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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

2.
iScience ; 17: 242-255, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307004

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of tumorigenesis, and yet their mechanistic roles remain challenging to characterize. Here, we integrate functional proteomics with lncRNA-interactome profiling to characterize Urothelial Cancer Associated 1 (UCA1), a candidate driver of ovarian cancer development. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis indicates that UCA1 activates transcription coactivator YAP and its target genes. In vivo RNA antisense purification (iRAP) of UCA1 interacting proteins identified angiomotin (AMOT), a known YAP regulator, as a direct binding partner. Loss-of-function experiments show that AMOT mediates YAP activation by UCA1, as UCA1 enhances the AMOT-YAP interaction to promote YAP dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Together, we characterize UCA1 as a lncRNA regulator of Hippo-YAP signaling and highlight the UCA1-AMOT-YAP signaling axis in ovarian cancer development.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 815-823, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043753

RESUMO

We sought to identify susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by performing a transcriptome-wide association study of gene expression and splice junction usage in HGSOC-relevant tissue types (N = 2,169) and the largest genome-wide association study available for HGSOC (N = 13,037 cases and 40,941 controls). We identified 25 transcriptome-wide association study significant genes, 7 at the junction level only, including LRRC46 at 19q21.32, (P = 1 × 10-9), CHMP4C at 8q21 (P = 2 × 10-11) and a PRC1 junction at 15q26 (P = 7 × 10-9). In vitro assays for CHMP4C showed that the associated variant induces allele-specific exon inclusion (P = 0.0024). Functional screens in HGSOC cell lines found evidence of essentiality for three of the new genes we identified: HAUS6, KANSL1 and PRC1, with the latter comparable to MYC. Our study implicates at least one target gene for 6 out of 13 distinct genome-wide association study regions, identifying 23 new candidate susceptibility genes for HGSOC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
5.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Cancer Res ; 79(4): 760-772, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563893

RESUMO

Recent insights supporting the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) as the tissue of origin and the precursor lesion, respectively, for the majority of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) provide the necessary context to study the mechanisms that drive the development and progression of HGSOC. Here, we investigate the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF20 and histone H2B monoubiquitylation (H2Bub1) in serous tumorigenesis and report that heterozygous loss of RNF20 defines the majority of HGSOC tumors. At the protein level, H2Bub1 was lost or downregulated in a large proportion of STIC and invasive HGSOC tumors, implicating RNF20/H2Bub1 loss as an early event in the development of serous ovarian carcinoma. Knockdown of RNF20, with concomitant loss of H2Bub1, was sufficient to enhance cell migration and clonogenic growth of FTE cells. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we performed ATAC-seq and RNA-seq in RNF20 knockdown FTE cell lines. Loss of RNF20 and H2Bub1 was associated with a more open chromatin conformation, leading to upregulation of immune signaling pathways, including IL6. IL6 was one of the key cytokines significantly upregulated in RNF20- and H2Bub1-depleted FTE cells and imparted upon these cells an enhanced migratory phenotype. These studies provide mechanistic insight into the observed oncogenic phenotypes triggered by the early loss of H2Bub1. SIGNIFICANCE: Loss of RNF20 and H2Bub1 contributes to transformation of the fallopian tube epithelium and plays a role in the initiation and progression of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/4/760/F1.large.jpg.

9.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.

10.
Health Psychol ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies of cancer screening have found that false positive screening events (FPSE) can affect worry about cancer risk and screening program use, we sought to further explore this. METHOD: In a study of 1,100 women at high risk for ovarian cancer who participated in a previously published randomized controlled trial (RCT), we sought to explore whether worry might also influence the use of risk-reducing surgical procedures by women. Participants included 234 women with BRCA1/2 mutations and 866 women with high-risk pedigrees. We followed the women for up to 6 years. RESULTS: Worry predicted risk reducing prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (pBSO) for both mutation carriers (HR = 1.74; p = .02), and women with high-risk pedigree (HR = 3.41; p < .001). FPSE also predicted subsequent pBSO among women with a high-risk pedigree (HR 2.31; p < .01). While screening may reduce worry among those who never receive a positive result, FPSE increase worry at least temporarily. Worry about ovarian cancer risk predicted use of preventative pBSO among high-risk women including those with BRCA1/2 mutations enrolled in an ovarian cancer-screening program. FPSE also predicted risk-reducing ovarian surgery among high-risk women without a known mutation at the time of screening program enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who offer screening should know that false positive results may increase use of pBSO, how this should effect clinical practice is unclear. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

11.
Gynecol Oncol Rep ; 26: 75-77, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364775

RESUMO

Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block directed at the nerves in the anterior abdominal wall. We sought to determine whether TAP block reduces post-operative narcotic use or length of stay after open gynecologic surgery. Among 98 women who underwent an open hysterectomy between July 2016 - July 2017 by a gynecologic oncologist, 73 (74.5%) received a TAP block. The majority of patients who received a TAP block had a vertical incision (86.3%) while the majority of patients who did not receive TAP block had a transverse incision (64%). More patients in the TAP block group underwent cancer debulking compared to the no TAP block group (65.7% versus 8%). The two groups did not differ in post-operative pain scores on day 1, 2, or 3, cumulative narcotic use by post-operative day 3, length of stay, or ileus. We found TAP block after vertical skin incision results in comparable pain scores, narcotic use, and length of stay compared to patients undergoing transverse incisions without TAP block.

12.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 4(4): 250-261, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062862

RESUMO

We aimed to validate the prognostic association of p16 expression in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) and to explore it in other ovarian carcinoma histotypes. p16 protein expression was assessed by clinical-grade immunohistochemistry in 6525 ovarian carcinomas including 4334 HGSC using tissue microarrays from 24 studies participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. p16 expression patterns were interpreted as abnormal (either overexpression referred to as block expression or absence) or normal (heterogeneous). CDKN2A (which encodes p16) mRNA expression was also analyzed in a subset (n = 2280) mostly representing HGSC (n = 2010). Association of p16 expression with overall survival (OS) was determined within histotypes as was CDKN2A expression for HGSC only. p16 block expression was most frequent in HGSC (56%) but neither protein nor mRNA expression was associated with OS. However, relative to heterogeneous expression, block expression was associated with shorter OS in endometriosis-associated carcinomas, clear cell [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02, 95% confidence (CI) 1.47-2.77, p < 0.001] and endometrioid (HR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.30-2.75, p = 0.004), while absence was associated with shorter OS in low-grade serous carcinomas (HR: 2.95, 95% CI 1.61-5.38, p = 0.001). Absence was most frequent in mucinous carcinoma (50%), and was not associated with OS in this histotype. The prognostic value of p16 expression is histotype-specific and pattern dependent. We provide definitive evidence against an association of p16 expression with survival in ovarian HGSC as previously suggested. Block expression of p16 in clear cell and endometrioid carcinoma should be further validated as a prognostic marker, and absence in low-grade serous carcinoma justifies CDK4 inhibition.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134598

RESUMO

Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 3' gene region and increased risk of mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) in an independent sample. Genotypes from 24,351 controls to 15,000 women with invasive OC, including 665 MOC, were available. We estimated per-allele odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, and meta-analysis when combining these data with our previous report. The association between rs495139 and MOC was not significant in the independent sample (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.97⁻1.22; p = 0.15; N = 665 cases). Meta-analysis suggested a weak association (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03⁻1.24; p = 0.01; N = 1019 cases). No significant association with risk of other OC histologic types was observed (p = 0.05 for tumor heterogeneity). In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, the rs495139 allele was positively associated with ENOSF1 mRNA expression in normal tissues of the gastrointestinal system, particularly esophageal mucosa (r = 0.51, p = 1.7 × 10-28), and nonsignificantly in five MOC tumors. The association results, along with inconclusive tumor eQTL findings, suggest that a true effect of rs495139 might be small.

14.
Gynecol Oncol Rep ; 25: 78-81, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922710

RESUMO

Data from colon, breast and prostate cancers suggest that aspirin users have reduced mortality. While the direct mechanism remains uncertain, aspirin can suppress the COX-dependent and independent pathways involved in tumor progression. We hypothesized that aspirin users with clear cell ovarian cancer would have improved survival outcomes. We performed a retrospective review of patients with clear cell ovarian cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2010, and followed outcomes through 2016. Patients underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. Aspirin use was defined by medication documentation in two records more than six months apart. Statistical tests included Fisher's exact, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Seventy-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Fifty-four patients (70%) had stage I-II disease. Thirteen patients (17%) used aspirin. Aspirin users had a statistically longer disease-free survival compared to non-users (HR 0.13, p = .018). While median disease-free survival was not reached for either group, 1 of 13 (8%) aspirin users recurred at 24 months, compared to 18 of 64 (28%) non-users. Aspirin users demonstrated longer overall survival (HR 0.13, p = .015). Median survival was not reached for aspirin users, compared to 166 months for non-users. Aspirin use retained significance (HR 0.13, p = .044) after controlling for age, stage and cytoreductive status. In this small cohort of women with clear cell ovarian cancer, aspirin use correlated with improved disease-free and overall survival, and retained independent significance as a positive prognostic factor. Further research is warranted to confirm these findings before considering aspirin as a therapeutic intervention.

15.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(8): 1059-1065, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710224

RESUMO

Importance: Prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is recommended for BRCA1 mutation carriers to prevent ovarian cancer. Whether or not hormone replacement therapy (HRT) initiated after oophorectomy is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer has not been evaluated in a prospective study. Objective: To determine the association between HRT use and BRCA1-associated breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 80 participating centers in 17 countries was conducted between 1995 and 2017 with a mean follow-up of 7.6 years. Participants had sought genetic testing for a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation because of a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Carriers of BRCA1 mutation with no personal medical history of cancer who underwent bilateral oophorectomy following enrollment were eligible for the cohort study. Exposures: A follow-up questionnaire was administered every 2 years to obtain detailed information on HRT use. A left-truncated Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs associated with the initiation of HRT use postoophorectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident breast cancer. Results: A total of 872 BRCA1 mutation carriers with a mean postoophorectomy follow-up period of 7.6 years (range, 0.4-22.1) were included in this study. Mean (SD) age of participants was 43.4 (8.5) years. Among these, 92 (10.6%) incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Overall, HRT use after oophorectomy was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The HR was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.62-1.52; P = .89) for ever use of any type of HRT vs no use; however, the effects of estrogen alone and combination hormonal therapy were different. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of breast cancer among women who used estrogen-alone HRT was 12% compared with 22% among women who used estrogen plus progesterone HRT (absolute difference, 10%; log rank P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that use of estrogen after oophorectomy does not increase the risk of breast cancer among women with a BRCA1 mutation and should reassure BRCA1 mutation carriers considering preventive surgery that HRT is safe. The possible adverse effect of progesterone-containing HRT warrants further study.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196913, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738525

RESUMO

Exosomes are endosome-derived membrane vesicles that contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The exosomal transcriptome mediates intercellular communication, and represents an understudied reservoir of novel biomarkers for human diseases. Next-generation sequencing enables complex quantitative characterization of exosomal RNAs from diverse sources. However, detailed protocols describing exosome purification for preparation of exosomal RNA-sequence (RNA-Seq) libraries are lacking. Here we compared methods for isolation of exosomes and extraction of exosomal RNA from human cell-free serum, as well as strategies for attaining equal representation of samples within pooled RNA-Seq libraries. We compared commercial precipitation with ultracentrifugation for exosome purification and confirmed the presence of exosomes via both transmission electron microscopy and immunoblotting. Exosomal RNA extraction was compared using four different RNA purification methods. We determined the minimal starting volume of serum required for exosome preparation and showed that high quality exosomal RNA can be isolated from sera stored for over a decade. Finally, RNA-Seq libraries were successfully prepared with exosomal RNAs extracted from human cell-free serum, cataloguing both coding and non-coding exosomal transcripts. This method provides researchers with strategic options to prepare RNA-Seq libraries and compare RNA-Seq data quantitatively from minimal volumes of fresh and archival human cell-free serum for disease biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Exossomos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
17.
Br J Cancer ; 118(8): 1123-1129, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest greater height is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, but cannot exclude bias and/or confounding as explanations for this. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can provide evidence which may be less prone to bias. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies (16,395 cases; 23,003 controls). We applied two-stage predictor-substitution MR, using a weighted genetic risk score combining 609 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted height and risk were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Greater genetically predicted height was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk overall (pooled-OR (pOR) = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11 per 5 cm increase in height), and separately for invasive (pOR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and borderline (pOR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.29) tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Women with a genetic propensity to being taller have increased risk of ovarian cancer. This suggests genes influencing height are involved in pathways promoting ovarian carcinogenesis.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547931

RESUMO

Background: Although evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Methods: Current height and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were determined from baseline questionnaires. Current BMI and weight change since age 18 were calculated from updated biennial follow-up questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Among 3734 BRCA mutation carriers, there were 338 incident breast cancers over a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. There was no association between height, current BMI or weight change and breast cancer risk. Women with BMI at age 18 ≥22.1 kg/m2 had a decreased risk of developing post-menopausal breast cancer compared with women with a BMI at age 18 between 18.8 and 20.3 kg/m2 (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.30-0.82; P = 0.006). BMI at age 18 was not associated with risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. Conclusions: There was no observed association between height, current BMI and weight change and risk of breast cancer. The inverse relationship between greater BMI at age 18 and post-menopausal breast cancer further supports a role of early rather than current or adulthood exposures for BRCA-associated breast cancer development. Future studies with longer follow-up and additional measures of adiposity are necessary to confirm these findings.

19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 149(2): 227-229, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526475

RESUMO

For the last few months, media and news outlets have exposed prominent professionals in many settings who have taken advantage of their status of power and influence to engage in sexual harassment and discrimination in the workplace. In medicine, harassment may include many types of health professionals including physicians, nurses, medical students, colleagues and even patients. Programs for sexual harassment prevention, education and training vary between industries, workplaces, medical schools and hospitals. It is imperative to engage men and women in awareness, education, empowerment of the bystander and movement for cultural change. A grass roots effort should be started by each of us to reach out to our academic institutions, health systems and private practices to review policy, education and codes of conduct. We have the ability to embrace improvement around gender and diversity in our words and actions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/etiologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Sexismo , Local de Trabalho
20.
Oncotarget ; 9(3): 4044-4060, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423103

RESUMO

Metformin is a widely used agent for the treatment of diabetes and infertility, however, it has been found to have anti-cancer effects in a variety of malignancies including high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Studies describing the mechanisms by which metformin affects HGSC are ongoing, but detailed analysis of its effect on the cellular metabolism of both HGSC cells and their precursor, normal fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs), is lacking. We addressed the effects of metformin and the more potent biguanide, phenformin, on HGSC cell lines and normal immortalized FTSECs. Cell proliferation assays identified that FTSECs and a subset of HGSC cell lines are relatively resistant to the anti-proliferative effects of metformin. Bioenergetic and metabolomic analyses were used to metabolically differentiate the metformin-sensitive and metformin-resistant cell lines. Bioenergetically, biguanides elicited a significant decrease in mitochondrial respiration in all HGSC cells and FTSECs. However, biguanides had a greater effect on mitochondrial respiration in metformin sensitive cells. Metabolomic analysis revealed that metformin and phenformin generally induce similar changes in metabolic profiles. Biguanide treatment led to a significant increase in NADH in FTSECs and HGSC cells. Interestingly, biguanide treatment induced changes in the levels of mitochondrial shuttle metabolites, glycerol-3-phopshate (G3P) and aspartate, specifically in HGSC cell lines and not in FTSECs. Greater alterations in G3P or aspartate levels were also found in metformin sensitive cells relative to metformin resistant cells. These data identify bioenergetic and HGSC-specific metabolic effects that correlate with metformin sensitivity and novel metabolic avenues for possible therapeutic intervention.

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