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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517431

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in subjects initiating statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A nationwide cohort study using French hospital discharge and claims databases was performed, studying subjects from the general population aged 40 to 75 years in 2009, with no history of CVD and no lipid-lowering drugs during the preceding 3-year period, followed for up to 7 years. Exposure to statins (type, dose, and time since first use) and to other drugs for CVD risk was assessed. The primary outcome was hospital admission for AKI. RESULTS: The cohort included 8 236 279 subjects, 818 432 of whom initiated a statin for primary prevention. During 598 487 785 person-months exposed to statins, 700 events were observed, corresponding to an incidence of AKI of 4.59 per 10 000 person-years (7.01 in men, 3.01 in women). AKI mainly occurred in the context of organ failure, sepsis, and genitourinary disease. A 19% increased rate of AKI (hazard ratio = 1.19, 95%CI: 1.08-1.31) was observed in men exposed to statins, whereas no increase in the overall risk of AKI was observed in women. However, exposure to high-potency statins was associated with a 72% to 116% increased risk in both genders and a dose-effect relationship observed for rosuvastatin and atorvastatin. No temporal pattern of occurrence nor interaction with drugs for CVD risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall risk of AKI appears moderately increased, more attention should be paid to renal function in subjects taking statins for primary prevention both in clinical practice and from a research viewpoint.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(10): 1398-1404, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) can be complicated by AA amyloidosis (AAA), though it remains unclear why only some patients develop amyloidosis. We examined the gut microbiota composition and inflammatory markers in patients with FMF complicated or not by AAA. METHODS: We analysed the gut microbiota of 34 patients with FMF without AAA, 7 patients with FMF with AAA, 19 patients with AAA of another origin, and 26 controls using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing with the Illumina MiSeq platform. Associations between bacterial taxa and clinical phenotypes were evaluated using multivariate association with linear models statistical method. Blood levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and adipokines were assessed by ELISA; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, specific changes in faecal microbiota were observed in FMF and AAA groups. Several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were associated with FMF. Moreover, two OTUs were over-represented in FMF-related AAA compared with FMF without AAA. Additionally, higher adiponectin levels and IDO activity were observed in FMF-related AAA compared with FMF without AAA (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The presence of specific changes in faecal microbiota in FMF and in FMF-related AAA suggests that intestinal microorganisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. These findings may offer an opportunity to use techniques for gut microbiota manipulation.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348518

RESUMO

The prognosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients who need dialysis is poor, but experience with kidney transplantation is limited. This study assessed the characteristics of 36 SCD patients undergoing renal transplantation. Immediate post-surgical complications occurred in 25% of cases. Cytomegalovirus and bacterial infections were frequently observed. Twelve patients died after a median follow-up period of 17·4 months. Overall patient survival was significantly lower in SCD than in the control group without significant difference for overall death-censored graft survival. Our data suggest that renal transplantation should be systematically considered in SCD patients with end-stage renal disease.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3303, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341160

RESUMO

The mechanisms driving the development of extracapillary lesions in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) remain poorly understood. A key question is how parietal epithelial cells (PECs) invade glomerular capillaries, thereby promoting injury and kidney failure. Here we show that expression of the tetraspanin CD9 increases markedly in PECs in mouse models of CGN and FSGS, and in kidneys from individuals diagnosed with these diseases. Cd9 gene targeting in PECs prevents glomerular damage in CGN and FSGS mouse models. Mechanistically, CD9 deficiency prevents the oriented migration of PECs into the glomerular tuft and their acquisition of CD44 and ß1 integrin expression. These findings highlight a critical role for de novo expression of CD9 as a common pathogenic switch driving the PEC phenotype in CGN and FSGS, while offering a potential therapeutic avenue to treat these conditions.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297110

RESUMO

Proteinuria has been identified as prognosticator of renal outcome in patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis, but whether proteinuria is related to podocyte abnormalities in these patients is largely unknown. We here investigate podocyte foot process width and number of podocytes positive for the podocyte marker WT-1 in diagnostic renal biopsies of 25 Caucasian patients with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis in relation to proteinuria. Control tissue was used from pre-transplantation donor kidney biopsies. Proteinuria at 10 weeks follow-up correlated significantly with foot process width (P = 0.04). Biopsies with foot process width ≥600 nm belonged more often to the crescentic or mixed class, whereas biopsies with a foot process width <600 nm were most often categorized as focal class (P = 0.03). The mean number of podocytes based upon expression of WT-1 was significantly lower in patients compared to controls (15 vs. 34 podocytes per glomerulus; P < 0.0001). The significant decrease in expression of the podocyte WT-1 marker in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis is considered indicative of actual podocyte loss or at least, of a loss of functionality. Furthermore, our study indicates that podocyte foot process width at baseline could be indicative for proteinuria at short term follow up. For prognostic purposes, we therefore suggest to include a description of the foot process width in the diagnostic report of a biopsy with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

7.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 397-408, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142442

RESUMO

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an autoimmune vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) against proteinase 3 leading to kidney damage. Neutrophils from those patients have increased expression of membrane proteinase 3 during apoptosis. Here we examined whether neutrophils from patients with GPA have dysregulated protein expressions associated with apoptosis. A global proteomic analysis was performed comparing neutrophils from patients with GPA, with healthy individuals under basal conditions and during apoptosis. At disease onset, the cytosolic proteome of neutrophils of patients with GPA before treatment was significantly different from healthy controls, and this dysregulation was more pronounced following ex vivo apoptosis. Proteins involved in cell death/survival were altered in neutrophils of patients with GPA. Several proteins identified were PR3-binding partners involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells, namely calreticulin, annexin-A1 and phospholipid scramblase 1. These proteins form a platform at the membrane of apoptotic neutrophils in patients with GPA but not healthy individuals and this was associated with the clinical presentation of GPA. Thus, our study shows that neutrophils from patients with GPA have an intrinsic dysregulation in proteins involved in apoptotic cell clearance, which could contribute to the unabated inflammation and autoimmunity in GPA. Hence, harnessing these dysregulated pathways could lead to novel biomarkers and targeted therapeutic opportunities to treat kidney disease.

8.
Nephrol Ther ; 15 Suppl 1: S1-S5, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981386

RESUMO

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal .

9.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1443-1452, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982675

RESUMO

Secondary hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a heterogeneous group of thrombotic microangiopathies associated with various underlying conditions. Whether it belongs to the spectrum of complement-mediated HUS remains controversial. We analysed the presentation, outcome, and frequency of complement gene rare variants in a cohort of 110 patients with secondary HUS attributed to drugs (29%), autoimmune diseases (24%), infections (17%), malignancies (10%), glomerulopathies (9%), extra-renal organ transplantation (8%), and pancreatitis (3%). The frequency of complement gene rare variants was similar in patients with secondary HUS (5%) and in healthy individuals (6% and 8% in French and European controls, respectively). At diagnosis, 40% of patients required dialysis and 18% had neurological manifestations. Fifty percent of patients received plasmatherapy and 35% were treated with eculizumab. Haematological and complete renal remission was achieved in 80% and 24% of patients, respectively. Thirty-nine percent of patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (stages 3-4) and an additional 37% reached end-stage renal disease. Eleven percent of patients died, most often from complications of the underlying cause of HUS. Only one patient experienced an HUS relapse. Patients treated with eculizumab presented with more severe HUS and were more likely to require dialysis at the time of diagnosis as compared to patients not treated with eculizumab. Rates of hematological remission, chronic kidney disease (stages 3-4), and end-stage renal disease were similar in the two groups. Secondary HUS is an acute nonrelapsing form of HUS, not related to complement dysregulation. The efficacy of eculizumab in this setting is not yet established.

10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20015, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769345

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study assesses clinical interventions by pharmacists prospectively collected from medical and surgical wards, notably the acceptance of interventions, computerised physician order entry (CPOE)related problems, the potential impact of interventions on patient safety evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee, and their evolution over the 10 years since a first assessment. METHODS: A prospective observational study covering 13 months was conducted in a French teaching hospital with a patient information system that integrates an electronic health record (EHR) with a CPOE. Interventions by pharmacists were prospectively recorded using CPOE. All interventions were reviewed by two pharmacists. We assessed the interventions, the possible implications of the CPOE in prescribing errors, and the acceptance of interventions by physicians. A committee reviewed the potential clinical impact for patients. The results were compared with the same outcomes collected 10 years ago in the same hospital. RESULTS: A total of 2141 interventions by pharmacists were reviewed. Among them, 1589 (74.1%) were accepted by physicians. Regarding the potential clinical impact, a total of 1136 (53%) interventions concerned prescriptions that were potentially significant or serious for patients and 42 (2%) of them were potentially life-threatening. Ten years earlier, the acceptance rate was 23%. Moreover, 14.7% of errors were attributed to the use of the software, whereas 10 years earlier the rate of errors was 49%. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptance rate and frequency of CPOE-related errors were better than 10 years before, which is encouraging and shows the importance of regular training and collaboration with healthcare givers to reduce errors. The routine analysis of interventions by pharmacists with medical staff feedback should continue to improve their relevance and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Sistemas de Registro de Ordens Médicas , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , França , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Médicos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Kidney Int ; 94(6): 1217-1226, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385039

RESUMO

First-line therapy of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in adults is extrapolated largely from pediatric studies and consists of high-dose oral corticosteroids. We assessed whether a low corticosteroid dose combined with mycophenolate sodium was superior to a standard oral corticosteroid regimen. We enrolled 116 adults with MCNS in an open-label randomized controlled trial involving 32 French centers. Participants randomly assigned to the test group (n=58) received low-dose prednisone (0.5 mg/kg/day, maximum 40 mg/day) plus enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium 720 mg twice daily for 24 weeks; those who did not achieve complete remission after week 8 were eligible for a second-line regimen (increase in the prednisone dose to 1 mg/kg/day with or without Cyclosporine). Participants randomly assigned to the control group (n=58) received conventional high-dose prednisone (1 mg/kg/day, maximum 80 mg/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint of complete remission after four weeks of treatment was ascertained in 109 participants, with no significant difference between the test and control groups. Secondary outcomes, including remission after 8 and 24 weeks of treatment, did not differ between the two groups. During 52 weeks of follow-up, MCNS relapsed in 15 participants (23.1%) who had achieved the primary outcome. Median time to relapse was similar in the test and control groups (7.1 and 5.1 months, respectively), as was the incidence of serious adverse events. Five participants died from hemorrhage (n=2) or septic shock (n=3), including 2 participants in the test group and 3 in the control group. Thus, in adult patients, treatment with low-dose prednisone plus enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium was not superior to a standard high-dose prednisone regimen to induce complete remission of MCNS.

12.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 39(4): 459-464, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404112

RESUMO

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is one of the main clinical presentations of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides. Although the disease is defined by clinical and pathological criteria, the anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) specificity of ANCAs is observed in almost 80% of MPA patients. The direct pathogenic role of anti-MPO antibodies has been proven in animal models, in which the disease was transmitted by transfer of anti-MPO antibodies or anti-MPO-specific splenocytes. The most frequently affected organs in this disease are the kidneys and the lungs. Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis can be revealed by rapidly progressive renal failure, but kidney injury can be more slowly progressive and lead to end-stage renal disease without major extrarenal manifestations. The most frequent pulmonary manifestation is diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, but some patients may present with chronic interstitial fibrosis leading to respiratory failure. General signs such as fever and weight loss, muscular and articular symptoms, peripheral neuropathy, and cutaneous involvement may also reveal the disease. Although the relapse rate is quite low after induction of remission, 5-year mortality is 25%, with even higher mortality rates in older patients (> 65 years old), or those with significant kidney dysfunction. Iatrogenic causes (particularly infections) are an important cause of deaths in these vulnerable patients. Future studies are warranted to determine the optimal maintenance immunosuppressive regimen to minimize side effects of immunosuppression.

13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2260, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333829

RESUMO

C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) results from acquired or genetic abnormalities in the complement alternative pathway (AP). C3G with monoclonal immunoglobulin (MIg-C3G) was recently included in the spectrum of "monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance." However, mechanisms of complement dysregulation in MIg-C3G are not described and the pathogenic effect of the monoclonal immunoglobulin is not understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of complement dysregulation in a cohort of 41 patients with MIg-C3G. Low C3 level and elevated sC5b-9, both biomarkers of C3 and C5 convertase activation, were present in 44 and 78% of patients, respectively. Rare pathogenic variants were identified in 2/28 (7%) tested patients suggesting that the disease is acquired in a large majority of patients. Anti-complement auto-antibodies were found in 20/41 (49%) patients, including anti-FH (17%), anti-CR1 (27%), anti-FI (5%) auto-antibodies, and C3 Nephritic Factor (7%) and were polyclonal in 77% of patients. Using cofactor assay, the regulation of the AP was altered in presence of purified IgG from 3/9 and 4/7 patients with anti-FH or anti-CR1 antibodies respectively. By using fluid and solid phase AP activation, we showed that total purified IgG of 22/34 (65%) MIg-C3G patients were able to enhance C3 convertase activity. In five documented cases, we showed that the C3 convertase enhancement was mostly due to the monoclonal immunoglobulin, thus paving the way for a new mechanism of complement dysregulation in C3G. All together the results highlight the contribution of both polyclonal and monoclonal Ig in MIg-C3G. They provide direct insights to treatment approaches and opened up a potential way to a personalized therapeutic strategy based on chemotherapy adapted to the B cell clone or immunosuppressive therapy.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992269

RESUMO

Background: Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants are strongly associated with sporadic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in populations with African ancestry. We determined the frequency of G1/G2 variants in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS)/FSGS patients with African or French West Indies ancestry in France and its relationships with other SRNS genes. Methods: In a cohort of 152 patients (139 families), the APOL1 risk variants were genotyped by direct Sanger sequencing and pathogenic mutations were screened by next-generation sequencing with a panel including 35 SRNS genes. Results: The two risk allele [high-risk (HR)] genotypes were found in 43.1% (66/152) of subjects compared with 18.9% (106/562) in a control population (P < 0.0001): 33 patients homozygous for APOL1 G1 alleles, 4 homozygous for G2 and 29 compound heterozygous for G1 and G2. Compared with patients in the low-risk (LR) group, patients in the HR group were more likely to originate from the French West Indies than from Africa [45/66 (68.2%) versus 30/86 (34.9%); P < 0.0001]. There were more familial cases in the HR group [27 (41.5%) versus 8 (11.4%); P < 0.0001]. However, causative mutations in monogenic SRNS genes were found in only 1 patient in the HR group compared with 16 patients (14 families) in the LR group (P = 0.0006). At diagnosis, patients in the HR group without other mutations were more often adults [35 (53.8%) versus 19 (27.1%); P = 0.003] and had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (78.9 versus 98.8 mL/min/1.73 m2; P = 0.02). Conclusions: The HR genotype is frequent in FSGS patients with African ancestry in our cohort, especially in those originating from the West Indies, and confer a poor renal prognosis. It is usually not associated with other causative mutations in monogenic SRNS genes.

15.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 76(3): 259-269, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862969

RESUMO

The analysis of urinary protein composition is an important step in the evaluation and monitoring of kidney diseases. Among the various approaches, the determination of urinary-specific proteins makes it possible to non-invasively detect a preferentially tubular or glomerular injury, to orientate towards a pathological process, to guide the indication of a kidney biopsy, and to follow the evolution of the disease and the effectiveness of a therapy. No study systematically evaluated the performance of urinary-specific proteins for the diagnosis of a renal disease. We conducted this retrospective study to perform an exhaustive analysis of the correlations that may exist between histologically proven kidney disease and the corresponding specific urinary protein composition it in order to evaluate the diagnostic value of each of its components. Urinary concentrations of total protein, albumin, transferrin, alpha1microglobulin, beta2microglobulin, retinol binding protein, and immunoglobulin G were analyzed in more than 500 patients who underwent renal biopsy and concomitant urine specific protein analysis. Our analysis shows that these markers have a limited positive predictive value in this cohort of complex and unselected kidney diseases. In particular, low molecular weight proteins, and especially alpha1microglobulin, are frequently associated with glomerular diseases. We identified transferrin as an independent predictor of minimal changes disese and renal amyloidosis, and beta2microglobulin as an independent predictor of acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy and myelomatous tubulopathy. Finally, we defined the thresholds at which these parameters had excellent negative predictive values.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Urinálise , Biomarcadores/análise , Biópsia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/urina , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/urina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Proteinúria/urina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transferrina/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Urinálise/normas , Microglobulina beta-2/urina
16.
Intern Emerg Med ; 13(8): 1201-1209, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951810

RESUMO

Extreme hypomagnesemia (hypoMg) can be encountered in many situations, but little data currently exist. Our aim is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, etiological characteristics, and the biological abnormalities of consecutive inpatients with extreme hypomagnesemia. In our observational monocentric study, between 1st July 2000 and April 2015, all inpatients with extreme hypomagnesemia, defined by at least one plasma magnesium concentration (PMg) below 0.3 mmol/L, were included. Demographic, clinical, biological characteristics and the drugs prescribed before the qualifying PMg measurement were retrospectively collected. 41,069 patients had at least one PMg assessment. The prevalence of extreme hypomagnesemia is 0.3% (119 inpatients). The median age is 70 years, 52% are women. The patients were mainly hospitalized in intensive care (n = 37, 31.1%), oncology (n = 21, 17.6%), gastroenterology (n = 18, 15.1%) and internal medicine (n = 16, 13.4%) departments. One hundred patients (84%) had a medical history of gastrointestinal disease (39% with bowel resections, 24% with stoma), and 50 (42%) had a cancer history. The drugs most commonly prescribed (known to induce hypoMg) are proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (n = 77, 70%), immunosuppressive regimens (n = 25, 22.5%), platinum salt-based chemotherapies (n = 19, 17.1%), and diuretics (n = 22, 19.8%). The suspected causes of hypomagnesemia are often multiple, but drugs (46%, including PPI in 19%) and chronic gastrointestinal disorders (37%) are prominent. Associated electrolyte disturbances include hypocalcemia (77%) and mild hypokalemia (51%). The 1-month mortality from all causes is 16%. Extreme hypomagnesemia is rare in inpatients, and is frequently associated with severe hypocalcemia. Digestive disorders and drugs are the main contributory causes.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0195928, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) is a predictor of mortality in several populations. However, little is known in kidney transplant recipients. Our objectives were to evaluate the ability of CF-PWV measured 3 months following transplantation to predict mortality, graft loss and its potential links to measured Glomerular Filtration Rate (mGFR) or kidney graft microvasculature parameters. METHODS: The study is based on a monocentric retrospective cohort including 220 adult kidney graft recipients evaluated three months after transplantation. CF-PWV measures, clinical, laboratory and histological data performed at 3 (M3) and 12 months (M12) following transplantation were retrospectively collected. The two primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and occurrence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) defined by initiation of dialysis. RESULTS: After a median follow up of 5.5 years [1.9; 8.8], death and graft loss occurred in 10 and 12 patients respectively. M3 CF-PWV was an independent mortality risk factor (HR = 1.29 [1.03; 1.61]; p = 0.03), despite no aortic stiffness variation during the first year of transplantation. Of notice, M3 CF-PWV was not associated with M12 mGFR or ESRD outcome. Graft microcirculation assessed by Banff vascular fibrous intimal thickening score (cv) worsened between M3 and M12 (p = 0.01), but no link was found with CF-PWV, mGFR or ESRD outcome. Surprisingly, acute rejections at M3 were associated after adjustment with mortality (p = 0.03) but not ESRD. CONCLUSION: Aortic stiffness measured 3 months after kidney transplantation is a strong predictor of mortality with no obvious influence on kidney graft microvasculature or graft loss.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim , Microvasos/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Rigidez Vascular , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Clin Kidney J ; 11(2): 191-197, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644058

RESUMO

The kidneys, after the bone marrow and liver, are third in terms of the amounts of haem synthesized daily. Haem is incorporated into haemoproteins that are critical to renal physiology. In turn, disturbances in haem metabolism interfere with renal physiology and are tightly interrelated with kidney diseases. Acute intermittent porphyria causes kidney injury, whereas medical situations associated with end-stage renal disease, such as porphyrin accumulation, iron overload and hepatitis C, participate in the inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and predispose the individual to porphyria cutanea tarda. Even if some of these interactions have been known for a long time, the clinical situations associated with these interrelations have strikingly evolved over time with the advent of new therapeutic strategies for dialysis therapy and a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of porphyria-associated kidney disease. Physicians should be aware of these interactions. The aim of this review is to summarize the complex interactions between kidney physiology and pathology in the settings of porphyria and to emphasize their often-underestimated importance.

19.
Nephrol Ther ; 14 Suppl 1: S125-S131, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606257

RESUMO

Ifosfamide is a cytotoxic drug usually used in malignant sarcomas. The nephrotoxicity of this agent has been described essentially among children, revealed by renal failure and proximal tubulopathy. We recently conducted a retrospective multicentre study, describing 34 adult patients admitted for ifosfamide nephrotoxicity. More than 80% of them presented with renal failure, diagnosed up to 48 months after ifosfamide administration. A Fanconi syndrome with hypophosphoremia, hypokaliemia, glucosuria and low-molecular weight proteinuria, was present in two third of all cases. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31mL/min 1 month and 38mL/min 3 months after ifosfamide infusion, versus 67mL/min at baseline. Renal biopsy, performed in 14 of these patients, showed acute tubular necrosis with vacuolization of proximal tubular epithelial cells with marked nuclear modifications, whereas electron microscopy revealed major changes of mitochondrial structure inside those cells, suggesting a tenofovir-like mechanism of nephrotoxicity. After a median follow-up of 31 months, ten patients out of 34 reached stage 5 chronic kidney disease, requiring dialysis in five cases. Poor renal prognosis was associated with concomitant cisplatin use (P=0.02) and with older age at presentation (P=0.04). In conclusion, ifosfamide nephrotoxicity is often severe and irreversible, leading to proximal tubulopathy and sometimes-severe chronic kidney failure, that can be immediate or delayed, sometimes diagnosed months after chemotherapy completion.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Ifosfamida/efeitos adversos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(8): 1143-1149, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare individually tailored, based on trimestrial biological parameter monitoring, to fixed-schedule rituximab reinfusion for remission maintenance of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs). METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed or relapsing granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in complete remission after induction therapy were included in an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. All tailored-arm patients received a 500 mg rituximab infusion at randomisation, with rituximab reinfusion only when CD19+B lymphocytes or ANCA had reappeared or ANCA titre rose markedly based on trimestrial testing until month 18. Controls received a fixed 500 mg rituximab infusion on days 0 and 14 postrandomisation, then 6, 12 and 18 months after the first infusion. The primary endpoint was the number of relapses (new or reappearing symptom(s) or worsening disease with Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS)>0) at month 28 evaluated by an independent Adjudication Committee blinded to treatment group. RESULTS: Among the 162 patients (mean age: 60 years; 42% women) included, 117 (72.2%) had GPA and 45 (27.8%) had MPA. Preinclusion induction therapy included cyclophosphamide for 100 (61.7%), rituximab for 61 (37.6%) and methotrexate for 1 (0.6%). At month 28, 21 patients had suffered 22 relapses: 14/81 (17.3%) in 13 tailored-infusion recipients and 8/81 (9.9%) in 8 fixed-schedule patients (p=0.22). The tailored-infusion versus fixed-schedule group, respectively, received 248 vs 381 infusions, with medians (IQR) of 3 (2-4) vs 5 (5-5) administrations. CONCLUSION: AAV relapse rates did not differ significantly between individually tailored and fixed-schedule rituximab regimens. Individually tailored-arm patients received fewer rituximab infusions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01731561; Results.

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