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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(10): 1061-1067, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) diseases is high in Latin America. HPV vaccines licensed from 2006 onwards offer protection against most HPV-related cancers, especially when introduced into national immunization programs. Barriers to optimal vaccine uptake are, however, lowering the impact of adolescent HPV vaccination programs. Immunization of children might overcome these barriers and be a strategy of choice for some countries. METHODS: This multicenter phase III randomized, controlled, single-blind study (NCT01627561) was conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama to assess safety and immunogenicity of 2-dose vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in girls 4-6 years of age. We report safety outcomes and anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titers measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in HPV-vaccinated girls that were followed over a 36-month period. RESULTS: Over 36 months (ie, 30 months after the second vaccine dose), among 74 girls included in the HPV group, 1 serious adverse event unrelated to vaccination has been reported. No withdrawal because of (serious) adverse events has been reported. At month 36, all girls in the per-protocol-cohort were still seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with geometric mean concentrations of 1680.6 and 536.4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine administered according to a 2-dose schedule to girls 4-6 years of age induced a high and sustained immunologic response with an acceptable safety profile during the 30 months following vaccination.

2.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6195-6211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major public health concern in China. We report the end-of-study results of a phase II/III trial to assess the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the AS04-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in Chinese women aged 18-25 years followed for up to 72 months after first vaccination. Results of approximately 57 months following first vaccination have been previously reported. METHODS: Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at Months 0-1-6. Vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18 infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cross-protective vaccine efficacy against infections and lesions associated with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. Efficacy was assessed in the according-to-protocol efficacy (ATP-E) cohort (vaccine N = 2888; control N = 2892), total vaccinated cohort for efficacy (TVC-E; vaccine N = 2987; control N = 2985) and TVC-naïve (vaccine N = 1660; control N = 1587). RESULTS: In initially HPV-16/18 seronegative/DNA-negative women, vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated CIN grade 2 or worse was 87.3% (95% CI: 5.5, 99.7) in the ATP-E, 88.7% (95% CI: 18.5, 99.7) in the TVC-E, and 100% (95% CI: 17.9, 100) in the TVC-naïve. Cross-protective efficacy against incident infection with HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-45 was 59.6% (95% CI: 39.4, 73.5), 42.7% (95% CI: 15.6, 61.6), and 54.8% (95% CI: 19.3, 75.6), respectively (ATP-E). At Month 72, >95% of initially seronegative women who received HPV vaccine in the ATP cohort for immunogenicity (N = 664) remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 geometric mean titers were 678.1 EU/mL (95% CI: 552.9, 831.5) and 343.7 EU/mL (95% CI: 291.9, 404.8), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.9% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.7% control group [N = 3025]). Three and zero women died in the control group and the vaccine group respectively. New onset autoimmune disease was reported in two women in the vaccine group and two in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale randomized clinical trial of HPV vaccination in China. High and sustained vaccine efficacy against HPV-16/18-associated infection and cervical lesions was demonstrated up to Month 72. The vaccine had an acceptable safety profile. Combined with screening, prophylactic HPV vaccination could potentially reduce the high burden of HPV infection and cervical cancer in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00779766.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(7-8): 1970-1979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268383

RESUMO

This study assessed long-term immunogenicity and safety following 3 doses of AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine in females 10-14 years old. Girls included in the immunogenicity subset in the primary controlled, observer-blinded, randomized study (NCT00196924) who received 3 doses were invited for a 10-year follow-up (NCT00316706 and NCT00877877). Serum antibody responses against HPV-16/18 (vaccine types) and HPV-31/45 (non-vaccine types) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using type-specific VLP as coating antigens. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and pregnancy information were recorded. At Month (M) 120, all subjects (N = 418, according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort) were seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 1589.9 ELISA Units [EU]/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1459.8-1731.6) for anti-HPV-16 and 597.2 EU/mL (95% CI: 541.7-658.5) for anti-HPV-18 in subjects seronegative at baseline for the type analyzed. Post hoc mathematical modeling predicted a durability ≥50 years for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18. For the non-vaccine humoral type response, all initially seronegative subjects had seroconverted at M7, with anti-HPV-31 GMT of 2030.5 EU/mL (95% CI: 1766.2-2334.4) and anti-HPV-45 GMT of 2300.8 EU/mL (95% CI: 2036.8-2599.0). At M120, 87.7% and 85.1% remained seropositive for anti-HPV-31 with GMT of 242.9 EU/mL (95% CI: 201.4-293.0) and anti-HPV-45 with GMT of 204.7 EU/mL (95% CI: 170.0-246.6). During the 10-year follow-up, no SAEs or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were causally related to vaccination. Three doses of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine induced high and sustained antibody response against HPV-16,18,31 and 45 in girls aged 10-14 years during the 10-year follow-up, with an acceptable long-term safety profile.

4.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 18(3): 309-322, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial heterogeneity has been reported in efficacy against high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) irrespective of HPV type in phase III results for bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines (AS04-HPV and qHPV). Real-world data recently confirmed a very high overall impact of AS04-HPV, supporting the validity of the observed heterogeneity. To explore the reasons for heterogeneous efficacy, we assessed vaccine impact on high-grade lesions not caused by vaccine types. RESEARCH METHODS: We extracted case counts of CIN lesions containing (1) at least one vaccine HPV type, (2) at least one vaccine HPV type and a high-risk non-vaccine type (co-infections) and (3) no vaccine types (non-vaccine or no high-risk HPV types). Based on these, Phase III cross-protective efficacies were estimated with exclusion (3) and with inclusion (2 and 3) of co-infections. RESULTS: Cross-protective efficacy of AS04-HPV against CIN3 lesions ranges from 81.3% (95%CI: 34.7;96.5) (excluding co-infections) to 88.5% (95%CI:62.4;97.8) (including co-infections). For qHPV the efficacy ranges from -58.7% (95%CI: -180.5;8.5) (excluding co-infections) to 13.1% (95%CI: -39.0;45.9) (including co-infections). CONCLUSIONS: Heterogenous overall efficacy against CIN3 between AS04-HPV and qHPV is driven by differential efficacy against lesions that do not contain vaccine types, which may be related to the impact of different adjuvants on the immune response.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431387

RESUMO

We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a three-dose primary vaccination schedule with the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Korean infants. In this phase III open-label, multicenter study (NCT01309646), healthy infants aged 42-69 days (randomized 1:1) received three doses of either pentavalent DTPa-IPV/Hib (DTPa-IPV/Hib group) or DTPa-IPV and Hib vaccines administered separately (DTPa-IPV+Hib group) at 2, 4, 6 months of age. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of DTPa-IPV/Hib compared to DTPa-IPV+Hib vaccines in terms of immune responses to all vaccine antigens, 1 month post-dose 3. Solicited symptoms (local and general) were recorded during 4 days, and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) during 31 days, after each vaccination. Serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study duration. The immunogenicity of the pentavalent DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior compared to concomitant administration of DTPa-IPV+Hib vaccines. One month post-dose 3, nearly all infants had antibody levels above the seroprotective thresholds for anti-diphtheria toxoid, anti-tetanus toxoid, anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate, and anti-poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3, and had antibody levels above the seropositive thresholds for anti-pertussis toxoid (PT), anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and anti-pertactin (PRN) antibodies. A vaccine response for PT, FHA and PRN was observed in at least 96.7% of study participants. Anti-PRP geometric mean concentrations appeared lower for the DTPa-IPV/Hib group (8.456 µg/mL) than for the DTPa-IPV+Hib group (18.700 µg/mL). In both groups, the most common solicited symptoms were injection site redness and irritability. Fifty-seven SAEs were reported throughout the study; none were considered to be vaccination related.

6.
BioDrugs ; 32(2): 139-152, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Two vaccines against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been available in Europe since 2006. Vaccination against rotaviruses significantly reduces the burden of RVGE, but it is also associated with a very small increased risk of intussusception. In a benefit-risk analysis, the prevented RVGE burden is weighed against the possible excess of intussusception. PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the estimated benefits and risks of Rotarix vaccination in France. METHODS: We estimated the benefits (vaccine-preventable RVGE hospitalizations and deaths) and risks (vaccine-caused intussusception hospitalizations and deaths) following two doses of Rotarix in a birth cohort of 791,183 followed for 3-5 years in France. We used data from peer-reviewed clinical and epidemiological studies or publications, and government statistics. RESULTS: Within the total number of French children below 5 years of age, we estimate vaccination could prevent a median 11,132 [95% credible interval (CI) 7842-14,408] RVGE hospitalizations and 7.43 (95% CI 3.27-14.68) RVGE deaths. At the same time, vaccination could cause an average of 6.86 (95% CI 2.25-38.37) intussusception hospitalizations and 0.0099 (95% CI 0.0024-0.060) intussusception deaths in the entire French birth cohort of infants below 1 year of age. Therefore, for every intussusception hospitalization and every intussusception death caused by vaccination, 1624 (95% CI 240-5243) RVGE hospitalizations and 743 (95% CI 93-3723) RVGE deaths are prevented, respectively, by vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The vaccine-prevented RVGE hospitalizations and deaths (benefit) greatly outweigh the excess potentially vaccination-related cases of intussusception (risk), indicating a favorable benefit-risk balance for Rotarix in France.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(7)2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132019

RESUMO

Background: Current HPV vaccines do not protect against all oncogenic HPV types. Following vaccination, type replacement may occur, especially if different HPV types competitively interact during natural infection. Because of their common route of transmission, it is difficult to assess type interactions in observational studies. Our aim was to evaluate type replacement in the setting of HPV vaccine randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: Data were pooled from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT; NCT00128661) and PATRICIA trial (NCT001226810)-two large-scale, double-blind RCTs of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine-to compare cumulative incidence of nonprotected HPV infections across trial arms after four years. Negative rate difference estimates (rate in control minus vaccine arm) were interpreted as evidence of replacement if the associated 95% confidence interval excluded zero. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: After applying relevant exclusion criteria, 21 596 women were included in our analysis (HPV arm = 10 750; control arm = 10 846). Incidence rates (per 1000 infection-years) were lower in the HPV arm than in the control arm for grouped nonprotected oncogenic types (rate difference = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9 to 2.3) and oncogenic/nononcogenic types (rate difference = 0.2, 95% CI = -0.3 to 0.7). Focusing on individual HPV types separately, no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, a statistically significant protective effect (positive rate difference and 95% CI excluded zero) was observed against oncogenic HPV types 35, 52, 58, and 68/73, as well as nononcogenic types 6 and 70. Conclusion: HPV type replacement does not occur among vaccinated individuals within four years and is unlikely to occur in vaccinated populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/imunologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Costa Rica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(3): 588-598, 2017 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768515

RESUMO

We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/imunologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/imunologia , China , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
9.
Cancer Med ; 6(1): 12-25, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998015

RESUMO

We previously reported the results of a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized controlled study in Chinese women (NCT00779766) showing a 94.2% (95% confidence interval: 62.7-99.9) HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) and/or 6-month (M) persistent infection (PI) with a mean follow-up of <2 years, and immunogenicity until 7 months post-dose 1. Here, we report efficacy and safety results from an event-triggered analysis with ~3 years longer follow-up, and immunogenicity until M24. Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at M0, 1, 6. VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+, and cross-protective VE against infections with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. In the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, in initially seronegative/DNA-negative women (vaccine group: N = 2524; control group: N = 2535), VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was 87.3% (5.3-99.7); VE against incident infection or against 6-month persistent infection associated with HPV-31/33/45 was 50.1% (34.3-62.3) or 52.6% (24.5-70.9), respectively. At least, 99.6% of HPV-16/18-vaccines remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean titers were 1271.1 EU/mL (1135.8-1422.6) and 710.0 EU/ml (628.6-801.9), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.7% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.5% control group [N = 3026]). Of the 1595 reported pregnancies, nine had congenital anomalies (five live infants, three elective terminations, one stillbirth) that were unlikely vaccination-related (blinded data). VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was demonstrated and evidence of cross-protective VE against oncogenic HPV types was shown. The vaccine was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(1): 237-244, 2017 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657348

RESUMO

In 2010, porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) material was unexpectedly detected in the oral live-attenuated human rotavirus (RV) vaccine, Rotarix™ (GSK Vaccines, Belgium). An initial study (NCT01511133) found no immunologic response against PCV1 in 40 vaccinated infants. As a follow-up, the current study (NCT02153333), searched for evidence of post-vaccination serologic response to PCV1 in a larger number of archived serum samples. Unlike the previous study, serum anti-PCV1 antibodies were assessed with an adapted Immuno Peroxidase Monolayer Assay (IPMA) using a Vero-adapted PCV1 strain. Samples from 596 infants who participated in clinical trials of the human RV vaccine were randomly selected and analyzed. The observed anti-PCV1 antibody seropositivity rate 1-2 months post-dose 2 was approximately 1% [90% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.3-2.6] (3/299 samples) in infants who received the human RV vaccine and 0.3% [90% CI: 0.0-1.6] (1/297 samples) in those who received placebo; the difference between the groups was -0.66 [90% CI: -2.16-0.60]. One subject in the vaccinated group was also seropositive before vaccination. Notably, the seropositivity rate observed in vaccinated subjects was below that observed during assay qualification in samples from unvaccinated subjects outside of this study (2.5%; 5/200 samples). No serious adverse events had been reported in any of the 4 subjects providing anti-PCV1 positive samples during the 31-day post-vaccination follow-up period in the original studies. In conclusion, the presence of PCV1 in the human RV vaccine is considered to be a manufacturing quality issue and does not appear to pose a safety risk to vaccinated infants.


Assuntos
Circovirus/imunologia , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Lactente , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 13(1): 120-127, 2017 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629913

RESUMO

Multivalent combination vaccines have reduced the number of injections and therefore improved vaccine acceptance, timeliness of administration and global coverage. The hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; Infanrix hexa™) vaccine, administered according to various schedules, is widely used for the primary vaccination of infants worldwide. In the current publication, we are presenting the immunogenicity and safety of 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine when administered to Indian infants. 224 healthy infants (mean age 6.8 weeks) were vaccinated at 6-10-14 weeks (W) of age (n = 112) or 2-4-6 months (M) of age (n = 112). One month after the third vaccine dose, the seroprotection/seropositivity status against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B and Hib antigens ranged from 98.6% to 100% in both groups. The vaccine response rate to the pertussis antigens ranged from 97% to 100%. Pain (6-10-14W group: 25.2%; 2-4-6M group: 13.4%) and fever (15.3% and; 15.2%, respectively) were the most frequently reported solicited local and general symptoms. Unsolicited adverse events were reported for 35.7% (6-10-14W group) and 22.3% (2-4-6M group) of subjects. No vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, the hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated, irrespective of the dosing schedule.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/imunologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/imunologia , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Dor/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Combinadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(10): 2590-2594, 2016 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494163

RESUMO

PURPOSE: According to regulations from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea, additional safety information on the use of Rotarix™ vaccine (RIX4414; GSK, Belgium) in ≥3000 evaluable Korean infants was required following vaccine registration. In order to comply with these regulations, we conducted a 6-year open, non-comparative, multicenter post-marketing surveillance (NCT00750893). METHODS: During this time, the original lyophilized vaccine formulation of RIX4414 was replaced by a liquid formulation. Healthy infants aged ≥6 weeks were enrolled and given 2 doses of the RIX4414 vaccine, separated by an interval of ≥4 weeks. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) (expected and unexpected) was then assessed for up to 30 days along with the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs: any AE whose causality to the drug could not be ruled out) were identified. RESULTS: A total of 3040 children (mean age: 9.55 weeks) were analyzed. One or more expected AE was experienced by 30.5% infants and 8.6% had an ADR. The most commonly seen expected AE was irritability (14.0%). One or more unexpected AE was seen in 32.5% infants and 3.1% experienced an ADR. The most commonly seen unexpected AE was upper respiratory tract infection (8.7%). Of 34 SAEs recorded in 24 subjects, none were related to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that this 6-year surveillance showed both formulations of RIX4414 to have acceptable safety profiles when administered to Korean infants according to local prescribing recommendations and current clinical practice.


Assuntos
Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Coreia (Geográfico) , Masculino , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 16(10): 1154-1168, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047. FINDINGS: The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and CIN1+ was also significant. We also noted significant cross-protective efficacy against 6-month persistent infection with HPV 31 (65·8%, 96·2% CI 24·9-85·8) and HPV 45 (70·7%, 96·2% CI 34·2-88·4). In the total vaccinated cohort, vaccine efficacy against CIN1+ irrespective of HPV was significant (22·9%, 96·2% CI 4·8-37·7). Serious adverse events related to vaccination occurred in five (0·2%) of 2877 women in the vaccine group and eight (0·3%) of 2870 women in the control group. INTERPRETATION: In women older than 25 years, the HPV 16/18 vaccine continues to protect against infections, cytological abnormalities, and lesions associated with HPV 16/18 and CIN1+ irrespective of HPV type, and infection with non-vaccine types HPV 31 and HPV 45 over 7 years of follow-up. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Papillomavirus Humano 16/imunologia , Papillomavirus Humano 18/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adulto , DNA Viral , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(9): 2406-12, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260009

RESUMO

Variability in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) epidemiology can influence the optimal vaccination schedule. We evaluated regional trends in the age of RVGE episodes in low- to middle- versus high-income countries in three continents. We undertook a post-hoc analysis based on efficacy trials of a human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix™, GSK Vaccines), in which 1348, 1641, and 5250 healthy infants received a placebo in Europe (NCT00140686), Africa (NCT00241644), and Asia (NCT00197210, NCT00329745). Incidence of any/severe RVGE by age at onset was evaluated by active surveillance over the first two years of life. Severity of RVGE episodes was assessed using the Vesikari-scale. The incidence of any RVGE in Africa was higher than in Europe during the first year of life (≤2.78% vs. ≤2.03% per month), but much lower during the second one (≤0.86% versus ≤2.00% per month). The incidence of severe RVGE in Africa was slightly lower than in Europe during the first year of life. Nevertheless, temporal profiles for the incidence of severe RVGE in Africa and Europe during the first (≤1.00% and ≤1.23% per month) and second (≤0.53% and ≤1.13% per month) years of life were similar to those of any RVGE. Any/severe RVGE incidences peaked at younger ages in Africa vs. Europe. In high-income Asian regions, severe RVGE incidence (≤0.31% per month) remained low during the study. The burden of any RVGE was higher earlier in life in children from low- to middle- compared with high-income countries. Differing rotavirus vaccine schedules are likely warranted to maximize protection in different settings.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(3): 785-93, 2016 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27149266

RESUMO

This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the human rotavirus (RV) vaccine (RIX4414) when co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Chinese infants (NCT01171963). Healthy infants aged 6-16 weeks received 2 doses of either RIX4414 or placebo according to a 0, 1-month schedule. Infants received routine diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) and oral poliovirus (OPV) vaccines either separately from or concomitantly with RIX4414/placebo (separate and co-administration cohorts, respectively). Anti-RV IgA seroconversion rates (one month post-dose-2) and seropositivity rates (at one year of age) were measured using ELISA. Immune responses against the DTPa and OPV antigens were measured one month post-DTPa dose-3 in the co-administration cohort. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded for 8-days post-vaccination (total cohort). The according-to-protocol immunogenicity population included 511 infants in the separate cohort and 275 in the co-administration cohort. One month post-RIX4414 dose-2, anti-RV IgA seroconversion rates were 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.9-79.9) and 64.2% (95% CI: 55.4-72.3) in the separate and co-administration cohorts; seropositivity rates at one year of age were 71.5% (95% CI: 65.5-77.1) and 50.0% (95% CI: 40.9-59.1), respectively. One month post-DTPa dose-3, all infants in the co-administration cohort were seroprotected against diphtheria and tetanus, and seropositive for pertussis toxoid, pertactin and filamentous haemaglutinin. Two months post-OPV dose-3, seroprotection rates against anti-poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 were >99% in the co-administration cohort. Reactogenicity profiles were similar in both cohorts. RIX4414 was immunogenic and well-tolerated in Chinese infants and did not appear to interfere with the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of co-administered routine childhood vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/imunologia , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Administração Oral , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , China , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(3): 655-7, 2016 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26337197

RESUMO

The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/imunologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Imunização Secundária/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hiperemia , Lactente , Masculino , Dor/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(8): 2276-83, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424932

RESUMO

Regulatory bodies in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India require post-marketing surveillance to provide additional safety data on Rotarix™ in real-life settings. In such studies conducted in The Philippines (November 2006 to July 2012; NCT00353366), Sri Lanka (November 2008 to August 2009; NCT00779779), and India (August 2009 to April 2010; NCT00938327), 2 doses of Rotarix™ were administered according to the local prescribing information (PI). The occurrence of at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited adverse event (AE) (fever, vomiting, or diarrhea), within 15 days in The Philippines or 8 days in Sri Lanka and India; unsolicited AEs within 31 days and serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study were recorded. Of the 1494, 522, and 332 infants enrolled in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India, 14.7% 14.9% and 12.7% infants, respectively recorded at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited AEs. The most commonly reported solicited AEs were irritability in The Philippines (32.2% post-Dose-1; 23.5% post-Dose-2) and India (23.0% post-Dose-1; 13.2% post-Dose-2), and fever (18.0% post-Dose-1; 20.2% post-Dose-2) in Sri Lanka. Unsolicited AEs were recorded in 24.5% (The Philippines), 4.8% (Sri Lanka), and 6.9% (India) of infants. Forty-one SAEs were recorded in the Philippines of which 6 (decreased oral intake with increased sleeping time and constipation; pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and intussusception) were considered by the investigators as causally related to vaccination. One vaccine-unrelated SAE occurred in a Sri Lankan infant. All SAEs resolved and the infants recovered. Two doses of Rotarix™, administered to healthy infants according to local PI, were well tolerated in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(1): 19-24, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24047799

RESUMO

An integrated analysis of safety and reactogenicity data was undertaken for 28 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind Phase II and III trials (DBRCTs) of the oral live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Healthy infants aged 6-20 wk received 2 or 3 doses of vaccine (n=56562) or placebo (n=45512) at 4- to 8-wk intervals. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 8 d after each dose of vaccine or placebo. Unsolicited AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and deaths were evaluated over 31-d post-vaccination follow-up periods. 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relative risk (RR) across studies excluding "1.0" signified potential imbalances between the 2 groups. The incidence of each solicited AE of any or Grade 3 severity was similar between groups. The incidence of all unsolicited AEs of any (RR=0.99 [95% CI: 0.94-1.04]; P=0.72) or Grade 3 severity (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.77-1.08]; P=0.31) was similar between groups. A significantly higher proportion of SAEs were reported in the placebo group compared with the vaccine group (RR=0.9 [95% CI: 0.82-0.98]; P=0.01). The incidence of death was low and similar between the 2 groups (0.13% in the vaccine group and 0.11% in the placebo group; RR=1.14 [95% CI: 0.78-1.68]; P=0.54). Very few cases of intussusception were reported (11 and 7 in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively; RR=1.39 [95% CI: 0.49-4.27]; P=0.66). In conclusion, results of this analysis of DBRCTs show that the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ has a reactogenicity and safety profile similar to placebo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Análise de Sobrevida , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(1): 11-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24013441

RESUMO

Rotaviruses (RV) are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children aged<5 y. For the first time in China, we assessed the efficacy of two oral doses of the human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in infants during the first two years of life (113808/NCT01171963). Healthy infants aged 6-16 weeks were randomized (1:1) to receive two oral doses of either the RIX4414 vaccine/placebo according to a 0, 1 month schedule. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe RVGE was assessed from two weeks post-Dose 2 up until the end of the second RV season and calculated with its 95% confidence intervals (CI). The primary efficacy objective was met if the lower limit of the 95% CI on VE was ≥10%. Unsolicited symptoms reported during the 31-d post-vaccination follow-up period and serious adverse events (SAEs) reported throughout the study were assessed. Of 3333 enrolled infants, 3148 were included in the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort. Over two consecutive RV seasons, fewer severe RVGE episodes were reported in the RIX4414 group (n=21) vs. the placebo group (n=75). VE against severe RVGE was 72% (95% CI: 54.1-83.6); the lower limit of the 95% CI on VE was >10%. The number of unsolicited symptoms and SAEs reported was similar between both groups. Thirteen deaths (RIX4414=6; placebo=7) occurred during the study. All SAEs and deaths in the RIX4414 group were considered unrelated to vaccination. Two oral doses of RIX4414 vaccine provided a substantial level of protection against severe RVGE in Chinese children during the first two years of life.


Assuntos
Placebos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos , Administração Oral , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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