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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 844-853, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585108

RESUMO

Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation in which failure of neuronal migration results in agyria or pachygyria and in which the brain surface appears unusually smooth. It is often associated with microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, and impaired motor abilities. Twenty-two genes are associated with lissencephaly, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Here we report on 12 individuals with a unique form of lissencephaly; these individuals come from eight unrelated families and have bi-allelic mutations in APC2, encoding adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2. Brain imaging studies demonstrate extensive posterior predominant lissencephaly, similar to PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, as well as co-occurrence of subcortical heterotopia posterior to the caudate nuclei, "ribbon-like" heterotopia in the posterior frontal region, and dysplastic in-folding of the mesial occipital cortex. The established role of APC2 in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to mediate cellular morphological changes suggests shared function with other lissencephaly-encoded cytoskeletal proteins such as α-N-catenin (CTNNA2) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1). Our findings identify APC2 as a radiographically distinguishable recessive form of lissencephaly.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4790, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636353

RESUMO

Alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Ca2+ efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm is controlled by binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to its receptor. Activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are then rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Mutations in genes encoding the neuronal isoform of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR1) and genes involved in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor degradation (ERLIN1, ERLIN2) are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and cerebellar ataxia. We provide evidence that mutations in the ubiquitin E3 ligase gene RNF170, which targets inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors for degradation, are the likely cause of autosomal recessive HSP in four unrelated families and functionally evaluate the consequences of mutations in patient fibroblasts, mutant SH-SY5Y cells and by gene knockdown in zebrafish. Our findings highlight inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling as a candidate key pathway for hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias and thus prioritize this pathway for therapeutic interventions.

3.
Brain ; 142(10): 2948-2964, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501903

RESUMO

Axon pathfinding and synapse formation are essential processes for nervous system development and function. The assembly of myelinated fibres and nodes of Ranvier is mediated by a number of cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily including neurofascin, encoded by the NFASC gene, and its alternative isoforms Nfasc186 and Nfasc140 (located in the axonal membrane at the node of Ranvier) and Nfasc155 (a glial component of the paranodal axoglial junction). We identified 10 individuals from six unrelated families, exhibiting a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized with a spectrum of central (intellectual disability, developmental delay, motor impairment, speech difficulties) and peripheral (early onset demyelinating neuropathy) neurological involvement, who were found by exome or genome sequencing to carry one frameshift and four different homozygous non-synonymous variants in NFASC. Expression studies using immunostaining-based techniques identified absent expression of the Nfasc155 isoform as a consequence of the frameshift variant and a significant reduction of expression was also observed in association with two non-synonymous variants affecting the fibronectin type III domain. Cell aggregation studies revealed a severely impaired Nfasc155-CNTN1/CASPR1 complex interaction as a result of the identified variants. Immunofluorescence staining of myelinated fibres from two affected individuals showed a severe loss of myelinated fibres and abnormalities in the paranodal junction morphology. Our results establish that recessive variants affecting the Nfasc155 isoform can affect the formation of paranodal axoglial junctions at the nodes of Ranvier. The genetic disease caused by biallelic NFASC variants includes neurodevelopmental impairment and a spectrum of central and peripheral demyelination as part of its core clinical phenotype. Our findings support possible overlapping molecular mechanisms of paranodal damage at peripheral nerves in both the immune-mediated and the genetic disease, but the observation of prominent central neurological involvement in NFASC biallelic variant carriers highlights the importance of this gene in human brain development and function.

4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 83, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vast majority of cases with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are caused by a molecular defect in the imprinted chromosome region 11p15.5. The underlying mechanisms include epimutations, uniparental disomy, copy number variations, and structural rearrangements. In addition, maternal loss-of-function mutations in CDKN1C are found. Despite growing knowledge on BWS pathogenesis, up to 20% of patients with BWS phenotype remain without molecular diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report an Iranian family with two females affected with BWS in different generations. Bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed hypermethylation of the H19/IGF2: intergenic differentially methylated region (IG DMR), also known as imprinting center 1 (IC1) and hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1: transcriptional start site (TSS) DMR (IC2). Array CGH demonstrated an 8 Mb duplication on chromosome 11p15.5p15.4 (205,827-8,150,933) and a 1 Mb deletion on chromosome 9p24.3 (209,020-1,288,114). Chromosome painting revealed that this duplication-deficiency in both patients is due to unbalanced segregation of a paternal reciprocal t(9;11)(p24.3;p15.4) translocation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a paternally inherited unbalanced translocation between the chromosome 9 and 11 short arms underlying familial BWS. Copy number variations involving the 11p15.5 region are detected by the consensus diagnostic algorithm. However, in complex cases which do not only affect the BWS region itself, characterization of submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements can assist to estimate the recurrence risk and possible phenotypic outcomes.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 936-947, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982608

RESUMO

Microglia are CNS-resident macrophages that scavenge debris and regulate immune responses. Proliferation and development of macrophages, including microglia, requires Colony Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (CSF1R), a gene previously associated with a dominant adult-onset neurological condition (adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia). Here, we report two unrelated individuals with homozygous CSF1R mutations whose presentation was distinct from ALSP. Post-mortem examination of an individual with a homozygous splice mutation (c.1754-1G>C) demonstrated several structural brain anomalies, including agenesis of corpus callosum. Immunostaining demonstrated almost complete absence of microglia within this brain, suggesting that it developed in the absence of microglia. The second individual had a homozygous missense mutation (c.1929C>A [p.His643Gln]) and presented with developmental delay and epilepsy in childhood. We analyzed a zebrafish model (csf1rDM) lacking Csf1r function and found that their brains also lacked microglia and had reduced levels of CUX1, a neuronal transcription factor. CUX1+ neurons were also reduced in sections of homozygous CSF1R mutant human brain, identifying an evolutionarily conserved role for CSF1R signaling in production or maintenance of CUX1+ neurons. Since a large fraction of CUX1+ neurons project callosal axons, we speculate that microglia deficiency may contribute to agenesis of the corpus callosum via reduction in CUX1+ neurons. Our results suggest that CSF1R is required for human brain development and establish the csf1rDM fish as a model for microgliopathies. In addition, our results exemplify an under-recognized form of phenotypic expansion, in which genes associated with well-recognized, dominant conditions produce different phenotypes when biallelically mutated.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2059-2069, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different DEAF1 variants on the phenotype of patients with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns and on DEAF1 activity in vitro. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 23 patients with de novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants, described the genotype-phenotype correlation, and investigated the differential effect of de novo and recessive variants on transcription assays using DEAF1 and Eif4g3 promoter luciferase constructs. RESULTS: The proportion of the most prevalent phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, speech delay, motor delay, autism, sleep disturbances, and a high pain threshold, were not significantly different in patients with biallelic and pathogenic de novo DEAF1 variants. However, microcephaly was exclusively observed in patients with recessive variants (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We propose that different variants in the DEAF1 gene result in a phenotypic spectrum centered around neurodevelopmental delay. While a pathogenic de novo dominant variant would also incapacitate the product of the wild-type allele and result in a dominant-negative effect, a combination of two recessive variants would result in a partial loss of function. Because the clinical picture can be nonspecific, detailed phenotype information, segregation, and functional analysis are fundamental to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants and to improve the care of these patients.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(11): 1919-1929, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715372

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder, yet the genetic cause of up to 50% of cases remains unknown. Here, we show that mutations in KLHL24 cause HCM in humans. Using genome-wide linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we identified homozygous mutations in KLHL24 in two consanguineous families with HCM. Of the 11 young affected adults identified, 3 died suddenly and 1 had a cardiac transplant due to heart failure. KLHL24 is a member of the Kelch-like protein family, which acts as substrate-specific adaptors to Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases. Endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies from affected individuals of both families demonstrated characteristic alterations, including accumulation of desmin intermediate filaments. Knock-down of the zebrafish homologue klhl24a results in heart defects similar to that described for other HCM-linked genes providing additional support for KLHL24 as a HCM-associated gene. Our findings reveal a crucial role for KLHL24 in cardiac development and function.

9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 41, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bartter Syndrome is a rare, genetically heterogeneous, mainly autosomal recessively inherited condition characterized by hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Mutations in several genes encoding for ion channels localizing to the renal tubules including SLC12A1, KCNJ1, BSND, CLCNKA, CLCNKB, MAGED2 and CASR have been identified as underlying molecular cause. No genetically defined cases have been described in the Iranian population to date. Like for other rare genetic disorders, implementation of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies has greatly facilitated genetic diagnostics and counseling over the last years. In this study, we describe the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of patients from 15 Iranian families with a clinical diagnosis of Bartter Syndrome. RESULTS: Age range of patients included in this study was 3 months to 6 years and all patients showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. 3 patients additionally displayed hypercalciuria, with evidence of nephrocalcinosis in one case. Screening by Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and long range PCR revealed that 12/17 patients (70%) had a deletion of the entire CLCNKB gene that was previously identified as the most common cause of Bartter Syndrome in other populations. 4/17 individuals (approximately 25% of cases) were found to suffer in fact from pseudo-Bartter syndrome resulting from congenital chloride diarrhea due to a novel homozygous mutation in the SLC26A3 gene, Pendred syndrome due to a known homozygous mutation in SLC26A4, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) due to a novel mutation in CFTR and apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome due to a novel homozygous loss of function mutation in HSD11B2 gene. 1 case (5%) remained unsolved. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate deletion of CLCNKB is the most common cause of Bartter syndrome in Iranian patients and we show that age of onset of clinical symptoms as well as clinical features amongst those patients are variable. Further, using WES we were able to prove that nearly 1/4 patients in fact suffered from Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome, reversing the initial clinical diagnosis with important impact on the subsequent treatment and clinical follow up pathway. Finally, we propose an algorithm for clinical differential diagnosis of Bartter Syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bartter/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Bartter/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/genética , Algoritmos , Síndrome de Bartter/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Antiportadores de Cloreto-Bicarbonato/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
10.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520571

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c.347delT p.(Ile116Lysfs*25), c.2170_2171insGGTA p.(Ile724Argfs*8), c.1607dupT p.(Leu536Phefs*7), c.2063delA p.(Lys688Serfs*26) and found that PPP1R21 was absent in fibroblasts of an affected individual, supporting the allele's loss of function effect. PPP1R21 function had not been studied except that a large scale affinity proteomics approach suggested an interaction with PIBF1 defective in Joubert syndrome. Our co-Immunoprecipitation studies did not confirm this but in contrast defined the localization of PPP1R21 to the early endosome. Consistent with the subcellular expression pattern and the clinical phenotype exhibiting features of storage diseases, we found patient fibroblasts exhibited a delay in clearance of transferrin-488 while uptake was normal. In summary, we delineate a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by bi-allelic PPP1R21 loss of function variants, and suggest a role of PPP1R21 within the endosomal sorting process or endosome maturation pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 196, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IARS2 encodes a mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, a highly conserved nuclear-encoded enzyme required for the charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid for translation. Recently, pathogenic IARS2 variants have been identified in a number of patients presenting broad clinical phenotypes with autosomal recessive inheritance. These phenotypes range from Leigh and West syndrome to a new syndrome abbreviated CAGSSS that is characterised by cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, as well as cataract with no additional anomalies. METHODS: Genomic DNA from Iranian probands from two families with consanguineous parental background and overlapping CAGSSS features were subjected to exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS: Exome sequencing and data analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2625C > T, p.Pro909Ser, NM_018060.3) within a 14.3 Mb run of homozygosity in proband 1 and a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2282A > G, p.His761Arg) residing in an ~ 8 Mb region of homozygosity in a proband of the second family. Patient-derived fibroblasts from proband 1 showed normal respiratory chain enzyme activity, as well as unchanged oxidative phosphorylation protein subunits and IARS2 levels. Homology modelling of the known and novel amino acid residue substitutions in IARS2 provided insight into the possible consequence of these variants on function and structure of the protein. CONCLUSIONS: This study further expands the phenotypic spectrum of IARS2 pathogenic variants to include two patients (patients 2 and 3) with cataract and skeletal dysplasia and no other features of CAGSSS to the possible presentation of the defects in IARS2. Additionally, this study suggests that adult patients with CAGSSS may manifest central adrenal insufficiency and type II esophageal achalasia and proposes that a variable sensorineural hearing loss onset, proportionate short stature, polyneuropathy, and mild dysmorphic features are possible, as seen in patient 1. Our findings support that even though biallelic IARS2 pathogenic variants can result in a distinctive, clinically recognisable phenotype in humans, it can also show a wide range of clinical presentation from severe pediatric neurological disorders of Leigh and West syndrome to both non-syndromic cataract and cataract accompanied by skeletal dysplasia.

12.
J Cell Biochem ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203596

RESUMO

Crocetin, the major carotenoid in saffron, exhibits potent anticancer effects. However, the antileukemic effects of crocetin are still unclear, especially in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. In the current study, the potential antipromyelocytic leukemia activity of crocetin and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated. Crocetin (100 µM), like standard anti-APL drugs, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 10 µM) and As2 O 3 (arsenic trioxide, 50 µM), significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in primary APL cells, as well as NB4 and HL60 cells. The effect was associated with the decreased expressions of prosurvival genes Akt and BCL2, the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins, ABCB1 and ABCC1 and the inhibition of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), while the expressions of proapoptotic genes CASP3, CASP9, and BAX/BCL2 ratio were significantly increased. In contrast, crocetin at relatively low concentration (10 µM), like ATRA (1 µM) and As 2 O 3 (0.5 µM), induced differentiation of leukemic cells toward granulocytic pattern, and increased the number of differentiated cells expressing CD11b and CD14, while the number of the immature cells expressing CD34 or CD33 was decreased. Furthermore, crocetin suppressed the expression of clinical marker promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor-α ( PML/RARα) in NB4 and primary APL cells, and reduced the expression of histone deacetylase 1 ( HDAC1) in all leukemic cells. The results suggested that crocetin can be considered as a candidate for future preclinical and clinical trials of complementary APL treatment.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3087, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082715

RESUMO

Skeletal dysplasia with multiple dislocations are severe disorders characterized by dislocations of large joints and short stature. The majority of them have been linked to pathogenic variants in genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases or epimerases required for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Using exome sequencing, we identify homozygous mutations in SLC10A7 in six individuals with skeletal dysplasia with multiple dislocations and amelogenesis imperfecta. SLC10A7 encodes a 10-transmembrane-domain transporter located at the plasma membrane. Functional studies in vitro demonstrate that SLC10A7 mutations reduce SLC10A7 protein expression. We generate a Slc10a7-/- mouse model, which displays shortened long bones, growth plate disorganization and tooth enamel anomalies, recapitulating the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify decreased heparan sulfate levels in Slc10a7-/- mouse cartilage and patient fibroblasts. Finally, we find an abnormal N-glycoprotein electrophoretic profile in patient blood samples. Together, our findings support the involvement of SLC10A7 in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and specifically in skeletal development.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1284-1298, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858556

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by muscular atrophy, weakness, and hypotonia due to suspected lower motor neuron degeneration (LMND). In a large cohort of 3,465 individuals suspected with SMA submitted for SMN1 testing to our routine diagnostic laboratory, 48.8% carried a homozygous SMN1 deletion, 2.8% a subtle mutation, and an SMN1 deletion, whereas 48.4% remained undiagnosed. Recently, several other genes implicated in SMA/LMND have been reported. Despite several efforts to establish a diagnostic algorithm for non-5q-SMA (SMA without deletion or point mutations in SMN1 [5q13.2]), data from large-scale studies are not available. We tested the clinical utility of targeted sequencing in non-5q-SMA by developing two different gene panels. We first analyzed 30 individuals with a small panel including 62 genes associated with LMND using IonTorrent-AmpliSeq target enrichment. Then, additional 65 individuals were tested with a broader panel encompassing up to 479 genes implicated in neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) with Agilent-SureSelect target enrichment. The NMD panel provided a higher diagnostic yield (33%) than the restricted LMND panel (13%). Nondiagnosed cases were further subjected to exome or genome sequencing. Our experience supports the use of gene panels covering a broad disease spectrum for diseases that are highly heterogeneous and clinically difficult to differentiate.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(3): 330-339, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343805

RESUMO

Kinesin proteins are critical for various cellular functions such as intracellular transport and cell division, and many members of the family have been linked to monogenic disorders and cancer. We report eight individuals with intellectual disability and microcephaly from four unrelated families with parental consanguinity. In the affected individuals of each family, homozygosity for likely pathogenic variants in KIF14 were detected; two loss-of-function (p.Asn83Ilefs*3 and p.Ser1478fs), and two missense substitutions (p.Ser841Phe and p.Gly459Arg). KIF14 is a mitotic motor protein that is required for spindle localization of the mitotic citron rho-interacting kinase, CIT, also mutated in microcephaly. Our results demonstrate the involvement of KIF14 in development and reveal a wide phenotypic variability ranging from fetal lethality to moderate developmental delay and microcephaly.

16.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 32(4): 437-441, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27812253

RESUMO

Adult T cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a mature T-cell neoplasm that has strong association with the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) infection. This infection is endemic in our region (north eastern Iran). It has been highlighted that Janus Kinase family proteins and specially JAK2 mutations have a pivotal role in the development of many types of hematological malignancies and in particular myeloproliferative neoplasms. So far, the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to the ATL are not well understood. Therefore, in this study it was hypothesized that JAK2 (V617F) mutation may be present in samples from patients with ATL. This case control study was performed in north-eastern Iran. Using polymerase chain reaction, JAK2 (V617F) mutation was performed in 20 DNA samples from ATL patients and 20 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (control group). The results of ATL subjects and the control group were compared by using SPSS software. In the case group 13 (65 %) and 7 patients (35 %) were male and female respectively, with the age range between 40 and 80 years. Only one patients has JAK2 mutation and this mutation was absent in 95 % of ATL patients as well as the HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers. The results of our study demonstrated that JAK2 V617F mutation is not a common phenomenon in ATL. However, further studies are required to investigate the possible dysregulation of JAK signaling in ATL.

17.
Int Ophthalmol ; 34(4): 825-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24346425

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of ocular complications in patients with head trauma admitted to the main trauma centre in north-eastern Iran. A total of 459 head-injured patients (36.56 ± 19.30 years of age) with at least one ocular manifestation were recruited. Each individual patient was examined by a neurosurgeon and an ophthalmologist to confirm the type of ocular complication. In addition, all patients were analysed for age, gender, and cause of head injury in addition to the ophthalmic and neurosurgical examinations. Of the 459 patients, 142 (31 %) were female and 317 (69 %) were male. The maximum rate of ocular complications was during the third decade of life and minimum during childhood and in the elderly (>71 years) population. The leading cause of head trauma was motor vehicle accidents, predominant in male adults aged 21-40 years. Ocular complications observed were classified into three major groups: soft-tissue injuries to the globe and adnexae (n = 434), orbital complications (n = 45) and neuro-ophthalmic complications (n = 152). In conclusion, our data provides a useful estimation of the rate and pattern of ocular complications among patients with head injuries seen in trauma centres in north-eastern Iran. Understanding the pattern of ocular complications helps us to design more appropriate preventive methods.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Traumatismos Oculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Hematol ; 42(3): 183-191.e5, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24269846

RESUMO

In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells from different stages of maturation may have differential expression of BCR-ABL at both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level. However, the significance of such differential expression to clinical disease behavior is unknown. Using the CML-derived, BCR-ABL expressing cell line, K562, distinct plastic-adherent (K562/Adh) and nonadherent (K562/NonAdh) subpopulations were established and then analyzed both as single cells and as bulk cell populations. BCR-ABL mRNA was upregulated in K562/Adh compared with K562/NonAdh cells in both single cell and bulk population analyses (p < 0.0001). Similarly, phosphorylation of BCR protein was upregulated in K562/Adh, compared with K562/NonAdh cells (63.42% vs. 23.1%; p = 0.007), and these two K562 subpopulations were found to express significantly different microRNA species. Furthermore, treatment with the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, reduced cell viability more rapidly in K562/NonAdh compared with K562/Adh cells (p < 0.005) both at single and bulk cell levels. This discovery of an adherent subpopulation of K562 cells with increased BCR-ABL mRNA, increased phosphorylated BCR protein expression, differential microRNA expression, and increased imatinib resistance suggests that a similar subpopulation of cells can also mediate clinical resistance to imatinib during treatment of patients with CML.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcr/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcr/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 53(3): 255-63, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24339206

RESUMO

A simple microfluidic fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) device allowing accurate analysis of interphase nuclei in 1 hr in narrow channels is presented. Photolithography and fluorosilicic acid etching were used to fabricate microfluidic channels (referred to as FISHing lines) that allowed analysis of 10 samples on a glass microscope slide 0.2 µl of sample volume was used to fill a micro-channel, which resembled a 250-fold reduction compared to conventional FISH. FISH signals were comparable to conventional FISH, with 50-fold less probe consumption and 10-fold less time. Cells were immobilized in single file in channels just exceeding the diameter of the cells, and were used for minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis. To test the micro-channels for application in FISH, MRD was simulated by mixing K562 cells (an established chronic myeloid leukemia cell line) carrying the BCR/ABL fusion gene across 1:1 to 1:1,000 Jurkat cells (an established acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line). The limit of detection was seen to be 1:100 cells and 1:1,000 cells for FISHing lines and conventional FISH, respectively; however, the conventional method seemed to over-score the presence of K562 cells. This may in part be attributed to FISHing lines practically eliminating the chance of duplicate screening of cells and hastened the time of screening, enhancing scoring of all cells within the channels. This was compared to 1 in 500 cells on the slide being analyzed with the conventional FISH.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Tamanho Celular , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Células K562 , Microfluídica , Neoplasia Residual
20.
Integr Biol (Camb) ; 5(5): 759-67, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23532213

RESUMO

Molecular diagnostics in haematological malignancies continues to advance towards more personalized treatment and accordingly demand is increasing for procedures providing quantitative analyses of heterogeneous tissue in malignancies. Circulating leukaemic cells are diverse and comprise discrete clonal populations arising from a common progenitor cell. Some of the current diagnostic techniques possess an attenuated dynamic quantitative range that prevents a clear comprehension of intercellular interactions. Quantitative measurements will facilitate an accurate appreciation of holistic cellular processes, assist with predictions pertaining to perturbations and reveal functional moieties that are truly a facet of the disease, and thus add to current biomarker discovery which often lack assessment of functional involvement in disease mechanisms and processes. This review focuses on quantitative studies related to peripheral blood and haematological malignancies. Data retrieval for either of these diseases is hampered by the high and unchartered degree of heterogeneity typically existing within clinical samples. The likelihood of analysis across single cell populations is highly probable in the near future. This will allow a patient to be readily screened for malignancies and assigned to a risk group based on a quantitative profile of a complex of molecules related to disease. The future analysis of molecular pathology based on detailed molecular dissection looks promising, requiring the integration of various disciplines encompassing morphology, genetics, expression profiling and new and evolving predictive modeling via systems medicine. From this detailed view into patient health, an increasingly personalized treatment plan can be administered, commencing with stratified medicine.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/sangue , Humanos , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
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