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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(7): 076802, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857585

RESUMO

Fractional conductance is measured by partitioning a ν=1 edge state using gate-tunable fractional quantum Hall (FQH) liquids of filling 1/3 or 2/3 for current injection and detection. We observe two sets of FQH plateaus 1/9, 2/9, 4/9 and 1/6, 1/3, 2/3 at low and high magnetic field ends of the ν=1 plateau, respectively. The findings are explained by magnetic field dependent equilibration of three FQH edge modes with conductance e^{2}/3h arising from edge reconstruction. The results reveal a remarkable enhancement of the equilibration lengths of the FQH edge modes with increasing magnetic field.

2.
Chaos ; 30(6): 063149, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611093

RESUMO

The time-varying time-delayed (TVTD) systems attract the attention of research communities due to their rich complex dynamics and wide application potentiality. Particularly, coupled TVTD systems show several intriguing behaviors that cannot be observed in systems with a constant delay or no delay. In this context, a new synchronization scenario, namely, oscillating synchronization, was reported by Senthilkumar and Lakshmanan [Chaos 17, 013112 (2007)], which is exclusive to the time-varying time delay systems only. However, like most of the dynamical behavior of TVTD systems, its existence has not been established in an experiment. In this paper, we report the first experimental observation of oscillating synchronization in coupled nonlinear time-delayed oscillators induced by a time-varying time delay in the coupling path. We implement a simple yet effective electronic circuit to realize the time-varying time delay in an experiment. We show that depending upon the instantaneous variation of the time delay, the system shows a synchronization scenario oscillating among lag, complete, and anticipatory synchronization. This study may open up the feasibility of applying oscillating synchronization in engineering systems.

3.
Biophys J ; 115(3): 455-466, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089243

RESUMO

We have developed a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) setup for performing single-molecule measurements on samples inside regular cuvettes. The cuvette FCS uses a horizontally mounted extra-long working distance, 0.7 NA, air objective with a working distance of >1.8 mm instead of a high NA water or oil immersion objective. The performance of the cuvette FCS is found to be highly sensitive to the quality and alignment of the cuvette. The radial resolution and effective observation volume obtained using the optimized setup are ∼340 nm and 1.8 fL, respectively. The highest molecular brightness and the signal/noise ratio in the autocorrelation data achieved using an aqueous solution of rhodamine B are greater than 44 kHz and 110, respectively. Here, we demonstrate two major advantages of cuvette FCS. For example, the cuvette FCS can be used for measurements over a wide range of temperatures that is beyond the range permitted in the microscope-based FCS. Furthermore, cuvette FCS can be coupled to automatic titrators to study urea-dependent unfolding of proteins with unprecedented accuracy. The ease of use and compatibility with various accessories will enable applications of cuvette FCS in the experiments that are regularly performed in spectrofluorometers but are generally avoided in microscope-based FCS.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Tampões (Química) , Calibragem , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fosfatos/química , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rodaminas/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Temperatura , Ureia/farmacologia
4.
Plant Soil ; 417(1): 377-392, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258196

RESUMO

AIMS: Drought is the major constraint to rainfed rice productivity in South Asia, but few reports provide detailed characterization of the soil properties related to drought stress severity in the region. The aim of the study was to provide a compilation of drought breeding network sites and their respective levels of drought stress, and to relate soil parameters with yield reduction by drought. METHODS: This study characterized levels of drought stress and soil nutrient and physical properties at 18 geographically distributed research station sites involved in rice varietal screening in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, as well as at farmers' fields located near the research stations. RESULTS: Based on soil resistance to penetration profiles, a hardpan was surprisingly absent at about half of the sites characterized. Significant relationships of depth of compaction and yield reduction by drought indicated the effects of soil puddling on susceptibility to cracking, rather than water retention by hardpans, on plant water availability in this region. The main difference between research stations and nearby farmers' fields was in terms of soil compaction. CONCLUSIONS: These results present an initiative for understanding the range of severities of reproductive-stage drought stress in drought-prone rainfed lowland rice-growing areas in South Asia.

5.
J Drug Target ; 22(5): 408-15, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24432976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catechin-dextran conjugates have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their anticancer activity against a range of cancer cells. Magnetic nanoparticles have the ability to concentrate therapeutically important drugs due to their magnetic-spatial control and provide opportunities for targeted drug delivery. PURPOSE: Enhancement of the anticancer efficiency of catechin-dextran conjugate by functionalisation with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. METHODS: Modification of the coating shell of commercial magnetic nanoparticles (Endorem) composed of dextran with the catechin-dextran conjugate. RESULTS: Catechin-dextran conjugated with Endorem (Endo-Cat) increased the intracellular concentration of the drug and it induced apoptosis in 98% of pancreatic tumour cells placed under magnetic field. DISCUSSION: The conjugation of catechin-dextran with Endorem enhances the anticancer activity of this drug and provides a new strategy for targeted drug delivery on tumour cells driven by magnetic field. CONCLUSION: The ability to spatially control the delivery of the catechin-dextran by magnetic field makes it a promising agent for further application in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Dextranos/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanoconjugados/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação
6.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e62795, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23667521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a highly drought sensitive crop, and most semi dwarf rice varieties suffer severe yield losses from reproductive stage drought stress. The genetic complexity of drought tolerance has deterred the identification of agronomically relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that can be deployed to improve rice yield under drought in rice. Convergent evidence from physiological characterization, genetic mapping, and multi-location field evaluation was used to address this challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two pairs of backcross inbred lines (BILs) from a cross between drought-tolerant donor Aday Sel and high-yielding but drought-susceptible rice variety IR64 were produced. From six BC4F3 mapping populations produced by crossing the +QTL BILs with the -QTL BILs and IR64, four major-effect QTL--one each on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10--were identified. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data from the +QTL/-QTL BILs identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly associated with QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10. Physiological characterization of BILs showed increased water uptake ability under drought. The enrichment of DEGs associated with root traits points to differential regulation of root development and function as contributing to drought tolerance in these BILs. BC4F3-derived lines with the QTL conferred yield advantages of 528 to 1875 kg ha⁻¹ over IR64 under reproductive-stage drought stress in the targeted ecosystems of South Asia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the importance of rice in daily food consumption and the popularity of IR64, the BC4F3 lines with multiple QTL could provide higher livelihood security to farmers in drought-prone environments. Candidate genes were shortlisted for further characterization to confirm their role in drought tolerance. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the four QTL reported here indicate that future research should include optimizing QTL combinations in different genetic backgrounds to maximize yield advantage under drought.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Agricultura/métodos , Secas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(23): 236804, 2011 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182116

RESUMO

We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a new method that allows us to controllably couple copropagating spin-resolved edge states of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the integer quantum Hall regime. The scheme exploits a spatially periodic in-plane magnetic field that is created by an array of Cobalt nanomagnets placed at the boundary of the 2DEG. A maximum charge or spin transfer of 28±1% is achieved at 250 mK.

8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 81(8): 083901, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20815612

RESUMO

We describe an optical fiber based setup for performing polarization resolved magneto-optical spectroscopy measurements under low temperatures ( approximately 4 K) and high magnetic fields ( approximately 8 T). The measurements are performed in a windowless helium Dewar. Circularly polarized light is produced inside the Dewar by inserting the polarizing elements between the fiber end and the sample. Photoconductivity spectra of a GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum-well sample have been measured over the photon energy range of 1.5-1.7 eV in left and right circularly polarized light under crossed magnetic and electric fields. It is shown that reversing the direction of magnetic field produces the same spectral changes as caused by changing the direction of circular polarization with the optical components.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(3): 036802, 2009 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19257378

RESUMO

We show that the quantum phase transformation between compressible metallic and incompressible excitonic states in the coupled bilayers at total Landau level filling factor nuT=1 becomes discontinuous (first order) by impacts of different terms of the electron-electron interactions that prevail on weak residual disorder. The evidence is based on precise determinations of the excitonic order parameter by inelastic light scattering measurements close to the phase boundary. While there is marked softening of low-lying excitations, our experiments underpin the roles of competing order parameters linked to quasiparticle correlations in removing the divergence of quantum fluctuations.

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