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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 128, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is protective against many long-term diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are unknown. Leptin gene (LEP) is reported to be associated with body mass index (BMI). On the other hand, breastfeeding duration has been found to be associated with DNA methylation (DNAm) of the LEP gene. Therefore, epigenetic regulation of LEP may represent the mechanism underlying the protective effect of breastfeeding duration against obesity. METHODS: In the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort, peripheral blood DNAm at 23 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) in the LEP locus in 10-year-old (n = 297) samples and 16 CpGs in 18-year-old (n = 305) samples, were generated using the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC and HumanMethylation450 Beadchips respectively and tested for association with breastfeeding duration (total and exclusive) using linear regression. To explore the association between breastfeeding durations and genome-wide DNAm, epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and differential methylation region (DMR) analyses were performed. BMI trajectories spanning the first 18 years of life were used as the outcome to test the association with breastfeeding duration (exposure) using multi-nominal logistic regression. Mediation analysis was performed for significant CpG sites. RESULTS: Both total and exclusive breastfeeding duration were associated with DNAm at four LEP CpG sites at 10 years (P value < 0.05), and not at 18 years. Though no association was observed between breastfeeding duration and genome-wide DNAm, DMR analyses identified five significant differentially methylated regions (Sidak adjusted P value < 0.05). Breastfeeding duration was also associated with the early transient overweight trajectory. Furthermore, DNAm of LEP was associated with this trajectory at one CpG site and early persistent obesity at another, though mediation analysis was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding duration is associated with LEP methylation at age 10 years and BMI trajectory. LEP DNAm is also significantly associated with BMI trajectories throughout childhood, though sample sizes were small. However, mediation analysis did not demonstrate that DNAm of LEP explained the protective effect of breastfeeding against childhood obesity.

2.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

3.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 98, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118050

RESUMO

Pre-bronchodilator lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow in 1 second (FEV1), their ratio (FEV1/FVC), and forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF25-75) measured at age 10, 18, and 26 years in the Isle of Wight birth cohort was analyzed for developmental patterns (trajectories). Early life risk factors before the age of 10 years were assessed for the trajectories. METHOD: Members of the birth cohort (1989/90) were followed at age 1, 2, 4, 10, 18, and 26 years. Allergic sensitization and questionnaire data were collected. Spirometry tests were performed and evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria at 10, 18, and 26 years. To identify developmental trajectories for FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75 from 10 to 26 years, a finite mixture model was applied to the longitudinal lung function data, separately for males and females. Associations of early life factors with the respective lung function trajectories were assessed using log-linear and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Both high and low lung function trajectories were observed in men and women. FVC continued to grow beyond 18 years in men and women, whereas FEV1 peaked at age 18 years in female trajectories and in one male trajectory. For the FEV1/FVC ratios and FEF25-75 most trajectories appeared highest at age 18 and declined thereafter. However, the low FEV1/FVC trajectory in both sexes showed an early decline at 10 years. Lower birth weight was linked with lower lung function trajectories in males and females. Eczema in the first year of life was a risk factor for later lung function deficits in females, whereas the occurrence of asthma at 4 years of age was a risk factor for later lung function deficits in males. A positive skin prick test at age four was a risk for the low FEV1 trajectory in females and for the low FEV1/FVC trajectory in males. CONCLUSION: Men and women showed distinctive lung function trajectories and associated risk factors. Lower lung function trajectories can be explained by not achieving maximally attainable function at age 18 years and by a function decline from 18 to 26 years.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.

5.
Allergy ; 74(6): 1166-1175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of allergic sensitization has a major influence on the development and course of common childhood conditions such as asthma and rhinitis. The etiology of allergic sensitization is poorly understood, and its underlying biological mechanisms are not well established. Several studies showed that DNA methylation (DNAm) at some CpGs is associated with allergic sensitization. However, no studies have focused on the critical adolescence period. METHODS: We assessed the association of pre- and postadolescence genome-wide DNAm with allergic sensitization against indoor, outdoor and food allergens, using linear mixed models. We hypothesized that DNAm is associated with sensitization in general, and with poly-sensitization status, and these associations are age- and gender-specific. We tested these hypotheses in the IoW cohort (n = 376) and examined the findings in the BAMSE cohort (n = 267). RESULTS: Via linear mixed models, we identified 35 CpGs in IoW associated with allergic sensitization (at false discovery rate of 0.05), of which 33 were available in BAMSE and replicated with respect to the direction of associations with allergic sensitization. At the 35 CpGs except for cg19210306 on C13orf27, a reduction in methylation among atopic subjects was observed, most notably for cg21220721 and cg11699125 (ACOT7). DNAm at cg10159529 was strongly correlated with expression of IL5RA in peripheral blood (P-value = 6.76 × 10-20 ). Three CpGs (cg14121142, cg23842695, and cg26496795) were identified in IoW with age-specific association between DNAm and allergic sensitization. CONCLUSION: In adolescence, the status of allergic sensitization was associated with DNAm differentiation and at some CpGs the association is likely to be age-specific.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

7.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(12): 1688-1697, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke contains compounds similar to coal tar, an ancient remedy of eczema. Some studies have reported protective effects of maternal gestational smoking on offspring eczema; however, others have shown no or increased risks. Similarly, studies linking breastfeeding duration and eczema have demonstrated contradictory findings. No study has yet investigated combined effects of these two factors on eczema. OBJECTIVE: Since tobacco compounds can pass to offspring via breast milk, we investigated their combined effects on eczema development from childhood to adolescence. METHODS: We obtained information regarding gestational smoking, exclusive breastfeeding duration, and eczema at ages 1-or-2, 4, 10, and 18 years from the Isle of Wight (IOW) birth cohort, UK. Using generalized estimating equations, we assessed the interaction of gestational smoking and residual exclusive breastfeeding duration (Resid-BF-duration, obtained by regressing the latter on maternal smoking) on eczema over time adjusting for confounders. For the three transition periods of 1-or-2 to 4 years, 4-10, and 10-18 years, we estimated risks of persistent, incident, and remitting eczema associated with the interaction using repeated measurements. RESULTS: If the mother smoked during gestation, longer Resid-BF-duration was associated with a lower risk of eczema, compared to if she did not smoke. The risk ratios (95% CI) if the mother smoked during gestation and exclusively breastfed for at least 3, 9, 15, 21 weeks are 0.7 (0.6, 1.7), 0.6 (0. 4, 0.9), 0.5 (0.3, 0.8), and 0.4 (0.2, 0. 8), respectively. Additionally, in all three transition periods, the risk of persistent eczema was lower with longer Resid-BF-duration if the mother smoked during gestation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest a protective effect of gestational smoking combined with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding on early-onset persistent eczema. Future studies should examine underlying biological mechanisms. Prolonged breastfeeding should be encouraged even if the mother smoked during gestation.

8.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 179, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between acetaminophen use and asthma. This investigation sought to determine whether sex modifies the acetaminophen-asthma association and whether leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphisms modulate the sex-specific associations. METHODS: Data from the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOW; n = 1456, aged 18 years) and Kuwait University Allergy (KUA; n = 1154, aged 18-26 years) studies were analyzed. Acetaminophen use and current asthma were self-reported. Genotype information for eighteen polymorphisms in LEP and LEPR genes were available in the IOW study. Associations between acetaminophen use and asthma were stratified by sex and genotype. Poisson regression models with robust variance estimation were evaluated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Acetaminophen use was dose-dependently associated with an increased prevalence of current asthma in the IOW and KUA studies. In both studies, sex-stratified analysis showed that acetaminophen use was associated with asthma among males, but not in females (Pinteraction <  0.05). Moreover, a sex- and genotype-stratified analysis of the IOW data indicated that acetaminophen was associated with asthma to a similar extent among males and females carrying two common alleles of LEPR polymorphisms. In contrast, among those carrying at least one copy of the minor allele of LEPR polymorphisms, the magnitude of association between acetaminophen use and asthma was pronounced among males (aPR = 6.83, 95% CI: 2.87-16.24), but not among females (aPR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.61-2.45). CONCLUSIONS: The identified sex-related effect modification of the acetaminophen-asthma association varied across LEPR genotypes, indicating that the sex-specific association was confined to individuals with certain genetic susceptibility. If the acetaminophen-asthma association is causal, then our findings will aid susceptibility-based stratification of at-risk individuals and augment preventive public health efforts.

9.
Ann Thorac Med ; 13(3): 156-162, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have chemopreventive effect on lung cancer (LC) development in humans. We investigated the association between the ICS use in asthma patients and the risk of LC. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, population-based retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance database. We identified 4210 asthmatics who were initially free of LC and regularly used ICS between 2001 and 2005 and 37,228 asthmatics without regular ICS use. Patients with documented history of tobacco use were excluded from the analyses. Asthmatics were categorized into a mild and a severe asthma group. Each patient was tracked until the end of 2010 to identify incident cases of LC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effect of ICS on the risk of LC, further stratifying by asthma severity and comorbidities. RESULTS: During follow-up, we identified 747 incident cases of LC diagnosed in the asthma cohort. Compared with severe asthmatics without regular ICS use, the risk of LC for those with mild asthma with regular ICS use was lower (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.31-0.56, P < 0.0001). The risk of LC was calculated among the following rankings of risk severe asthma without regular ICS use, low severity without regular ICS, high severity with regular ICS, and low severity with regular ICS group showed a decreasing trend of LC incidence (P = 0.041). Analyses stratified by comorbidities revealed that the protective effect of ICS was assessed with better precision and more pronounced in those with renal diseases, stroke, and hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with asthma, regular ICS use might have a protective effect against LC. Further studies are required to assess this potential association from both immunohistopathological and clinical aspects.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 765-772, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040975

RESUMO

It has become clear that early life (including in utero exposures) is a key window of vulnerability during which environmental exposures can alter developmental trajectories and initiate allergic disease development. However, recent evidence suggests that there might be additional windows of vulnerability to environmental exposures in the parental generation before conception or even in previous generations. There is evidence suggesting that information of prior exposures can be transferred across generations, and experimental animal models suggest that such transmission can be conveyed through epigenetic mechanisms. Although the molecular mechanisms of intergenerational and transgenerationational epigenetic transmission have yet to be determined, the realization that environment before conception can alter the risks of allergic diseases has profound implications for the development of public health interventions to prevent disease. Future research in both experimental models and in multigenerational human cohorts is needed to better understand the role of intergenerational and transgenerational effects in patients with asthma and allergic disease. This will provide the knowledge basis for a new approach to efficient intervention strategies aimed at reducing the major public health challenge of these conditions.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3221, 2018 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459738

RESUMO

Immune-specific genes as well as genes responsible for the formation and integrity of the epidermal barrier have been implicated in the pathogeneses of allergic sensitization. This study sought to determine whether an epistatic effect (gene-gene interaction) between genetic variants within interleukin 4 receptor (IL4R) and filaggrin (FLG) genes predispose to the development of allergic sensitization. Data from two birth cohort studies were analyzed, namely the Isle of Wight (IOW; n = 1,456) and the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS; n = 1,058). In the IOW study, one interaction term (IL4R rs3024676 × FLG variants) showed statistical significance (interaction term: P = 0.003). To illustrate the observed epistasis, stratified analyses were performed, which showed that FLG variants were associated with allergic sensitization only among IL4R rs3024676 homozygotes (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.27-3.05; P = 0.003). In contrast, FLG variants effect was masked among IL4R rs3024676 heterozygotes (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.22-1.32; P = 0.175). Similar results were demonstrated in the MAAS study. Epistasis between immune (IL4R) and skin (FLG) regulatory genes exist in the pathogenesis of allergic sensitization. Hence, genetic susceptibility towards defective epidermal barrier and deviated immune responses could work together in the development of allergic sensitization.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415463

RESUMO

To succeed, pregnancies need to initiate immune biases towards T helper 2 (Th2) responses, yet little is known about what establishes this bias. Using the Illumina 450 K platform, we explored changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) of Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell pathway genes before and during pregnancy. Female participants were recruited at birth (1989), and followed through age 18 years and their pregnancy (2011-2015). Peripheral blood DNAm was measured in 245 girls at 18 years; from among these girls, the DNAm of 54 women was repeatedly measured in the first (weeks 8-21, n = 39) and second (weeks 22-38, n = 35) halves of pregnancy, respectively. M-values (logit-transformed ß-values of DNAm) were analyzed: First, with repeated measurement models, cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) of pathway genes in pregnancy and at age 18 (nonpregnant) were compared for changes (p ≤ 0.05). Second, we tested how many of the 348 pathway-related CpGs changed compared to 10 randomly selected subsets of all other CpGs and compared to 10 randomly selected subsets of other CD4+-related CpGs (348 in each subset). Contrasted to the nonpregnant state, 27.7% of Th1-related CpGs changed in the first and 36.1% in the second half of pregnancy. Among the Th2 pathway CpGs, proportions of changes were 35.1% (first) and 33.8% (second half). The methylation changes suggest involvement of both Th1 and Th2 pathway CpGs in the immune bias during pregnancy. Changes in regulatory T cell and Th17 pathways need further exploration.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 10(2): 172-179, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may increase the risk of asthma. Genetic polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTP1), manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase may be related to BPA exposure. The aim is to evaluate whether oxidative stress genes modulates associations of BPA exposure with asthma. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comprised of 126 asthmatic children and 327 controls. Urine Bisphenol A glucuronide (BPAG) levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and genetic variants were analyzed by a TaqMan assay. Information on asthma and environmental exposure was collected. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were performed to determine the association of genotypes and urine BPAG levels with asthma. RESULTS: BPAG levels were significantly associated with asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.29 per log unit increase in concentration; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.081.55). Compared to the GG genotype, children with a GSTP1 AA genotype had higher urine BPAG concentrations (geometric mean [standard error], 12.72 [4.16] vs 11.42 [2.82]; P=0.036). In children with high BPAG, the GSTP1 AA genotype was related to a higher odds of asthma than the GG genotype (aOR, 4.84; 95% CI, 1.0223.06). CONCLUSIONS: GSTP1 variants are associated with urine BPA metabolite levels. Oxidative stress genes may modulate the effect of BPA exposure on asthma.

15.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(2): 147-155, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG-LOF) mutations are an established genetic cause of eczema. These mutations have subsequently been reported to increase the risk of aeroallergen sensitization and allergic airway disease. However, it is unclear whether FLG variants require both eczema and aeroallergen sensitization to influence airway disease development long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of FLG-LOF mutations on allergic airway disease outcomes, with eczema and aeroallergen sensitization as intermediate variables, using the Isle of Wight birth cohort. METHODS: Study participants were evaluated at ages 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18 years to ascertain the development of allergic diseases (eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis) and aeroallergen sensitization (determined by skin prick tests). FLG-LOF mutations were genotyped in 1150 subjects. To understand the complex associations between FLG mutations, intermediate variables (eczema and aeroallergen sensitization) and airway disease, path analysis was performed. RESULTS: There were significant total effects of FLG-LOF mutations on both asthma and allergic rhinitis at all ages as well as on aeroallergen sensitization up till 10 years old. In the filaggrin-asthma analysis, a direct effect of FLG-LOF mutations was observed on early childhood eczema (age 1 and 2 years) (relative risk (RR) 2.01, 95% CI: 1.74-2.31, P < .001), and all significant indirect pathways on asthma outcomes passed through eczema at these ages. In contrast, for the filaggrin-rhinitis model, FLG-LOF mutations exerted significant direct effects on early eczema as well as rhinitis at 10 years (RR 1.99; 95% CI: 1.72-2.29, P = .002). CONCLUSION: FLG-LOF mutations are a significant risk factor for later childhood asthma and rhinitis. However, the pathway to asthma is only through early childhood eczema while a direct effect was observed for childhood rhinitis.

16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 12: 48, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29213297

RESUMO

Background: Infant feeding may consist of direct breastfeeding (DBF), pumping and bottle feeding (P&F), formula feeding (FF), solid food feeding (SFF), and any combination. An accurate evaluation of infant feeding requires descriptions of different patterns, consistency, and transition over time. Methods: In United States of America, the Infant Feeding Practice Study II collected information on the mode of feeding on nine occasions in 12 months. We focused on the first 6 months with six feeding occasions. To determine the longitudinal patterns of feeding the latent class transition analyses was applied and assessed the transition probabilities between these classes over time. Results: Over 6 months, 1899 mothers provided feeding information. In month 1 the largest latent class is FF (32.9%) followed by DBF (23.8%). In month 2, a substantial proportion of the FF class included SFF; which increases over time. A not allocated class, due to missing information was identified in months 1-3, transitions to SFF starting in month 4 (8.9%). In month 1, two mixed patterns exist: DBF and P&F combined with FF (13.9%) and DBF combined with P&F (18.7%). The triple combination of DBF, P&F, and FF (13.9%) became FF in month 2 (transition probability: 24.8%), and DBF in combination with P&F (transition probability: 49.1%). The pattern of DBF combined with P&F is relatively stable until month 4, when at least 50% of these infants receive solid food. Only 23-26% of the infants receive direct breastfeeding (DBF) in months 1-4, in month 5-6 SFF is added. Mothers who used FF were less educated and employed fulltime. Mothers who smoke and not residing in the west of the United States were also more likely to practice formula feeding. Conclusion: Infant feeding is complex. Breastfeeding is not predominant and we additionally considered the mixed patterns of feeding. To facilitate direct breastfeeding, a substantial increase in the duration of maternal leave is necessary in the United States.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135968

RESUMO

Longitudinal studies have shown that early life exposure to dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) can lead to growth reduction during childhood and adolescence. In addition, DDE exposure has been linked to respiratory tract infections and an increased risk of asthma in children. Our aim was to understand the relationships between DDE exposure and pulmonary function in children, and, particularly, whether associations are mediated by the height of the children. We used data from an environmental epidemiologic study conducted in central Germany in children aged 8-10 years. The pulmonary function (forced vital capacity, FVC, and forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1) were measured in three consecutive years. Blood DDE levels were measured at 8 and 10 years. We used linear mixed models for repeated measurements and path analyses to assess the association between blood levels of DDE and pulmonary function measurements. All models were adjusted for confounders. Linear mixed approaches and modelling concurrent effects showed no significant associations. The path analytical models demonstrated that DDE measured at eight years had significant, inverse, indirect, and total effects on FVC at ten years (n = 328; -0.18 L per µg/L of DDE) and FEV1 (n = 328; -0.17 L per µg/L of DDE), mediated through effects of DDE on height and weight. The DDE burden reduces pulmonary function through its diminishing effects on height and weight in children. Further studies are required to test these associations in other samples, preferably from a region with ongoing, high DDT application.


Assuntos
Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Pulmão/fisiologia , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Capacidade Vital
18.
Genet Epigenet ; 9: 1179237X17721540, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811741

RESUMO

Prior DNA methylation (DNA-m) analyses have identified cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, which show either a significant change or consistency during lifetime. However, the proportion of CpGs that are neither significantly different nor consistent over time (indifferent CpGs) is unknown. We investigated the methylation dynamics, both longitudinal changes and consistency, in women from preadolescence to late pregnancy using DNA-m of peripheral blood cells. Consistency of cell type-adjusted DNA-m between paired individuals was assessed by regressing CpGs of subsequent age on the prior, stability by intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.5), and changes by linear mixed models. In the first 2 transitions (10-18 years and 18 years to early pregnancy), 19.5% and 20.9% CpGs were consistent, but only 0.35% in the third transition (from early to late pregnancy). Significant changes in methylation were found in 0.7%, 5.6%, and 0% CpGs, respectively. Functional enrichment analyses of genes with significant changes in DNA-m in early pregnancy (5.6%) showed that the maternal DNA-m seems to reflect signaling pathways between the uterus and the trophoblast. The transition from early to late pregnancy showed low consistency/stability and no changes, suggesting the presence of a large proportion of indifferent CpGs in late pregnancy.

20.
Environ Health ; 16(1): 50, 2017 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In utero arsenic exposure may alter fetal developmental programming by altering DNA methylation, which may result in a higher risk of disease in later life. We evaluated the association between in utero arsenic exposure and DNA methylation (DNAm) in cord blood and its influence in later life. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood from 64 subjects in the Taiwanese maternal infant and birth cohort was analyzed. Robust regressions were applied to assess the association of DNA methylation with in utero arsenic exposure. Multiple testing was adjusted by controlling false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05. The DAVID bioinformatics tool was implemented for functional annotation analyses on the detected CpGs. The identified CpGs were further tested in an independent cohort. For the CpGs replicated in the independent cohort, linear mixed models were applied to assess the association of DNA methylation with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) at different ages (2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 years). RESULTS: In total, 579 out of 385,183 CpGs were identified after adjusting for multiple testing (FDR = 0.05), of which ~60% were positively associated with arsenic exposure. Functional annotation analysis on these CpGs detected 17 KEGG pathways (FDR = 0.05) including pathways for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus. In the independent cohort, about 46% (252 out of 553 CpGs) of the identified CpGs showed associations consistent with those in the study cohort. In total, 11 CpGs replicated in the independent cohort were in the pathways related to CVD and diabetes mellitus. Via longitudinal analyses, we found at 5 out of the 11 CpGs methylation was associated with LDL over time and interactions between DNA methylation and time were observed at 4 of the 5 CpGs, cg25189764 (coeff = 0.157, p-value = 0.047), cg04986899 (coeff. For interaction [coeff.int] = 0.030, p-value = 0.024), cg04903360 (coeff.int = 0.026, p-value = 0.032), cg08198265 (coeff.int = -0.063, p-value = 0.0021), cg10473311 (coeff.int = -0.021, p-value = 0.027). CONCLUSION: In utero arsenic exposure was associated with cord blood DNA methylation at various CpGs. The identified CpGs may help determine pathological epigenetic mechanisms linked to in utero arsenic exposure. Five CpGs (cg25189764, cg04986899, cg04903360, cg08198265 and cg10473311) may serve as epigenetic markers for changes in LDL later in life.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Arsênico/toxicidade , Arsênico/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , New Hampshire , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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