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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHOD: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures. RESULTS: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.

2.
Am Surg ; : 3134820964208, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106023

RESUMO

BRCA1 or 2 mutations result in higher cancer risk for breast cancer (BC) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) for carriers than exists in the general population. Optimal breast imaging surveillance in these patients has not been well defined. An Institutional Review Board-approved, multi-institutional retrospective chart review was performed. Patients diagnosed with BRCA-associated EOC between 1990-2015 were identified; demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. 192 BRCA mutation-positive patients with EOC were identified. 16/192 (8.3%) women were diagnosed with BC following EOC, at a median of 50 (range 5-327) months following EOC diagnosis and median age 59.5 (45-84) years. Breast cancer was most commonly detected on mammogram 7/16 (44%) or clinical exam 7/16 (44%). 2/16 (12.5%) had occult BC found during risk-reducing mastectomy. 14 (88%) had early-stage (0-2) disease. At mean follow-up of 8.1 years, 6 (37.5%) patients with BC following EOC had died due to EOC. The risk of BC diagnosis following EOC in BRCA mutation carriers is low; most of these BCs are early stage and diagnosed with mammography or physical exam. Overall, survival in BRCA mutation carriers is dominated by EOC-related mortality. Breast cancer surveillance in BRCA mutation carriers following EOC should prioritize nonsurgical strategies.

3.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997807

RESUMO

The delivery of cancer care has never changed as rapidly and dramatically as we have seen with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. During the early phase of the pandemic, recommendations for the management of oncology patients issued by various professional societies and government agencies did not recognize the significant regional differences in the impact of the pandemic. California initially experienced lower than expected numbers of cases, and the health care system did not experience the same degree of the burden that had been the case in other parts of the country. In light of promising trends in COVID-19 infections and mortality in California, by late April 2020, discussions were initiated for a phased recovery of full-scale cancer services. However, by July 2020, a surge of cases was reported across the nation, including in California. In this review, the authors share the response and recovery planning experience of the University of California (UC) Cancer Consortium in an effort to provide guidance to oncology practices. The UC Cancer Consortium was established in 2017 to bring together 5 UC Comprehensive Cancer Centers: UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC Irvine Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, and the UC San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center. The interventions implemented in each of these cancer centers are highlighted, with a focus on opportunities for a redesign in care delivery models. The authors propose that their experiences gained during this pandemic will enhance pre-pandemic cancer care delivery.

4.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 854-864, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inefficiencies in the clinical trial infrastructure result in protracted trial completion timelines, physician-investigator turnover, and a shrinking skilled labor force and present obstacles to research participation. Taken together, these barriers hinder scientific progress. Technological solutions to improve clinical trial efficiency have emerged, yet adoption remains slow because of concerns with cost, regulatory compliance, and implementation. METHODS: A prospective pilot study that compared regulatory-compliant digital and traditional wet ink paper signatures was conducted over a 6.5-month period in a hospital-based health system. Staff time and effort, error rate, costs, and time to completion were measured. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare staff time and time to completion. A value analysis was conducted. A survey was administered to measure user satisfaction. RESULTS: There where 96 participants (47 digital, 49 paper), 132 studies included (31 digital, 101 paper), and 265 documents processed (156 digital, 109 paper). A moderate reduction in staff time required to prepare documents for signature was observed (P < .0001). Error rates were reported in 5.1% of digital and 2.8% of paper documents, but this difference was not significant. Discrepancies requiring revisions included incomplete mandatory fields, inaccurate information submitted, and technical issues. A value analysis demonstrated a 19% labor savings with the use of digital signatures. Survey response rate was 57.4% (n = 27). Most participants (85.2%) preferred digital signatures. The time to complete documents was faster with digital signatures compared with paper (P = .0241). CONCLUSION: The use of digital signatures resulted in a decrease in document completion time and regulatory burden as represented by staff hours. Additional cost and time savings and information liquidity could be realized by integrating digital signatures and electronic document management systems.

5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 210, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is needed regarding effective incentive strategies to increase clinician survey response rates. Cash cards are increasingly used as survey incentives; they are appealing because of their convenience and because in some cases their value can be reclaimed by investigators if not used. However, their effectiveness in clinician surveys is not known. In this study within the BRCA Founder OutReach (BFOR) study, a clinical trial of population-based BRCA1/2 mutation screening, we compared the use of upfront cash cards requiring email activation versus checks as clinician survey incentives. METHODS: Participants receiving BRCA1/2 testing in the BFOR study could elect to receive their results from their primary care provider (PCP, named by the patient) or from a geneticist associated with the study. In order to understand PCPs' knowledge, attitudes, experiences and willingness to disclose results we mailed paper surveys to the first 501 primary care providers (PCPs) in New York, Boston, Los Angeles and Philadelphia who were nominated by study participants to disclose their BRCA1/2 mutation results obtained through the study. We used alternating assignment stratified by city to assign the first 303 clinicians to receive a $50 up-front incentive as a cash card (N = 155) or check (N = 148). The cash card required PCPs to send an activation email in order to be used. We compared response rates by incentive type, adjusting for PCP characteristics and study site. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, PCPs who received checks were more likely to respond to the survey than those who received cash cards (54.1% versus 41.9%, p = 0.046); this remained true when we adjusted for provider characteristics (OR for checks 1.61, 95% CI 1.01, 2.59). No other clinician characteristics had a statistically significant association with response rates in adjusted analyses. When we included an interaction term for incentive type and city, the favorable impact of checks on response rates was evident only in Los Angeles and Philadelphia. CONCLUSIONS: An up-front cash card incentive requiring email activation may be less effective in eliciting clinician responses than up-front checks. However, the benefit of checks for clinician response rates may depend on clinicians' geographic location. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03351803 ), November 24, 2017.

6.
Menopause ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (oophorectomy) is recommended to women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation before natural menopause to prevent ovarian and fallopian tube cancer. The adverse effects of early surgical menopause are well established. Although many of the side effects can be ameliorated by the use of hormone therapy (HT); use of HT in this group of predominantly young patients remains suboptimal. The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of HT use, as well as predictors of HT uptake in BRCA mutation carriers who underwent preventive oophorectomy before natural menopause. METHODS: Eligible participants were identified from a longitudinal study of BRCA mutation carriers. We included premenopausal women with no personal history of cancer who underwent oophorectomy before age 50 and who had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Detailed information on HT use and other important variables was collected by a research questionnaire every 2 years. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the use of HT in various subgroups. RESULTS: A total of 793 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were included in this analysis. The mean age at oophorectomy was 42 years (range 28-49). Sixty-one percent of the women reported using HT after oophorectomy. Factors associated with HT use included young age at surgery, a high level of education and preventive mastectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of HT after oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation varies by age, education, and surgical history. Clinician and patient awareness may lead to better utilization of HT in women who undergo oophorectomy at an early age to help mitigate the adverse effects associated with surgical menopause.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766252

RESUMO

Primary ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) has been classified into 4 molecular subtypes: Immunoreactive, Proliferative, Differentiated, and Mesenchymal (Mes), of which the Mes subtype (Mes-HGSC) is associated with the worst clinical outcomes. We propose that Mes-HGSC comprise clusters of cancer and associated stromal cells that detached from tumors in the upper abdomen/omentum and disseminated in the peritoneal cavity, including to the ovary. Using comparative analyses of multiple transcriptomic data sets, we provide the following evidence that the phenotype of Mes-HGSC matches the phenotype of tumors in the upper abdomen/omentum: (1) irrespective of the primary ovarian HGSC molecular subtype, matched upper abdominal/omental metastases were typically of the Mes subtype, (2) the Mes subtype was present at the ovarian site only in patients with concurrent upper abdominal/omental metastases and not in those with HGSC confined to the ovary, and (3) ovarian Mes-HGSC had an expression profile characteristic of stromal cells in the upper abdominal/omental metastases. We suggest that ovarian Mes-HGSC signifies advanced intraperitoneal tumor dissemination to the ovary rather than a subtype of primary ovarian HGSC. This is consistent with the presence of upper abdominal/omental disease, suboptimal debulking, and worst survival previously reported in patients with ovarian Mes-HGSC compared to other molecular subtypes.

8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(1): 277-284, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-tumor effect of a newly-developed dual inhibitor (APCS-540) of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: The effects of APCS-540 on cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cancer stemness were investigated in vitro in human (KURAMOCHI, OVCA420, OVSAHO) and mouse (BR-Luc, ID8, MOSE-HRas-Myc) ovarian cancer cells. Cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780cis) cell lines were used to evaluate APCS-540's effect on chemoresistance. The immunocompetent syngeneic mouse model BR-Luc was used to test the effect of APCS-540 on ovarian cancer progression and survival. RESULTS: APCS-540 showed significant anti-tumor effects in vitro in both human and mouse ovarian cancer cells. Importantly, APCS-540 demonstrated marked cytotoxicity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and reversed cisplatin-resistance when used in combination with platinum. APCS-540 significantly decreased cancer cell invasion. A significant 66% increase in survival was observed in mice treated with APCS-540 compared to control mice. CONCLUSION: Dual inhibition of GSK3B and HDACs via APCS-540 showed potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that APCS-540 may provide a novel treatment option for ovarian cancer, including the platinum-resistant disease.

9.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

10.
Exp Cell Res ; 393(1): 112039, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376288

RESUMO

Expression of the homeodomain transcription factor HOXB13 has been demonstrated in several malignancies but its role in tumorigenesis remains elusive. We observed high levels of HOXB13 in poorly differentiated pediatric tumors including a highly aggressive childhood neoplasm - malignant rhabdoid tumor. In a xenograft model of rhabdoid tumor, knockout of HOXB13 diminished tumor growth while partial knockdown of HOXB13 promoted differentiation of tumor cells into bone. These results suggest that HOXB13 enhances rhabdoid malignancy by interfering with mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of HOXB13 in mesenchymal progenitor cells inhibited adipogenic, myogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that HOXB13 binds to super-enhancer regions regulating genes involved in differentiation and tumorigenesis.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2020, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332753

RESUMO

The functional consequences of somatic non-coding mutations in ovarian cancer (OC) are unknown. To identify regulatory elements (RE) and genes perturbed by acquired non-coding variants, here we establish epigenomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary OCs using H3K27ac ChIP-seq and RNA-seq, and then integrate these with whole genome sequencing data from 232 OCs. We identify 25 frequently mutated regulatory elements, including an enhancer at 6p22.1 which associates with differential expression of ZSCAN16 (P = 6.6 × 10-4) and ZSCAN12 (P = 0.02). CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of this enhancer induces downregulation of both genes. Globally, there is an enrichment of single nucleotide variants in active binding sites for TEAD4 (P = 6 × 10-11) and its binding partner PAX8 (P = 2×10-10), a known lineage-specific transcription factor in OC. In addition, the collection of cis REs associated with PAX8 comprise the most frequently mutated set of enhancers in OC (P = 0.003). These data indicate that non-coding somatic mutations disrupt the PAX8 transcriptional network during OC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 2987-2998, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(2): 459-466, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although ovarian cancer is a deadly disease, approximately a third of women survive ≥9 years after diagnosis. The factors associated with achieving long-term survival are not well understood. In this study, data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program were used to determine predictors of survival trajectories among women with epithelial ovarian cancer and across histotype (high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) and non-HGSC). METHODS: Data on 35,868 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in 2004-2016 were extracted from SEER. Extended Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate overall and histotype-specific associations between patient and tumor characteristics and all-cause mortality within each survival time (t) interval (t < 3, 3 ≤ t < 6, 6 ≤ t < 9, and 9 ≤ t < 13 years). RESULTS: Age at diagnosis, marital status, race/ethnicity, stage, and surgery were more strongly associated with mortality in the short-term survival period, and these associations waned with increasing survival time. Exceptions to this pattern were age >70 years at diagnosis, where a high risk of mortality was observed in both the t < 3 and t ≥ 9 year time periods, and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders, where a more pronounced inverse association with mortality was observed in t ≥ 9 years after diagnosis. Similar associations were observed for HGSC, although the waning effect was not apparent for most characteristics. Mortality associations for non-HGSC were more pronounced for stage and race/ethnicity, primarily for non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSIONS: Most patient and tumor characteristics were more strongly associated with mortality in the years following diagnosis, but have declining impact with increasing survival time. Given this waning effect, it is critical to identify factors impacting risk of mortality as ovarian cancer patients advance through the survival trajectory.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etnologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Cell Rep ; 29(11): 3726-3735.e4, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825847

RESUMO

Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs) are likely the main precursor cell type of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs), but these tumors may also arise from ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSECs). We profiled global landscapes of gene expression and active chromatin to characterize molecular similarities between OSECs (n = 114), FTSECs (n = 74), and HGSOCs (n = 394). A one-class machine learning algorithm predicts that most HGSOCs derive from FTSECs, with particularly high FTSEC scores in mesenchymal-type HGSOCs (padj < 8 × 10-4). However, a subset of HGSOCs likely derive from OSECs, particularly HGSOCs of the proliferative type (padj < 2 × 10-4), suggesting a dualistic model for HGSOC origins. Super-enhancer (SE) landscapes were also more similar between FTSECs and HGSOCs than between OSECs and HGSOCs (p < 2.2 × 10-16). The SOX18 transcription factor (TF) coincided with a HGSOC-specific SE, and ectopic overexpression of SOX18 in FTSECs caused epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, indicating that SOX18 plays a role in establishing the mesenchymal signature of fallopian-derived HGSOCs.

15.
iScience ; 17: 242-255, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307004

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of tumorigenesis, and yet their mechanistic roles remain challenging to characterize. Here, we integrate functional proteomics with lncRNA-interactome profiling to characterize Urothelial Cancer Associated 1 (UCA1), a candidate driver of ovarian cancer development. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis indicates that UCA1 activates transcription coactivator YAP and its target genes. In vivo RNA antisense purification (iRAP) of UCA1 interacting proteins identified angiomotin (AMOT), a known YAP regulator, as a direct binding partner. Loss-of-function experiments show that AMOT mediates YAP activation by UCA1, as UCA1 enhances the AMOT-YAP interaction to promote YAP dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Together, we characterize UCA1 as a lncRNA regulator of Hippo-YAP signaling and highlight the UCA1-AMOT-YAP signaling axis in ovarian cancer development.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Vigilância da População
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 815-823, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043753

RESUMO

We sought to identify susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by performing a transcriptome-wide association study of gene expression and splice junction usage in HGSOC-relevant tissue types (N = 2,169) and the largest genome-wide association study available for HGSOC (N = 13,037 cases and 40,941 controls). We identified 25 transcriptome-wide association study significant genes, 7 at the junction level only, including LRRC46 at 19q21.32, (P = 1 × 10-9), CHMP4C at 8q21 (P = 2 × 10-11) and a PRC1 junction at 15q26 (P = 7 × 10-9). In vitro assays for CHMP4C showed that the associated variant induces allele-specific exon inclusion (P = 0.0024). Functional screens in HGSOC cell lines found evidence of essentiality for three of the new genes we identified: HAUS6, KANSL1 and PRC1, with the latter comparable to MYC. Our study implicates at least one target gene for 6 out of 13 distinct genome-wide association study regions, identifying 23 new candidate susceptibility genes for HGSOC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
18.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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