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1.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(2)2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722956

RESUMO

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with cranial nerve anomalies and disordered oropharyngeal function, including pediatric dysphagia. Using the LgDel 22q11DS mouse model, we investigated whether sensory neuron differentiation in the trigeminal ganglion (CNgV), which is essential for normal orofacial function, is disrupted. We did not detect changes in cranial placode cell translocation or neural crest migration at early stages of LgDel CNgV development. However, as the ganglion coalesces, proportions of placode-derived LgDel CNgV cells increase relative to neural crest cells. In addition, local aggregation of placode-derived cells increases and aggregation of neural crest-derived cells decreases in LgDel CNgV. This change in cell-cell relationships was accompanied by altered proliferation of placode-derived cells at embryonic day (E)9.5, and premature neurogenesis from neural crest-derived precursors, reflected by an increased frequency of asymmetric neurogenic divisions for neural crest-derived precursors by E10.5. These early differences in LgDel CNgV genesis prefigure changes in sensory neuron differentiation and gene expression by postnatal day 8, when early signs of cranial nerve dysfunction associated with pediatric dysphagia are observed in LgDel mice. Apparently, 22q11 deletion destabilizes CNgV sensory neuron genesis and differentiation by increasing variability in cell-cell interaction, proliferation and sensory neuron differentiation. This early developmental divergence and its consequences may contribute to oropharyngeal dysfunction, including suckling, feeding and swallowing disruptions at birth, and additional orofacial sensory/motor deficits throughout life.

2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(11): 1, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870244

RESUMO

Purpose: The circadian clock plays an important role in the expression and regulation of various genes and cellular processes in the body. Here, we study diurnal regulation of the growth and shedding of the sensory axons in the mouse cornea. Methods: Male and female BALB/cN mice were euthanized 90 minutes before and after the lights are turned on and off; at 5:30 AM, 8:30 AM, 5:30 PM, and 8:30 PM. Nerve terminal growth, shedding and overall axon density were assessed at these four time points using confocal imaging after staining axons in en face whole mount corneas with antibodies against ßIII tubulin, GAP43, and L1CAM. In addition, corneal epithelial cell proliferation, thickness, and desquamation were assessed using ki67, LAMP1, Involucrin, and ZO1. Results: Nerve terminal shedding took place between 5:30 AM and 8:30 AM and correlated positively with the timing of apical cell desquamation. After shedding the tips of the nerve terminals, axonal growth increased as indicated by increased axonal GAP43 expression. At 5:30 PM and 8:30 PM before and after the lights are turned off, cell proliferation was reduced, and epithelial thickness was maximal. Conclusions: Intraepithelial corneal nerve growth and shedding are under diurnal control regulated by the time of day and whether lights are on or off. Axons extend during the day and are shed within 90 minutes after lights are turned on. The data presented in this article shed light on the potential role that circadian clock plays in corneal pain and discomfort.

4.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(16): 1194-1208, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A regulates patterning of the pharyngeal arches, cranial nerves, and hindbrain that are essential for feeding and swallowing. In the LgDel mouse model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), morphogenesis of multiple structures involved in feeding and swallowing are dysmorphic. We asked whether changes in maternal dietary Vitamin A intake can modify cranial nerve, hindbrain and pharyngeal arch artery development in the embryo as well as lung pathology that can be a sign of aspiration dysphagia in LgDel pups. METHODS: Three defined amounts of vitamin A (4, 10, and 16 IU/g) were provided in the maternal diet. Cranial nerve, hindbrain and pharyngeal arch artery development was evaluated in embryos and inflammation in the lungs of pups to determine the impact of altering maternal diet on these phenotypes. RESULTS: Reduced maternal vitamin A intake improved whereas increased intake exacerbated lung inflammation in LgDel pups. These changes were accompanied by increased incidence and/or severity of pharyngeal arch artery and cranial nerve V (CN V) abnormalities in LgDel embryos as well as altered expression of Cyp26b1 in the hindbrain. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that variations in maternal vitamin A intake can influence the incidence and severity of phenotypes in a mouse model 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(6): 1002-1017, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047912

RESUMO

LgDel mice, which model the heterozygous deletion of genes at human chromosome 22q11.2 associated with DiGeorge/22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), have cranial nerve and craniofacial dysfunction as well as disrupted suckling, feeding and swallowing, similar to key 22q11DS phenotypes. Divergent trigeminal nerve (CN V) differentiation and altered trigeminal ganglion (CNgV) cellular composition prefigure these disruptions in LgDel embryos. We therefore asked whether a distinct transcriptional state in a specific population of early differentiating LgDel cranial sensory neurons, those in CNgV, a major source of innervation for appropriate oropharyngeal function, underlies this departure from typical development. LgDel versus wild-type (WT) CNgV transcriptomes differ significantly at E10.5 just after the ganglion has coalesced. Some changes parallel altered proportions of cranial placode versus cranial neural crest-derived CNgV cells. Others are consistent with a shift in anterior-posterior patterning associated with divergent LgDel cranial nerve differentiation. The most robust quantitative distinction, however, is statistically verifiable increased variability of expression levels for most of the over 17 000 genes expressed in common in LgDel versus WT CNgV. Thus, quantitative expression changes of functionally relevant genes and increased stochastic variation across the entire CNgV transcriptome at the onset of CN V differentiation prefigure subsequent disruption of cranial nerve differentiation and oropharyngeal function in LgDel mice.

6.
Neuron ; 102(6): 1127-1142.e3, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079872

RESUMO

Under-connectivity between cerebral cortical association areas may underlie cognitive deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Using the LgDel 22q11DS mouse model, we assessed cellular, molecular, and developmental origins of under-connectivity and its consequences for cognitive function. Diminished 22q11 gene dosage reduces long-distance projections, limits axon and dendrite growth, and disrupts mitochondrial and synaptic integrity in layer 2/3 but not 5/6 projection neurons (PNs). Diminished dosage of Txnrd2, a 22q11 gene essential for reactive oxygen species catabolism in brain mitochondria, recapitulates these deficits in WT layer 2/3 PNs; Txnrd2 re-expression in LgDel layer 2/3 PNs rescues them. Anti-oxidants reverse LgDel- or Txnrd2-related layer 2/3 mitochondrial, circuit, and cognitive deficits. Accordingly, Txnrd2-mediated oxidative stress reduces layer 2/3 connectivity and impairs cognition in the context of 22q11 deletion. Anti-oxidant restoration of mitochondrial integrity, cortical connectivity, and cognitive behavior defines oxidative stress as a therapeutic target in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tiorredoxina Redutase 2/genética , Animais , Axônios/ultraestrutura , Comportamento Animal , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Dendritos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Córtex Entorrinal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Vias Neurais , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/ultraestrutura
7.
Genesis ; 55(6)2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28316121

RESUMO

Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation and to define the role of mouse Foxd4, an ortholog of a forkhead-family transcription factor central to Xenopus neural plate/neuroectodermal precursor development. We found that Foxd4 is a necessary regulator of the transition from pluripotent ESC to neuroectodermal stem cell, and its expression is necessary for neuronal differentiation. Mouse Foxd4 expression is not only limited to the neural plate but it is also expressed and apparently functions to regulate neurogenesis in the olfactory placode. These in vitro results suggest that mouse Foxd4 has a similar function to its Xenopus ortholog; this was confirmed by successfully substituting murine Foxd4 for its amphibian counterpart in overexpression experiments. Thus, Foxd4 appears to regulate the initial steps in establishing neuroectodermal precursors during initial development of the nervous system.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Placa Neural/citologia , Placa Neural/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Xenopus
8.
Genetics ; 203(2): 905-22, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075724

RESUMO

Genes encoding nuclear receptors (NRs) are attractive as candidates for investigating the evolution of gene regulation because they (1) have a direct effect on gene expression and (2) modulate many cellular processes that underlie development. We employed a three-phase investigation linking NR molecular evolution among primates with direct experimental assessment of NR function. Phase 1 was an analysis of NR domain evolution and the results were used to guide the design of phase 2, a codon-model-based survey for alterations of natural selection within the hominids. By using a series of reliability and robustness analyses we selected a single gene, NR2C1, as the best candidate for experimental assessment. We carried out assays to determine whether changes between the ancestral and extant NR2C1s could have impacted stem cell pluripotency (phase 3). We evaluated human, chimpanzee, and ancestral NR2C1 for transcriptional modulation of Oct4 and Nanog (key regulators of pluripotency and cell lineage commitment), promoter activity for Pepck (a proxy for differentiation in numerous cell types), and average size of embryological stem cell colonies (a proxy for the self-renewal capacity of pluripotent cells). Results supported the signal for alteration of natural selection identified in phase 2. We suggest that adaptive evolution of gene regulation has impacted several aspects of pluripotentiality within primates. Our study illustrates that the combination of targeted evolutionary surveys and experimental analysis is an effective strategy for investigating the evolution of gene regulation with respect to developmental phenotypes.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Evolução Molecular , Hominidae/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo C da Subfamília 2 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sequência Conservada , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Membro 1 do Grupo C da Subfamília 2 de Receptores Nucleares/química , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos
9.
Dev Biol ; 415(2): 228-241, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988119

RESUMO

We compared apparent origins, cellular diversity and regulation of initial axon growth for differentiating cranial sensory neurons. We assessed the molecular and cellular composition of the developing olfactory and otic placodes, and cranial sensory ganglia to evaluate contributions of ectodermal placode versus neural crest at each site. Special sensory neuron populations-the olfactory and otic placodes, as well as those in vestibulo-acoustic ganglion- are entirely populated with cells expressing cranial placode-associated, rather than neural crest-associated markers. The remaining cranial sensory ganglia are a mosaic of cells that express placode-associated as well as neural crest-associated markers. We found two distinct populations of neural crest in the cranial ganglia: the first, as expected, is labeled by Wnt1:Cre mediated recombination. The second is not labeled by Wnt1:Cre recombination, and expresses both Sox10 and FoxD3. These populations-Wnt1:Cre recombined, and Sox10/Foxd3-expressing- are proliferatively distinct from one another. Together, the two neural crest-associated populations are substantially more proliferative than their placode-associated counterparts. Nevertheless, the apparently placode- and neural crest-associated populations are similarly sensitive to altered signaling that compromises cranial morphogenesis and differentiation. Acute disruption of either Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Retinoic acid (RA) signaling alters axon growth and cell death, but does not preferentially target any of the three distinct populations. Apparently, mosaic derivation and diversity of precursors and early differentiating neurons, modulated uniformly by local signals, supports early cranial sensory neuron differentiation and growth.


Assuntos
Nervos Cranianos/citologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Axônios/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Nervos Cranianos/embriologia , Ectoderma/citologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Gânglios Sensitivos/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Proteínas Luminescentes/análise , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Crista Neural/citologia , Neurogênese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tretinoína/fisiologia , Proteína Wnt1/fisiologia
10.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 20(1): 71-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26712358

RESUMO

Comparative genomic analysis of the nuclear receptor family suggests that the testicular receptor 2, Nr2c1, undergoes positive selection in the human-chimpanzee clade based upon a significant increase in nonsynonymous compared to synonymous substitutions. Previous in situ analyses of Nr2c1 lacked the temporal range and spatial resolution necessary to characterize cellular expression of this gene from early to mid gestation, when many nuclear receptors are key regulators of tissue specific stem or progenitor cells. Thus, we asked whether Nr2c1 protein is associated with stem cell populations in the mid-gestation mouse embryo. Nr2c1 is robustly expressed in the developing olfactory epithelium. Its expression in the olfactory epithelium shifts from multiple progenitor classes at early stages to primarily transit amplifying cells later in olfactory epithelium development. In the early developing central nervous system, Nr2c1 is limited to the anterior telencephalon/olfactory bulb anlagen, coincident with Nestin-positive neuroepithelial stem cells. Nr2c1 is also seen in additional cranial sensory specializations including cells surrounding the mystacial vibrissae, the retinal pigment epithelium and Scarpa's ganglion. Nr2c1 was also detected in a subset of mesenchymal cells in developing teeth and cranial bones. The timing and distribution of embryonic expression suggests that Nr2c1 is primarily associated with the early genesis of mammalian cranial sensory neurons and craniofacial skeletal structures. Thus, Nr2c1 may be a candidate for mediating parallel adaptive changes in cranial neural sensory specializations such as the olfactory epithelium, retina and mystacial vibrissae and in non-neural craniofacial features including teeth.


Assuntos
Membro 1 do Grupo C da Subfamília 2 de Receptores Nucleares/biossíntese , Mucosa Olfatória/embriologia , Crânio/embriologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ossos Faciais/embriologia , Ossos Faciais/metabolismo , Gânglios Sensitivos/embriologia , Gânglios Sensitivos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Mucosa Olfatória/citologia , Mucosa Olfatória/metabolismo , Crânio/citologia , Crânio/metabolismo , Telencéfalo/metabolismo , Dente/embriologia , Dente/metabolismo
11.
Dev Biol ; 409(2): 329-42, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26554723

RESUMO

Pediatric dysphagia-feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity--is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties that approximate those seen in pediatric dysphagia. Altered hindbrain patterning, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may result from disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on peripheral and central neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/patologia , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Animais , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia
12.
Prog Neurobiol ; 130: 1-28, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25866365

RESUMO

Understanding the developmental etiology of autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia remains a major challenge for establishing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these common, difficult-to-treat diseases that compromise neural circuits in the cerebral cortex. One aspect of this challenge is the breadth and overlap of ASD, ADHD, and SCZ deficits; another is the complexity of mutations associated with each, and a third is the difficulty of analyzing disrupted development in at-risk or affected human fetuses. The identification of distinct genetic syndromes that include behavioral deficits similar to those in ASD, ADHC and SCZ provides a critical starting point for meeting this challenge. We summarize clinical and behavioral impairments in children and adults with one such genetic syndrome, the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, routinely called 22q11DS, caused by micro-deletions of between 1.5 and 3.0 MB on human chromosome 22. Among many syndromic features, including cardiovascular and craniofacial anomalies, 22q11DS patients have a high incidence of brain structural, functional, and behavioral deficits that reflect cerebral cortical dysfunction and fall within the spectrum that defines ASD, ADHD, and SCZ. We show that developmental pathogenesis underlying this apparent genetic "model" syndrome in patients can be defined and analyzed mechanistically using genomically accurate mouse models of the deletion that causes 22q11DS. We conclude that "modeling a model", in this case 22q11DS as a model for idiopathic ASD, ADHD and SCZ, as well as other behavioral disorders like anxiety frequently seen in 22q11DS patients, in genetically engineered mice provides a foundation for understanding the causes and improving diagnosis and therapy for these disorders of cortical circuit development.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Camundongos , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética
13.
Cereb Cortex ; 25(10): 3977-93, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25452572

RESUMO

Ranbp1, a Ran GTPase-binding protein implicated in nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking, is included within the DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) critical region associated with behavioral impairments including autism and schizophrenia. Ranbp1 is highly expressed in the developing forebrain ventricular/subventricular zone but has no known obligate function during brain development. We assessed the role of Ranbp1 in a targeted mouse mutant. Ranbp1(-/-) mice are not recovered live at birth, and over 60% of Ranbp1(-/-) embryos are exencephalic. Non-exencephalic Ranbp1(-/-) embryos are microcephalic, and proliferation of cortical progenitors is altered. At E10.5, radial progenitors divide more slowly in the Ranpb1(-/-) dorsal pallium. At E14.5, basal, but not apical/radial glial progenitors, are compromised in the cortex. In both E10.5 apical and E14.5 basal progenitors, M phase of the cell cycle appears selectively retarded by loss of Ranpb1 function. Ranbp1(-/-)-dependent proliferative deficits substantially diminish the frequency of layer 2/3, but not layer 5/6 cortical projection neurons. Ranbp1(-/-) cortical phenotypes parallel less severe alterations in LgDel mice that carry a deletion parallel to many (but not all) 22q11.2 DS patients. Thus, Ranbp1 emerges as a microcephaly gene within the 22q11.2 deleted region that may contribute to altered cortical precursor proliferation and neurogenesis associated with broader 22q11.2 deletion.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/embriologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neurogênese/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Polaridade Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos Laterais/embriologia , Ventrículos Laterais/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Neuroepiteliais/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
14.
Dis Model Mech ; 7(2): 245-57, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24357327

RESUMO

We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia--debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward--within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Nervos Cranianos/embriologia , Nervos Cranianos/patologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/embriologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/genética , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião de Mamíferos/anormalidades , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Rombencéfalo/anormalidades , Rombencéfalo/embriologia , Rombencéfalo/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo
15.
Dev Biol ; 249(2): 255-69, 2002 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12221005

RESUMO

Previous studies in the chick embryo have shown that sensory neurons fail to innervate muscle in the absence of motor neurons. Instead, motor neuron deletion causes more sensory axons to project to the skin. We used this experimental paradigm to determine when sensory neurons are specified to become proprioceptive afferents. Experimental embryos were treated with either saline or exogenous neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) to promote the survival of proprioceptive afferents. In saline-treated embryos, motor neuron deletion caused an increase in sensory neuron apoptosis on the deleted side, an effect reversed by NT3. Motor neuron deletion also eliminated the sartorious muscle nerve, as previously reported. In NT3-treated embryos, this altered nerve pattern was accompanied by the enlargement of the adjacent cutaneous nerve. These embryos were further analyzed by using immunohistochemistry for trkC (a receptor for NT3) retrograde and transganglionic labeling. Our results show that, following motor neuron deletion, more trkC+ afferents project in cutaneous nerves on the deleted side of NT3-treated embryos. Transganglionic labeling demonstrated that at least some of these neurons made spinal projections that are typical of proprioceptive afferents. These results therefore indicate that the proprioceptive phenotype is specified prior to target innervation and that these neurons can retain their identity despite projecting to inappropriate (cutaneous) targets.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Neurônios Aferentes/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Vias Aferentes/embriologia , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Padronização Corporal , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Gânglios Espinais/embriologia , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Neurônios Motores/citologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/embriologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Neurotrofina 3/farmacologia , Propriocepção/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/embriologia , Pele/inervação
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