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Phys Rev Lett ; 129(3): 037702, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905338


We analyze theoretically the properties of the recently introduced and experimentally demonstrated converter of frequency to power. The system is composed of a hybrid single-electron box with normal island and superconducting lead, and the detector of the energy flow using a thermometer on a normal metal bolometer. Here, we consider its potential for metrology. The errors in power arise mainly from inaccuracy of injecting electrons at the precise energy equal to the energy gap of the superconductor. We calculate the main systematic error in the form of the excess average energy of the injected electrons and its cumulants, and that due to subgap leakage. We demonstrate by analytic and numerical calculations that the systematic error in detection can, in principle, be made much smaller than the injection errors, which also, with proper choice of system parameters, can be very small, <1%, at low enough temperature. Finally, we propose a simplified configuration for metrological purposes.

Nat Commun ; 11(1): 367, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953442


Quantum calorimetry, the thermal measurement of quanta, is a method of choice for ultrasensitive radiation detection ranging from microwaves to gamma rays. The fundamental temperature fluctuations of the calorimeter, dictated by the coupling of it to the heat bath, set the ultimate lower bound of its energy resolution. Here we reach this limit of fundamental equilibrium fluctuations of temperature in a nanoscale electron calorimeter, exchanging energy with the phonon bath at very low temperatures. The approach allows noninvasive measurement of energy transport in superconducting quantum circuits in the microwave regime with high efficiency, opening the way, for instance, to observe quantum jumps, detecting their energy to tackle central questions in quantum thermodynamics.