Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
J Neurodev Disord ; 13(1): 20, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with developmental language disorders (DLD) have well-documented weaknesses in vocabulary. In recent years, investigators have explored the nature of these weaknesses through the use of novel word learning paradigms. These studies have begun to uncover specific areas of difficulty and have provided hints about possible intervention strategies that might help these children learn words more accurately and efficiently. Among the studies of this type are those that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval activities in the learning procedures. METHODS: In this study, we examined the data from four of these studies that employed the same types of participants (4- and 5-year-old children with DLD and same-age children with typical language development), research design, and outcome measures. The studies differed primarily in the type of learning condition that was being compared to a spaced retrieval condition. A mixed-effects modeling framework was used, enabling the data from the four studies and different outcome measures to be aggregated. RESULTS: Across the studies, more words in the repeated spaced retrieval condition were recalled than those in the comparison conditions. This was true regardless of outcome measure. Children with typical language development recalled more words than the children with DLD. Both groups benefited from spaced retrieval, though effects were larger for the group with DLD. Children recalled words as accurately 1 week after learning as they did at the 5-min mark; the two groups were essentially identical in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings support the continued refinement of these types of repeated spaced retrieval procedures, as they may have potential to serve as effective approaches to intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Vocabulário
3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(8): 2763-2776, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692599

RESUMO

Purpose Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) often have difficulty with word learning. Recent studies have shown that incorporating retrieval practice provides a significant benefit to this learning. However, we have not yet discovered the best balance between the amount of retrieval and the amount of study (hearing the word in the presence of the referent) that is provided. In this investigation, we compared a word learning procedure using more retrieval and less study with a procedure that used more study and less retrieval. Method Participants were 13 children with DLD and 13 same-age peers with typical language development (TD). Both groups ranged in age from 4 to 6 years. The children learned two sets of novel words, with each set taught in two sessions. During an initial criterion period, the children had the opportunity to retrieve all of the words. Following this period, the words were either retrieved without further study or studied without additional retrieval. Recall and recognition testing immediately followed the second learning session and was repeated 1 week later. Testing assessed the children's retention of both the word forms and their meanings. Results Better recall both immediately after learning and after 1 week was seen for the more retrieval/less study condition. This was seen for both groups of children for word form recall and for children with DLD for meaning. Group differences were not found. Conclusion This study served as a stringent test of the benefits of retrieval to children's word learning. Continued retrieval after initial retrieval practice appeared to be helpful even when further study was discontinued and when the comparison study condition had also provided retrieval practice in the initial stages. Further refinement of retrieval procedures might lead to the development of useful clinical tools to promote word learning.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem Verbal
4.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(12): 4433-4449, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805241

RESUMO

Purpose There are strong retention benefits when learners frequently test themselves during the learning period. This practice of repeated retrieval has recently been applied successfully to children's word learning. In this study, we apply a repeated retrieval procedure to the learning of novel adjectives by preschool-age children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and their typically developing (TD) peers. We ask whether the benefits of retrieval extend to children's ability to apply the novel adjectives to newly introduced objects sharing the same characteristics as the objects used during the learning period. Method Fourteen children with DLD (M age = 62.64 months) and 13 TD children (M = 62.54 months) learned novel adjectives in 2 sessions. For each child, half of the adjectives were learned in a repeated spaced retrieval condition, and half were learned in a repeated study-only condition. Recall was assessed immediately after the second learning session and 1 week later. A recognition test was also administered at the 1-week mark. Results On the recall tests, for both groups of children, recall was better for adjectives learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition. Adjectives learned by the 2nd day were retained 1 week later. Every adjective correctly applied to an object used during the learning period was also extended accurately to new objects with the same characteristics. On these recall tests, the children with DLD did not differ from the TD group in the number of items recalled, though their phonetic accuracy was lower. On the recognition test, the DLD group showed greater accuracy for adjectives that had been learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition than for those learned in the repeated study condition, whereas the TD group performed at high levels in both conditions. Conclusion Repeated spaced retrieval appears to provide an effective boost to word learning. Because its benefits are seen even when a word must be extended to new objects, the application of this procedure seems well suited for learning new language material rather than being limited to item-specific memorization.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fonética , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
5.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 13(2): 236-241, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29592647

RESUMO

We discuss the findings from our 2006 article in Psychological Science on the testing effect and describe how the project arose. The testing effect (or retrieval-practice effect) was first reported in the experimental literature about a century before our article was published, and the effect had been replicated (and sometimes discovered anew) many times over the years. Our experiments used prose materials (unlike most prior research) and produced a more powerful effect than prior research even though we used a conservative control condition for comparison. In our discussion, we drew out possible implications for educational practice. We also reported that students in the experiment could not predict the effect; this lack of metacognitive awareness represented a new finding in this context. In a companion article the same year, we provided an historical review of the testing effect. We believe the synergistic effect of the two articles accounts in part for the resurgence in interest in this phenomenon and its application in educational settings.

6.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 24(1): 43-56, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604013

RESUMO

Repeated retrieval practice is a powerful learning tool for promoting long-term retention, but students use this tool ineffectively when regulating their learning. The current experiments evaluated the efficacy of a minimal intervention aimed at improving students' self-regulated use of repeated retrieval practice. Across 2 experiments, students made decisions about when to study, engage in retrieval practice, or stop learning a set of foreign language word pairs. Some students received direct instruction about how to use repeated retrieval practice. These instructions emphasized the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice over a less effective strategy (restudying) and told students how to use repeated retrieval practice to maximize their performance-specifically, that they should recall a translation correctly 3 times during learning. This minimal intervention promoted more effective self-regulated use of retrieval practice and better retention of the translations compared to a control group that received no instruction. Students who experienced this intervention also showed potential for long-term changes in self-regulated learning: They spontaneously used repeated retrieval practice 1 week later to learn new materials. These results provide a promising first step for developing guidelines for teaching students how to regulate their learning more effectively using repeated retrieval practice. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Prática Psicológica , Retenção Psicológica , Ensino , Habilidades para Realização de Testes/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Estudantes
7.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 43(7): 1036-1046, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080119

RESUMO

The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three experiments directly tested this central assumption of the context account. Subjects studied word lists and then either restudied the words under intentional learning conditions or made list discrimination judgments by indicating which list each word had occurred in originally. Subjects in both conditions experienced all items for the same amount of time, but subjects in the list discrimination condition were required to retrieve details about the original episodic context in which the words had occurred. Making initial list discrimination judgments consistently enhanced subsequent free recall relative to restudying the words. Analyses of recall organization and retrieval strategies on the final test showed that retrieval practice enhanced temporal organization during final recall. Semantic encoding tasks also enhanced retention relative to restudying but did so by promoting semantic organization and semantically based retrieval strategies during final recall. The results support the episodic context account of retrieval-based learning. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Semântica , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
8.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 42(10): 1573-1591, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26974674

RESUMO

The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during retrieval than during restudy and that the generation of mediators facilitates later recall of targets. Although these assumptions are often discussed in the context of retrieval processes, we noted that there was little prior empirical evidence to support either assumption. We conducted a series of experiments to measure the generation of mediators during retrieval and restudy and to examine the effect of the generation of mediators on later target recall. Across 7 experiments, we found that the generation of mediators was not more likely during retrieval (and may be more likely during restudy), and that the activation of mediators was unrelated to subsequent free recall of targets and was negatively related to cued recall of targets. The results pose challenges for both assumptions of the elaborative retrieval account. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Retenção Psicológica , Semântica , Análise de Variância , Sinais (Psicologia) , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Testes Psicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Tempo de Reação
9.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 22(1): 72-84, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26950160

RESUMO

Retrieval practice improves retention of information on later tests. A question remains: When should retrieval occur during learning-interspersed throughout study or at the end of each study period? In a lab experiment, an online experiment, and a classroom study, we aimed to determine the ideal placement (interspersed vs. at-the-end) of retrieval practice questions. In the lab experiment, 64 subjects viewed slides about APA style and answered short-answer practice questions about the content or restudied the slides (restudy condition). The practice questions either appeared 1 every 1-2 slides (interspersed condition), or all at the end of the presentation (at-the-end condition). One week later, subjects returned and answered the same questions on a final test. In the online experiment, 175 subjects completed the same procedure. In the classroom study, 62 undergraduate students took quizzes as part of class lectures. Short-answer practice questions appeared either throughout the lectures (interspersed condition) or at the end of the lectures (at-the-end condition). Nineteen days after the last quiz, students were given a surprise final test. Results from the 3 experiments converge in demonstrating an advantage for interspersing practice questions on the initial tests, but an absence of this advantage on the final test.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Psychol ; 7: 350, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27014156

RESUMO

A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years) studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2) or recognition test (Experiment 3). In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed.

11.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 41(4): 1049-61, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25528090

RESUMO

Concept mapping has become a popular learning tool. However, the processes underlying the task are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of creating a concept map on the processing of item-specific information. In 2 experiments, subjects learned categorized or ad hoc word lists by making pleasantness ratings, sorting words into categories, or creating a concept map. Memory was tested using a free recall test and a recognition memory test, which is considered to be especially sensitive to item-specific processing. Typically, tasks that promote item-specific processing enhance free recall of categorized lists, relative to category sorting. Concept mapping resulted in lower recall performance than both the pleasantness rating and category sorting condition for categorized words. Moreover, concept mapping resulted in lower recognition memory performance than the other 2 tasks. These results converge on the conclusion that creating a concept map disrupts the processing of item-specific information.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Emoções , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Modelos Logísticos , Testes Psicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 40(6): 1787-94, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24797442

RESUMO

We tested the predictions of 2 explanations for retrieval-based learning; while the elaborative retrieval hypothesis assumes that the retrieval of studied information promotes the generation of semantically related information, which aids in later retrieval (Carpenter, 2009), the episodic context account proposed by Karpicke, Lehman, and Aue (in press) assumes that retrieval alters the representation of episodic context and improves one's ability to guide memory search on future tests. Subjects studied multiple word lists and either recalled each list (retrieval practice), did a math task (control), or generated associates for each word (elaboration) after each list. After studying the last list, all subjects recalled the list and, after a 5-min delay, recalled all lists. Analyses of correct recall, intrusions, response times, and temporal clustering dissociate retrieval practice from elaboration, supporting the episodic context account.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Testes Psicológicos , Tempo de Reação , Semântica
13.
Memory ; 22(7): 784-802, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24059563

RESUMO

Retrieval practice improves meaningful learning, and the most frequent way of implementing retrieval practice in classrooms is to have students answer questions. In four experiments (N=372) we investigated the effects of different question formats on learning. Students read educational texts and practised retrieval by answering short-answer, multiple-choice, or hybrid questions. In hybrid conditions students first attempted to recall answers in short-answer format, then identified answers in multiple-choice format. We measured learning 1 week later using a final assessment with two types of questions: those that could be answered by recalling information verbatim from the texts and those that required inferences. Practising retrieval in all format conditions enhanced retention, relative to a study-only control condition, on both verbatim and inference questions. However, there were little or no advantages of answering short-answer or hybrid format questions over multiple-choice questions in three experiments. In Experiment 4, when retrieval success was improved under initial short-answer conditions, there was an advantage of answering short-answer or hybrid questions over multiple-choice questions. The results challenge the simple conclusion that short-answer questions always produce the best learning, due to increased retrieval effort or difficulty, and demonstrate the importance of retrieval success for retrieval-based learning activities.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Aprendizagem , Rememoração Mental , Prática Psicológica , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
14.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 39(6): 1712-25, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23815513

RESUMO

Many experiments provide evidence that practicing retrieval benefits retention relative to conditions of no retrieval practice. Nearly all prior research has employed retrieval practice requiring overt responses, but a few experiments have shown that covert retrieval also produces retention advantages relative to control conditions. However, direct comparisons between overt and covert retrieval are scarce: Does covert retrieval-thinking of but not producing responses-on a first test produce the same benefit as overt retrieval on a criterial test given later? We report 4 experiments that address this issue by comparing retention on a second test following overt or covert retrieval on a first test. In Experiment 1 we used a procedure designed to ensure that subjects would retrieve on covert as well as overt test trials and found equivalent testing effects in the 2 cases. In Experiment 2 we replicated these effects using a procedure that more closely mirrored natural retrieval processes. In Experiment 3 we showed that overt and covert retrieval produced equivalent testing effects after a 2-day delay. Finally, in Experiment 4 we showed that covert retrieval benefits retention more than restudying. We conclude that covert retrieval practice is as effective as overt retrieval practice, a conclusion that contravenes hypotheses in the literature proposing that overt responding is better. This outcome has an important educational implication: Students can learn as much from covert self-testing as they would from overt responding.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mem Cognit ; 40(4): 505-13, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22238214

RESUMO

Unsuccessful retrieval attempts can enhance subsequent encoding and learning. In three experiments, subjects either attempted to retrieve word pairs prior to studying them (e.g., attempting to recall tide-? before studying tide-beach) or did not attempt retrieval and retention of the studied targets was assessed on a subsequent cued recall test. Experiment 1 showed that attempting retrieval enhanced subsequent encoding and recall relative to not attempting retrieval when the word pairs were semantically related, but not when the pairs were unrelated. In Experiment 2, studying a different word pair prior to the correct pair (e.g., studying tide-wave prior to tide-beach) did not produce the same effect as attempting retrieval prior to studying. Constraining retrieval to a particular candidate word prior to study (e.g., recalling tide-wa__ before studying tide-beach) produced a negative effect on subsequent recall. Experiment 3 showed that attempting retrieval did not enhance encoding when a brief delay occurred between the retrieval attempt and the subsequent study trial. The results support the idea that a search set of candidates related to the retrieval cue is activated during retrieval and that this retrieval-specific activation can enhance subsequent encoding of those candidates.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Psicolinguística/métodos , Testes Psicológicos , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 37(5): 1250-7, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21574747

RESUMO

Repeated retrieval enhances long-term retention, and spaced repetition also enhances retention. A question with practical and theoretical significance is whether there are particular schedules of spaced retrieval (e.g., gradually expanding the interval between tests) that produce the best learning. In the present experiment, subjects studied and were tested on items until they could recall each one. They then practiced recalling the items on 3 repeated tests that were distributed according to one of several spacing schedules. Increasing the absolute (total) spacing of repeated tests produced large effects on long-term retention: Repeated retrieval with long intervals between each test produced a 200% improvement in long-term retention relative to repeated retrieval with no spacing between tests. However, there was no evidence that a particular relative spacing schedule (expanding, equal, or contracting) was inherently superior to another. Although expanding schedules afforded a pattern of increasing retrieval difficulty across repeated tests, this did not translate into gains in long-term retention. Repeated spaced retrieval had powerful effects on retention, but the relative schedule of repeated tests had no discernible impact.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Vocabulário
17.
Mem Cognit ; 39(3): 389-402, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21264598

RESUMO

Dual-process theories of retrieval suggest that controlled and automatic processing contribute to memory performance. Free recall tests are often considered pure measures of recollection, assessing only the controlled process. We report two experiments demonstrating that automatic processes also influence free recall. Experiment 1 used inclusion and exclusion tasks to estimate recollection and automaticity in free recall, adopting a new variant of the process dissociation procedure. Dividing attention during study selectively reduced the recollection estimate but did not affect the automatic component. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1, and subjects additionally reported remember-know-guess judgments during recall in the inclusion condition. In the latter task, dividing attention during study reduced remember judgments for studied items, but know responses were unaffected. Results from both methods indicated that free recall is partly driven by automatic processes. Thus, we conclude that retrieval in free recall tests is not driven solely by conscious recollection (or remembering) but also by automatic influences of the same sort believed to drive priming on implicit memory tests. Sometimes items come to mind without volition in free recall.


Assuntos
Atenção , Conscientização , Julgamento , Rememoração Mental , Retenção Psicológica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Aprendizagem por Associação , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Percepção da Fala
18.
Science ; 331(6018): 772-5, 2011 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21252317

RESUMO

Educators rely heavily on learning activities that encourage elaborative studying, whereas activities that require students to practice retrieving and reconstructing knowledge are used less frequently. Here, we show that practicing retrieval produces greater gains in meaningful learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. The advantage of retrieval practice generalized across texts identical to those commonly found in science education. The advantage of retrieval practice was observed with test questions that assessed comprehension and required students to make inferences. The advantage of retrieval practice occurred even when the criterial test involved creating concept maps. Our findings support the theory that retrieval practice enhances learning by retrieval-specific mechanisms rather than by elaborative study processes. Retrieval practice is an effective tool to promote conceptual learning about science.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Aprendizagem , Memória , Sinais (Psicologia) , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Habilidades para Realização de Testes
19.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 36(2): 552-7, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20192550

RESUMO

We examined free recall and metacognitive judgments of ambiguous sentences studied with and without clues to facilitate their comprehension. Sentences were either studied without clues, with clues meaningfully embedded, or with clues following a 10-s interval delay. After presentation, subjects made judgments of comprehension (JCOMPs) or judgments of learning (JOLs). Puzzling over the meaning of sentences for several seconds prior to receiving the clue enhanced recall compared with studying sentences without clues or with embedded clues. This benefit of effort after meaning was not reflected in JCOMPs or JOLs. Rather, sentences considered relatively easy to understand received higher JOLs regardless of experimental condition. Although effort after meaning enhanced recall, subjects displayed no awareness of this benefit in their judgments. Our study adds to a growing literature showing students' ignorance of factors affecting their own learning, which have important implications for education. Making learning conditions more difficult, thus requiring students to engage more cognitive effort, often leads to enhanced retention.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica , Estatística como Assunto , Estudantes , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades
20.
Mem Cognit ; 38(1): 116-24, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19966244

RESUMO

Expanding retrieval practice refers to the idea that gradually increasing the spacing interval between repeated tests ought to promote optimal long-term retention. Belief in the superiority of this technique is widespread, but empirical support is scarce. In addition, virtually all research on expanding retrieval has examined the learning of word pairs in paired-associate tasks. We report two experiments in which we examined the learning of text materials with expanding and equally spaced retrieval practice schedules. Subjects studied brief texts and recalled them in an initial learning phase. We manipulated the spacing of the repeated recall tests and examined final recall 1 week later. Overall we found that (1) repeated testing enhanced retention more than did taking a single test, (2) testing with feedback (restudying the passages) produced better retention than testing without feedback, but most importantly (3) there were no differences between expanding and equally spaced schedules of retrieval practice. Repeated retrieval enhanced long-term retention, but how the repeated tests were spaced did not matter.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Prática Psicológica , Retenção Psicológica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos , Leitura , Reconhecimento Psicológico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...