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J Genet Couns ; 28(5): 974-981, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293033


The identification of patient outcomes unique to the field of genetic counseling has become a recent priority of the profession. Current health-care efforts have targeted patient engagement as an outcome capable of improving population health and reducing health-care costs. This study analyzed patient engagement levels among 182 participants who underwent genetic counseling for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer risk assessment in an outpatient specialty clinic. Patients seen at the UPMC Hereditary GI Tumor Program completed a validated patient engagement measure, the Altarum Consumer Engagement (ACE), prior to undergoing genetic counseling and again three months after enrollment. Paired t test analysis was conducted to assess the changes in Total ACE scores, and within the following three domains: Navigation, Informed Choice, and Commitment. In the sample of 182 participants, Total ACE scores increased after genetic counseling (by 5.7%; p < .0001), as did all three domains (Commitment p = .0008; Navigation p = .0008; and Informed Choice p = .0016). This study is the first known report of patient engagement levels in individuals undergoing genetic counseling in a specialty cancer clinic and suggests that genetic counseling improves patient engagement levels.

Cancer ; 125(14): 2488-2496, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980401


BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing currently is recommended for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In the current study, the authors assessed how often results are communicated to first-degree relatives within 3 months and the emotional impact of testing on patients. METHODS: A total of 148 patients who were newly diagnosed with PDAC and who had undergone testing of 32 cancer susceptibility genes at 3 academic centers were selected; 71% participated. Subjects completed the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) and a family communication survey. The results of both surveys were assessed at 3 months according to the genetic test result (positive, negative, or variant of unknown significance [VUS]) and whether a patient met criteria for genetic testing. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients completed the MICRA survey and 104 completed the family communication survey. The average age of the patients was 67 years, 47% were female, 29% had stage III/IV (AJCC 8th edition) disease, and 42% met genetic testing criteria. Approximately 80% of patients told at least 1 first-degree relative about their result. There was a trend toward greater disclosure among patients who tested positive (93% vs 77% for those with a VUS result [P = .149] and 74% for those who tested negative [P = .069]). Patients not meeting genetic testing criteria were less likely to disclose results (69% vs 93%; P = .003). MICRA scores did not differ by test result, age, stage of disease, or sex. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of result communication was high, although it was lower among patients who did not meet genetic testing criteria, those who tested negative, or those who had a VUS result. Testing-associated distress was similar across patient groups, and was comparable to that reported by other patients with cancer. Improved communication for all patients is crucial given the prognosis of PDAC, which limits time for disclosure.

Cancer ; 124(17): 3520-3527, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067863


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) in 32 cancer susceptibility genes in individuals with newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A key secondary objective was to evaluate how often PGVs would have been undetected with existing genetic testing criteria. METHODS: From May 2016 through May 2017, this multicenter cohort study enrolled consecutive patients aged 18 to 89 years with histologically confirmed PDAC diagnosed within the previous 12 weeks. Demographics, medical histories, and 3-generation pedigrees were collected from participants who provided samples for germline DNA analysis. RESULTS: Four hundred nineteen patients were deemed eligible, 302 were enrolled, and 298 were included in the final cohort. Clinically actionable variants were reported in 29 PDAC patients (9.7%), with 23 (7.7%) having a PGV associated with an increased risk for PDAC. Six of 23 individuals (26%) with PDAC-associated gene mutations did not meet currently established genetic testing criteria. According to guideline-based genetic testing, only 11 of the 23 PGVs (48%) in known PDAC genes would have been detected. Six additional patients (2%) had PGVs associated with an increased risk for other cancers. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the significant prevalence of PGVs associated with PDAC and the limitations of current paradigms for selecting patients for genetic testing, and they thereby lend support for universal germline multigene genetic testing in this population.

Mod Pathol ; 31(10): 1608-1618, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884888


Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. However, establishing the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome is challenging, and ancillary studies that distinguish between sporadic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency and Lynch syndrome are needed, particularly when germline mutation studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine if MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic intestinal crypts can help distinguish between patients with and without Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the expression of MMR proteins in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa obtained from colorectal surgical resection specimens from patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n = 52) and patients with colorectal carcinoma without evidence of Lynch syndrome (n = 70), including sporadic MMR protein-deficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), and "Lynch-like" syndrome (n = 10). MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were identified in 19 of 122 (16%) patients. MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts were identified in 18 of 52 (35%) patients with Lynch syndrome compared to only 1 of 70 (1%) patients without Lynch syndrome (p < 0.001). This one patient had "Lynch-like" syndrome and harbored two MSH2-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts. MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were not identified in patients with sporadic MMR protein-deficient or MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts are a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome, and evaluation for MMR protein-deficient crypts may be a helpful addition to Lynch syndrome diagnostics.

Cancer ; 124(8): 1691-1700, 2018 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360161


BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) cases are attributed to hereditary causes. Individuals with PC and a personal history of another cancer associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) or Lynch syndrome (LS) may be more likely to carry germline mutations. METHODS: Participants with PC and a history of cancer were selected from a pancreatic disease registry. Of 1296 individuals with PC, 149 had a relevant history of cancer. If banked DNA was available, a multigene panel was performed for individuals who had not 1) previously had a mutation identified through clinical testing or 2) undergone clinical multigene panel testing with no mutations detected. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 124 individuals with PC and another HBOC- or LS-related cancer who underwent genetic testing had a mutation identified in a PC susceptibility gene (18%). If prostate cancer is excluded, the mutation prevalence increased to 23% (21/93). Mutation carriers were more likely to have more than 1 previous cancer diagnosis (P = .001), to have had clinical genetic testing (P = .001), and to meet National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) genetic testing criteria (P < .001). Approximately 23% of mutation carriers did not meet NCCN HBOC or LS testing guidelines based on their personal cancer history and reported cancer history in first-degree relatives. CONCLUSION: At least 18% of individuals with PC and a personal history of other HBOC- or LS-related cancers carry mutations in a PC susceptibility gene based on our data, suggesting that criteria for genetic testing in individuals with PC should include consideration of previous cancer history. Cancer 2018;124:1691-700. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

Pancreas ; 47(1): 35-39, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200129


OBJECTIVE: Secretin-stimulated pancreatic juice is collected from the duodenum and analyzed to identify biomarkers of pancreatic neoplasia, but the optimal duration of pancreatic juice collection is not known. METHODS: We compared the yield of KRAS mutations detected in pancreatic juice samples aspirated from near the duodenal papilla at 1 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 minutes after secretin infusion, and from the third part of the duodenum (at 15 minutes) from 45 patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound pancreatic surveillance. KRAS mutation concentrations were measured by using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Forty of 45 patients had KRAS mutations detected in their pancreatic juice, and most patients' juice samples had more than 1 KRAS mutation. Of 106 KRAS mutations detected in 171 pancreatic juice samples, 58 were detected in the 5-minute samples, 70 mutations were detected in the 10-minute samples, and 65 were detected in the 15-minute samples. Nine patients who did not have KRAS mutations detected in their 5-minute sample had mutations detected in samples collected at later time points. Ninety-percent of all pancreatic juice mutations detected in any sample were detected in the 5- or 10-minute samples. CONCLUSIONS: Collecting pancreatic juice for 10 minutes after secretin infusion increases the likelihood of detecting pancreatic juice mutations over shorter collections.

Mutação , Suco Pancreático/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo