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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016534, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813844

RESUMO

Observational studies exploring whether there is a nonlinear effect of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are hindered by confounding. This limitation can be overcome by leveraging randomly allocated genetic variants in nonlinear Mendelian randomization analyses. Based on their association with blood pressure traits in a genome-wide association study of 299 024 European ancestry individuals, we selected 253 genetic variants to proxy the effect of modifying systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Considering the outcomes of incident coronary artery disease, stroke and the combined outcome of CVD, linear and nonlinear Mendelian randomization analyses were performed on 255 714 European ancestry participants without a history of CVD or antihypertensive medication use. There was no evidence favoring nonlinear relationships of genetically proxied systolic and diastolic blood pressure with the cardiovascular outcomes over linear relationships. For every 10-mm Hg increase in genetically proxied systolic blood pressure, risk of incident CVD increased by 49% (hazard ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.38-1.61]), with similar estimates obtained for coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.38-1.63]) and stroke (hazard ratio, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.22-1.70]). Genetically proxied blood pressure had a similar relationship with CVD in men and women. These findings provide evidence to support that even for individuals who do not have elevated blood pressure, public health interventions achieving persistent blood pressure reduction will be of considerable benefit in the primary prevention of CVD.

2.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686698

RESUMO

Growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is an inflammatory cytokine involved in energy homeostasis that is being pursued as a drug target for obesity. Its circulating levels are acutely increased by the type 2 diabetes medication metformin, resulting in reduced appetite and weight loss. We identified a genetic variant at the GDF15 gene to proxy a small, lifelong increase in circulating GDF15 levels, and leveraged it in colocalization and Mendelian randomization analyses to investigate the effects of chronically elevated GDF15 levels on body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes liability. The results provide human genetic evidence supporting that chronically elevated GDF15 levels increase BMI. There was no genetic evidence to support bi-directional effects, or that chronically elevated GDF15 levels directly affect liability to type 2 diabetes. Our results contrast the BMI-lowering effects of an acute increase in GDF15 levels observed after metformin use. These findings have direct implications for informing pharmacological strategies aimed at targeting GDF15 levels for weight loss.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 7, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of robust and trans-ethnically replicated DNA methylation markers of metabolic phenotypes, has hinted at a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in lipid metabolism. However, DNA methylation and the lipid compositions and lipid concentrations of lipoprotein sizes have been scarcely studied. Here, we present an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) (N = 5414 total) of mostly lipid-related metabolic measures, including a fine profiling of lipoproteins. As lipoproteins are the main players in the different stages of lipid metabolism, examination of epigenetic markers of detailed lipoprotein features might improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of metabolic disturbances. RESULTS: We conducted an EWAS of leukocyte DNA methylation and 226 metabolic measurements determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the population-based KORA F4 study (N = 1662) and replicated the results in the LOLIPOP, NFBC1966, and YFS cohorts (N = 3752). Follow-up analyses in the discovery cohort included investigations into gene transcripts, metabolic-measure ratios for pathway analysis, and disease endpoints. We identified 161 associations (p value < 4.7 × 10-10), covering 16 CpG sites at 11 loci and 57 metabolic measures. Identified metabolic measures were primarily medium and small lipoproteins, and fatty acids. For apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, the associations mainly involved triglyceride composition and concentrations of cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free cholesterol, and phospholipids. All associations for HDL lipoproteins involved triglyceride measures only. Associated metabolic measure ratios, proxies of enzymatic activity, highlight amino acid, glucose, and lipid pathways as being potentially epigenetically implicated. Five CpG sites in four genes were associated with differential expression of transcripts in blood or adipose tissue. CpG sites in ABCG1 and PHGDH showed associations with metabolic measures, gene transcription, and metabolic measure ratios and were additionally linked to obesity or previous myocardial infarction, extending previously reported observations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence of a link between DNA methylation and the lipid compositions and lipid concentrations of different lipoprotein size subclasses, thus offering in-depth insights into well-known associations of DNA methylation with total serum lipids. The results support detailed profiling of lipid metabolism to improve the molecular understanding of dyslipidemia and related disease mechanisms.

4.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469137

RESUMO

The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from ~2.2 M to ~7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and α1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474652

RESUMO

The Roadmap for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research in Europe (ROAMER) identified child and adolescent mental illness as a priority area for research. CAPICE (Childhood and Adolescence Psychopathology: unravelling the complex etiology by a large Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Europe) is a European Union (EU) funded training network aimed at investigating the causes of individual differences in common childhood and adolescent psychopathology, especially depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CAPICE brings together eight birth and childhood cohorts as well as other cohorts from the EArly Genetics and Life course Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium, including twin cohorts, with unique longitudinal data on environmental exposures and mental health problems, and genetic data on participants. Here we describe the objectives, summarize the methodological approaches and initial results, and present the dissemination strategy of the CAPICE network. Besides identifying genetic and epigenetic variants associated with these phenotypes, analyses have been performed to shed light on the role of genetic factors and the interplay with the environment in influencing the persistence of symptoms across the lifespan. Data harmonization and building an advanced data catalogue are also part of the work plan. Findings will be disseminated to non-academic parties, in close collaboration with the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks-Europe (GAMIAN-Europe).

6.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393675

RESUMO

Inhibition of interleukin 6 (IL-6) signalling has been proposed as a potential cardioprotective strategy for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the direct effects of IL-6 inhibition on renal function are not known. A Mendelian randomization (MR) study was performed to investigate the association of genetically proxied inhibition of IL-6 signalling with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CKD and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Inverse-variance weighted MR was used as the main analysis, with sensitivity analyses performed using simple median, weighted median and MR-Egger methods. There was no evidence for an association of genetically proxied inhibition of IL-6 signalling (scaled per standard deviation unit decrease in C-reactive protein) with log eGFR (0.001, 95% confidence interval -0.004-0.007), BUN (0.009, 95% confidence interval -0.003-0.021) and CKD (odds ratio 0.948, 95% confidence interval 0.822-1.094). These findings do not raise concerns for IL-6 signalling having large adverse effects on renal function.

7.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 383-392, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356394

RESUMO

Serum urate has been implicated in hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but it is not known whether it is exerting a causal effect. To investigate this, we performed Mendelian randomization analysis using data from UK Biobank, Million Veterans Program and genome-wide association study consortia, and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The main Mendelian randomization analyses showed that every 1-SD increase in genetically predicted serum urate was associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]; P=4×10-5), peripheral artery disease (1.12 [95% CI, 1.03-1.21]; P=9×10-3), and stroke (1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.18]; P=2×10-4). In Mendelian randomization mediation analyses, elevated blood pressure was estimated to mediate approximately one-third of the effect of urate on cardiovascular disease risk. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed a favorable effect of urate-lowering treatment on systolic blood pressure (mean difference, -2.55 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.06 to -1.05]; P=1×10-3) and major adverse cardiovascular events in those with previous cardiovascular disease (odds ratio, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.22-0.73]; P=3×10-3) but no significant effect on major adverse cardiovascular events in all individuals (odds ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.03]; P=0.07). In summary, these Mendelian randomization and clinical trial data support an effect of higher serum urate on increasing blood pressure, which may mediate a consequent effect on cardiovascular disease risk. High-quality trials are necessary to provide definitive evidence on the specific clinical contexts where urate lowering may be of cardiovascular benefit.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socio-economic position (SEP) is a risk factor for multiple health outcomes, but its molecular imprints in the body remain unclear. METHODS: We examined SEP as a determinant of serum nuclear magnetic resonance metabolic profiles in ∼30 000 adults and 4000 children across 10 UK and Finnish cohort studies. RESULTS: In risk-factor-adjusted analysis of 233 metabolic measures, low educational attainment was associated with 37 measures including higher levels of triglycerides in small high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), omega-3 fatty acids, apolipoprotein A1, large and very large HDL particles (including levels of their respective lipid constituents) and cholesterol measures across different density lipoproteins. Among adults whose father worked in manual occupations, associations with apolipoprotein A1, large and very large HDL particles and HDL-2 cholesterol remained after adjustment for SEP in later life. Among manual workers, levels of glutamine were higher compared with non-manual workers. All three indicators of low SEP were associated with lower DHA, omega-3 fatty acids and HDL diameter. At all ages, children of manual workers had lower levels of DHA as a proportion of total fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: Our work indicates that social and economic factors have a measurable impact on human physiology. Lower SEP was independently associated with a generally unfavourable metabolic profile, consistent across ages and cohorts. The metabolites we found to be associated with SEP, including DHA, are known to predict cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in later life and may contribute to health inequalities.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20567, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239708

RESUMO

The role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a preceding metabolic state for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is widely recognised. To accumulate knowledge of the pathological mechanisms behind the condition at the methylation level, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of MetS and its components, testing 1187 individuals of European ancestry for approximately 470 000 methylation sites throughout the genome. Methylation site cg19693031 in gene TXNIP -previously associated with type 2 diabetes, glucose and lipid metabolism, associated with fasting glucose level (P = 1.80 × 10-8). Cg06500161 in gene ABCG1 associated both with serum triglycerides (P = 5.36 × 10-9) and waist circumference (P = 5.21 × 10-9). The previously identified type 2 diabetes-associated locus cg08309687 in chromosome 21 associated with waist circumference for the first time (P = 2.24 × 10-7). Furthermore, a novel HDL association with cg17901584 in chromosome 1 was identified (P = 7.81 × 10-8). Our study supports previous genetic studies of MetS, finding that lipid metabolism plays a key role in pathology of the syndrome. We provide evidence regarding a close interplay with glucose metabolism. Finally, we suggest that in attempts to identify methylation loci linking separate MetS components, cg19693031 appears to represent a strong candidate.

10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1009153, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201880

RESUMO

Polygenic scores are increasingly powerful predictors of educational achievement. It is unclear, however, how sets of polygenic scores, which partly capture environmental effects, perform jointly with sets of environmental measures, which are themselves heritable, in prediction models of educational achievement. Here, for the first time, we systematically investigate gene-environment correlation (rGE) and interaction (GxE) in the joint analysis of multiple genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) and multiple environmental measures as they predict tested educational achievement (EA). We predict EA in a representative sample of 7,026 16-year-olds, with 20 GPS for psychiatric, cognitive and anthropometric traits, and 13 environments (including life events, home environment, and SES) measured earlier in life. Environmental and GPS predictors were modelled, separately and jointly, in penalized regression models with out-of-sample comparisons of prediction accuracy, considering the implications that their interplay had on model performance. Jointly modelling multiple GPS and environmental factors significantly improved prediction of EA, with cognitive-related GPS adding unique independent information beyond SES, home environment and life events. We found evidence for rGE underlying variation in EA (rGE = .38; 95% CIs = .30, .45). We estimated that 40% (95% CIs = 31%, 50%) of the polygenic scores effects on EA were mediated by environmental effects, and in turn that 18% (95% CIs = 12%, 25%) of environmental effects were accounted for by the polygenic model, indicating genetic confounding. Lastly, we did not find evidence that GxE effects significantly contributed to multivariable prediction. Our multivariable polygenic and environmental prediction model suggests widespread rGE and unsystematic GxE contributions to EA in adolescence.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of noncommunicable diseases in the offspring. Maternal smoking may induce such long-term effects through persistent changes in the DNA methylome, which therefore hold the potential to be used as a biomarker of this early life exposure. With declining costs for measuring DNA methylation, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation score that can be used on adolescent DNA methylation data and thereby generate a score for in utero cigarette smoke exposure. METHODS: We used machine learning methods to create a score reflecting exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. This score is based on peripheral blood measurements of DNA methylation (Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). The score was developed and tested in the Raine Study with data from 995 white 17-y-old participants using 10-fold cross-validation. The score was further tested and validated in independent data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (16-y-olds) and 1966 (NFBC1966) (31-y-olds). Further, three previously proposed DNA methylation scores were applied for comparison. The final score was developed with 204 CpGs using elastic net regression. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity values for the best performing previously developed classifier ("Reese Score") were 88% and 72% for Raine, 87% and 61% for NFBC1986 and 72% and 70% for NFBC1966, respectively; corresponding figures using the elastic net regression approach were 91% and 76% (Raine), 87% and 75% (NFBC1986), and 72% and 78% for NFBC1966. CONCLUSION: We have developed a DNA methylation score for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, outperforming the three previously developed scores. One possible application of the current score could be for model adjustment purposes or to assess its association with distal health outcomes where part of the effect can be attributed to maternal smoking. Further, it may provide a biomarker for fetal exposure to maternal smoking. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6076.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2289-2299, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for multiple cancer types. Lower microbial richness has been linked to obesity, but human studies are inconsistent, and associations of early-life body mass index (BMI) with the fecal microbiome and metabolome are unknown. METHODS: We characterized the fecal microbiome (n = 563) and metabolome (n = 340) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. We estimated associations of adult BMI and BMI history with microbial features and metabolites using linear regression and Spearman correlations (rs ) and computed correlations between bacterial sequence variants and metabolites overall and by BMI category. RESULTS: Microbial richness, including the number of sequence variants (rs = -0.21, P < 0.0001), decreased with increasing adult BMI but was not independently associated with BMI history. Adult BMI was associated with 56 metabolites but no bacterial genera. Significant correlations were observed between microbes in 5 bacterial phyla, including 18 bacterial genera, and metabolites in 49 of the 62 metabolic pathways evaluated. The genera with the strongest correlations with relative metabolite levels (positively and negatively) were Blautia, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus in the Firmicutes phylum, but associations varied by adult BMI category. CONCLUSIONS: BMI is strongly related to fecal metabolite levels, and numerous associations between fecal microbial features and metabolite levels underscore the dynamic role of the gut microbiota in metabolism. IMPACT: Characterizing the associations between the fecal microbiome, the fecal metabolome, and BMI, both recent and early-life exposures, provides critical background information for future research on cancer prevention and etiology.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(14): e016773, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627641

RESUMO

Background Elevated blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, it is not known whether midlife blood pressure affects later life cardiovascular risk independent of later life blood pressure. Methods and Results Using genetic association estimates from the UK Biobank and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium, univariable mendelian randomization was performed to investigate the total effect of genetically predicted mean arterial pressure (MAP) at age ≤55 years on coronary artery disease (CAD) risk, and multivariable mendelian randomization was performed to investigate the effect of genetically predicted MAP on CAD risk after adjusting for genetically predicted MAP at age >55 years. In both univariable and multivariable mendelian randomization analyses, there was consistent evidence of higher genetically predicted MAP at age ≤55 years increasing CAD risk. This association persisted after adjusting for genetically predicted MAP at age >55 years, when considering nonoverlapping populations for the derivation of MAP and CAD risk genetic association estimates, when investigating only incident CAD events after age >55 years, and when restricting the analysis to variants with most heterogeneity in their associations with MAP ≤55 and >55 years. For a 10-mm Hg increase in genetically predicted MAP at age ≤55 years, the odds ratio of later life CAD was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.16-1.77; P=0.001) after adjusting for genetically predicted MAP at age >55 years. Conclusions These mendelian randomization findings support a cumulative lifetime effect of elevated blood pressure on increasing CAD risk. Clinical and public health efforts toward cardiovascular disease reduction should optimize blood pressure control throughout life.

14.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(7): 715-728, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293669

RESUMO

Importance: Adult mood disorders are often preceded by behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. It is yet unclear what explains the associations between childhood psychopathology and adult traits. Objective: To investigate whether genetic risk for adult mood disorders and associated traits is associated with childhood disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis examined data from 7 ongoing longitudinal birth and childhood cohorts from the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Starting points of data collection ranged from July 1985 to April 2002. Participants were repeatedly assessed for childhood psychopathology from ages 6 to 17 years. Data analysis occurred from September 2017 to May 2019. Exposures: Individual polygenic scores (PGS) were constructed in children based on genome-wide association studies of adult major depression, bipolar disorder, subjective well-being, neuroticism, insomnia, educational attainment, and body mass index (BMI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Regression meta-analyses were used to test associations between PGS and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and internalizing and social problems measured repeatedly across childhood and adolescence and whether these associations depended on childhood phenotype, age, and rater. Results: The sample included 42 998 participants aged 6 to 17 years. Male participants varied from 43.0% (1040 of 2417 participants) to 53.1% (2434 of 4583 participants) by age and across all cohorts. The PGS of adult major depression, neuroticism, BMI, and insomnia were positively associated with childhood psychopathology (ß estimate range, 0.023-0.042 [95% CI, 0.017-0.049]), while associations with PGS of subjective well-being and educational attainment were negative (ß, -0.026 to -0.046 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.057]). There was no moderation of age, type of childhood phenotype, or rater with the associations. The exceptions were stronger associations between educational attainment PGS and ADHD compared with internalizing problems (Δß, 0.0561 [Δ95% CI, 0.0318-0.0804]; ΔSE, 0.0124) and social problems (Δß, 0.0528 [Δ95% CI, 0.0282-0.0775]; ΔSE, 0.0126), and between BMI PGS and ADHD and social problems (Δß, -0.0001 [Δ95% CI, -0.0102 to 0.0100]; ΔSE, 0.0052), compared with internalizing problems (Δß, -0.0310 [Δ95% CI, -0.0456 to -0.0164]; ΔSE, 0.0074). Furthermore, the association between educational attainment PGS and ADHD increased with age (Δß, -0.0032 [Δ 95% CI, -0.0048 to -0.0017]; ΔSE, 0.0008). Conclusions and Relevance: Results from this study suggest the existence of a set of genetic factors influencing a range of traits across the life span with stable associations present throughout childhood. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms may affect treatment and long-term outcomes of individuals with psychopathology.

15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(12): 2098-2106, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227112

RESUMO

Glycosuria is a condition where glucose is detected in urine at higher concentrations than normal (i.e. not detectable). Glycosuria at some point during pregnancy has an estimated prevalence of 50% and is associated with adverse outcomes in both mothers and offspring. Little is currently known about the genetic contribution to this trait or the extent to which it overlaps with other seemingly related traits, e.g. diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for self-reported glycosuria in pregnant mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (cases/controls = 1249/5140). We identified two loci, one of which (lead SNP = rs13337037; chromosome 16; odds ratio of glycosuria per effect allele: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.56; P = 1.97 × 10-13) was then validated using an obstetric measure of glycosuria measured in the same cohort (227/6639). We performed a secondary GWAS in the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1986; 747/2991) using midwife-reported glycosuria and offspring genotype as a proxy for maternal genotype. The combined results revealed evidence for a consistent effect on glycosuria at the chromosome 16 locus. In follow-up analyses, we saw little evidence of shared genetic underpinnings with the exception of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (Rg = 0.64; SE = 0.22; P = 0.0042), a biomarker of kidney disease. In conclusion, we identified a genetic association with self-reported glycosuria during pregnancy, with the lead SNP located 15kB upstream of SLC5A2, a target of antidiabetic drugs. The lack of strong genetic correlation with seemingly related traits such as type 2 diabetes suggests different genetic risk factors exist for glycosuria during pregnancy.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 233-243, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and BMI in childhood and adulthood. Each of these associations could be due to causal intrauterine effects, or confounding (genetic or environmental), or some combination of these. Here we estimate the extent to which the association between maternal BMI and offspring body size is explained by offspring genotype, as a first step towards establishing the importance of genetic confounding. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring BW and BMI at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, in three European birth cohorts (n ≤11 498). Bivariate Genomic-relatedness-based Restricted Maximum Likelihood implemented in the GCTA software (GCTA-GREML) was used to estimate the extent to which phenotypic covariance was explained by offspring genotype as captured by common imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We merged individual participant data from all cohorts, enabling calculation of pooled estimates. RESULTS: Phenotypic covariance (equivalent here to Pearson's correlation coefficient) between maternal BMI and offspring phenotype was 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.17] for offspring BW, increasing to 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.31) for offspring 15 year BMI. Covariance explained by offspring genotype was negligible for BW [-0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], but increased to 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21) at 15 years, which is equivalent to 43% (95% CI: 15%, 72%) of the phenotypic covariance. Sensitivity analyses using weight, BMI and ponderal index as the offspring phenotype at all ages showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring genotype explains a substantial fraction of the covariance between maternal BMI and offspring adolescent BMI. This is consistent with a potentially important role for genetic confounding as a driver of the maternal BMI-offspring BMI association.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mães , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Gravidez
17.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaaw3095, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840077

RESUMO

Early childhood growth patterns are associated with adult health, yet the genetic factors and the developmental stages involved are not fully understood. Here, we combine genome-wide association studies with modeling of longitudinal growth traits to study the genetics of infant and child growth, followed by functional, pathway, genetic correlation, risk score, and colocalization analyses to determine how developmental timings, molecular pathways, and genetic determinants of these traits overlap with those of adult health. We found a robust overlap between the genetics of child and adult body mass index (BMI), with variants associated with adult BMI acting as early as 4 to 6 years old. However, we demonstrated a completely distinct genetic makeup for peak BMI during infancy, influenced by variation at the LEPR/LEPROT locus. These findings suggest that different genetic factors control infant and child BMI. In light of the obesity epidemic, these findings are important to inform the timing and targets of prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores para Leptina/genética
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(19): 3327-3338, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of genome-wide association studies-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of 30 studies consisting of up to 13 005 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) achieved 2-18 years old) and 15 599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1888 cases and 4689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing 18 previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene, METTL15). The variant was nominally associated with only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 97, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse offspring health outcomes across their life course. We hypothesize that DNA methylation is a potential mediator of this relationship. METHODS: We examined the association of prenatal maternal smoking with offspring blood DNA methylation in 2821 individuals (age 16 to 48 years) from five prospective birth cohort studies and perform Mendelian randomization and mediation analyses to assess whether methylation markers have causal effects on disease outcomes in the offspring. RESULTS: We identify 69 differentially methylated CpGs in 36 genomic regions (P value < 1 × 10-7) associated with exposure to maternal smoking in adolescents and adults. Mendelian randomization analyses provided evidence for a causal role of four maternal smoking-related CpG sites on an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease or schizophrenia. Further mediation analyses showed some evidence of cg25189904 in GNG12 gene mediating the effect of exposure to maternal smoking on schizophrenia-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation may represent a biological mechanism through which maternal smoking is associated with increased risk of psychiatric morbidity in the exposed offspring.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
20.
Bioinformatics ; 35(24): 5182-5190, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070705

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Integration of different omics data could markedly help to identify biological signatures, understand the missing heritability of complex diseases and ultimately achieve personalized medicine. Standard regression models used in Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) identify loci with a strong effect size, whereas GWAS meta-analyses are often needed to capture weak loci contributing to the missing heritability. Development of novel machine learning algorithms for merging genotype data with other omics data is highly needed as it could enhance the prioritization of weak loci. RESULTS: We developed cNMTF (corrected non-negative matrix tri-factorization), an integrative algorithm based on clustering techniques of biological data. This method assesses the inter-relatedness between genotypes, phenotypes, the damaging effect of the variants and gene networks in order to identify loci-trait associations. cNMTF was used to prioritize genes associated with lipid traits in two population cohorts. We replicated 129 genes reported in GWAS world-wide and provided evidence that supports 85% of our findings (226 out of 265 genes), including recent associations in literature (NLGN1), regulators of lipid metabolism (DAB1) and pleiotropic genes for lipid traits (CARM1). Moreover, cNMTF performed efficiently against strong population structures by accounting for the individuals' ancestry. As the method is flexible in the incorporation of diverse omics data sources, it can be easily adapted to the user's research needs. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: An R package (cnmtf) is available at https://lgl15.github.io/cnmtf_web/index.html. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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