits in epigenome-wide association studies.

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