Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054442

RESUMO

There is limited evidence regarding the exposure-effect relationship between lung-cancer risk and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) or nickel. We estimated lung-cancer risks in relation to quantitative indices of occupational exposure to Cr(VI) and nickel and their interaction with smoking habits. We pooled 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada, including 16,901 lung-cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. A measurement-based job-exposure-matrix estimated job-year-region specific exposure levels to Cr(VI) and nickel, which were linked to the subjects' occupational histories. Odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for study, age group, smoking habits, and exposure to other occupational lung carcinogens. Due to their high correlation, we refrained from mutually adjusting for Cr(VI) and nickel independently. In men, ORs for the highest quartile of cumulative exposure to CR(VI) were 1.32 (95% CI 1.19-1.47) and 1.29 (95% CI 1.15-1.45) in relation to nickel. Analogous results among women were: 1.04 (95% CI 0.48-2.24) and 1.29 (95% CI 0.60-2.86), respectively. In men, excess lung-cancer risks due to occupational Cr(VI) and nickel exposure were also observed in each stratum of never, former and current smokers. Joint effects of Cr(VI) and nickel with smoking were in general greater than additive, but not differerent from multiplicative. In summary, relatively low cumulative levels of occupational exposure to Cr(VI) and nickel were associated with increased ORs for lung cancer, particularly in men. However, we cannot rule out a combined classical measurement and Berkson-type of error structure, which may cause differential bias of risk estimates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate and validate the improvement of current risk stratification for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) early after birth by plasma protein markers (sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 14 (SIGLEC-14), basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM), angiopoietin-like 3 protein (ANGPTL-3)) in extremely premature infants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proteome screening in first-week-of-life plasma samples of n = 52 preterm infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) on two proteomic platforms (SomaLogic®, Olink-Proteomics®) confirmed three biomarkers with significant predictive power: BCAM, SIGLEC-14, and ANGPTL-3. We demonstrate high sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.86) under consideration of GA, show the proteins' critical contribution to the predictive power of known clinical risk factors, e.g., birth weight and GA, and predicted the duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen supplementation, as well as neonatal intensive care stay. We confirmed significant predictive power for BPD cases when switching to a clinically applicable method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in an independent sample set (n = 25, p < 0.001) and demonstrated disease specificity in different cohorts of neonatal and adult lung disease. CONCLUSION: While successfully addressing typical challenges of clinical biomarker studies, we demonstrated the potential of BCAM, SIGLEC-14, and ANGPTL-3 to inform future clinical decision making in the preterm infant at risk for BPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Deutsches Register Klinische Studien (DRKS) No. 00004600; https://www.drks.de . IMPACT: The urgent need for biomarkers that enable early decision making and personalized monitoring strategies in preterm infants with BPD is challenged by targeted marker analyses, cohort size, and disease heterogeneity. We demonstrate the potential of the plasma proteins BCAM, SIGLEC-14, and ANGPTL-3 to identify infants with BPD early after birth while improving the predictive power of clinical variables, confirming the robustness toward proteome assays and proving disease specificity. Our comprehensive analysis enables a phase-III clinical trial that allows full implementation of the biomarkers into clinical routine to enable early risk stratification in preterms with BPD.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(7): 1433-1441, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) occurs widely in occupational settings. We investigated the association between occupational exposure to PAH and lung cancer risk and joint effects with smoking within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: We pooled 14 case-control studies with information on lifetime occupational and smoking histories conducted between 1985 and 2010 in Europe and Canada. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was used as a proxy of PAH and estimated from a quantitative general population job-exposure matrix. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for smoking and exposure to other occupational lung carcinogens, estimated ORs, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 frequency-matched controls. Adjusted OR for PAH exposure (ever) was 1.08 (CI, 1.02-1.15) in men and 1.20 (CI, 1.04-1.38) in women. When stratified by smoking status and histologic subtype, the OR for cumulative exposure ≥0.24 BaP µg/m3-years in men was higher in never smokers overall [1.31 (CI, 0.98-1.75)], for small cell [2.53 (CI, 1.28-4.99)] and squamous cell cancers [1.33 (CI, 0.80-2.21)]. Joint effects between PAH and smoking were observed. Restricting analysis to the most recent studies showed no increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated lung cancer risk associated with PAH exposure was observed in both sexes, particularly for small cell and squamous cell cancers, after accounting for cigarette smoking and exposure to other occupational lung carcinogens. IMPACT: The lack of association between PAH and lung cancer in more recent studies merits further research under today's exposure conditions and worker protection measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Carcinógenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos
4.
Tomography ; 8(2): 560-569, 2022 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314623

RESUMO

Background: Specification of adipose tissues by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and related to pulmonary function parameters in a population-based cohort. Methods: 203 study participants underwent whole-body MRI and pulmonary function tests as part of the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region) MRI study. Both visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were derived from the T1-Dixon sequence, and hepatic adipose tissue from the proton density fat fraction (PDFFhepatic). Associations between adipose tissue parameters and spirometric indices such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and Tiffeneau-index (FEV1/FVC) were examined using multivariate linear regression analysis excluding cofounding effects of other clinical parameters. Results: VAT (ß = -0.13, p = 0.03) and SAT (ß = -0.26, p < 0.001), but not PDFFhepatic were inversely associated with FEV1, while VAT (ß = -0.27, p < 0.001), SAT (ß = -0.41, p < 0.001), and PDFFhepatic (ß = -0.17, p = 0.002) were inversely associated with FVC. PDFFhepatic was directly associated with the Tiffeneau index (ß = 2.46, p < 0.001). Conclusions: In the adjusted linear regression model, VAT was inversely associated with all measured spirometric parameters, while PDFFhepatic revealed the strongest association with the Tiffeneau index. Non-invasive adipose tissue quantification measurements might serve as novel biomarkers for respiratory impairment.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Corporal Total , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gordura Subcutânea
5.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943847

RESUMO

Dysfunction of the immunoproteasome has been implicated in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Its potential as a biomarker for predicting disease stages, however, has not been investigated so far and population-based analyses on the impact of sex and age are missing. We here analyzed the activity of all six catalytic sites of the proteasome in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 873 study participants of the KORA FF4 study using activity-based probes. The activity of the immuno- and standard proteasome correlated clearly with elevated leukocyte counts of study participants. Unexpectedly, we observed a strong sex dimorphism for proteasome activity with significantly lower immunoproteasome activity in women. In aging, almost all catalytic activities of the proteasome were activated in aged women while maintained upon aging in men. We also noted distinct sex-related activation patterns of standard and immunoproteasome active sites in chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as determined by multiple linear regression modeling. Our data thus provides a conceptual framework for future analysis of immunoproteasome function as a bio-marker for chronic inflammatory disease development and progression.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/sangue , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Células Sanguíneas/enzimologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory processes have been implicated in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association of a large panel of inflammatory biomarkers reflecting aspects of immunity with kidney function and CKD incidence. METHODS: We used data from two independent population-based studies, KORA F4 (discovery, n = 1,110, mean age 70.3 years, 48.7% male) and ESTHER (replication, n = 1,672, mean age 61.9 years, 43.6% male). Serum levels of biomarkers were measured using proximity extension assay technology. The association of biomarkers with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and with incident CKD was investigated using linear and logistic regression models adjusted for cardiorenal risk factors. Independent results from prospective analyses of both studies were pooled. The significance level was corrected for multiple testing by false-discovery rate (PFDR < 0.05.). RESULTS: In the KORA F4 discovery study, 52 out of 71 inflammatory biomarkers were inversely associated with eGFR estimated based on serum creatinine. Top biomarkers included CD40, TNFRSF9 and IL10RB. Forty-two of these 52 biomarkers were replicated in the ESTHER study. Nine of the 42 biomarkers were associated with incident CKD independently of cardiorenal risk factors in the meta-analysis of the KORA (n = 142, mean follow-up of 6.5 years) and ESTHER (n = 103, mean follow-up of 8 years) studies. Pathway analysis revealed the involvement of inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes reflecting cross-communication of innate and adaptive immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: Novel and known biomarkers of inflammation were reproducibly associated with kidney function. Future studies should investigate their clinical utility and underlying molecular mechanisms in independent cohorts.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Éxons/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16173, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373570

RESUMO

To evaluate the relationship of cardiac function, including time-volume-curves, with lung volumes derived from pulmonary function tests (PFT) and MRI in subjects without cardiovascular diseases. 216 subjects underwent whole-body MRI and spirometry as part of the KORA-FF4 cohort study. Lung volumes derived semi-automatically using an in-house algorithm. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and residual volume were measured. Cardiac parameters derived from Cine-SSFP-sequence using cvi42, while left ventricle (LV) time-volume-curves were evaluated using pyHeart. Linear regression analyses assessed the relationships of cardiac parameters with PFT and MRI-based lung volumes. Mean age was 56.3 ± 9.2 years (57% males). LV and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic-, end-systolic-, stroke volume, LV peak ejection- and early/late diastolic filling rate were associated with FEV1, FVC, and residual volume (excluding late diastolic filling rate with FEV1, LV end-systolic/stroke volume and RV end-diastolic/end-systolic volumes with residual volume). In contrast, LV end-diastolic volume (ß = - 0.14, p = 0.01), early diastolic filling rate (ß = - 0.11, p = 0.04), and LV/RV stroke volume (ß = - 0.14, p = 0.01; ß = - 0.11, p = 0.01) were inversely associated with MRI-based lung volume. Subclinical cardiac impairment was associated with reduced FEV1, FVC, and residual volume. Cardiac parameters decreased with increasing MRI-based lung volume contrasting the results of PFT.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Capacidade Vital , Imagem Corporal Total/métodos
9.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(6): 475-481, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated general job demands as a risk factor for lung cancer as well as their role in the association between occupational prestige and lung cancer. METHODS: In 13 case-control studies on lung cancer, as part of the international SYNERGY project, we applied indices for physical (PHI) and psychosocial (PSI) job demands - each with four categories (high to low). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer by unconditional logistic regression, separately for men and women and adjusted for study centre, age, smoking behavior, and former employment in occupations with potential exposure to carcinogens. Further, we investigated, whether higher risks among men with low occupational prestige (Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale) were affected by adjustment for the job indices. RESULTS: In 30 355 men and 7371 women, we found increased risks (OR) for lung cancer with high relative to low job demands in both men [PHI 1.74 (95% CI 1.56-1.93), PSI 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-1.51)] and women [PHI 1.62 (95% CI 1.24-2.11), PSI 1.31 (95% CI 1.09-1.56)]. OR for lung cancer among men with low occupational prestige were slightly reduced when adjusting for PHI [low versus high prestige OR from 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.58) to 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.45)], but not PSI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical job demands were associated with increased risks of lung cancer, while associations for higher psychosocial demands were less strong. In contrast to physical demands, psychosocial demands did not contribute to clarify the association of occupational prestige and lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Exposição Ocupacional , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , Razão de Chances
10.
Environ Res ; 198: 111153, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857461

RESUMO

Heat waves and Covid-19 overlap, as this pandemic continues into summer 2021. Using a narrative review, we identified overlapping risk groups and propose coping strategies. The high-risk groups for heat-related health problems as well as for high-risk COVID-19 groups overlap considerably (elderly with pre-existing health conditions). Health care facilities will again be challenged by Covid-19 during heat waves. Health care personnel are also at risk of developing heat related health problems during hot periods due to the use of personal protective equipment to shield themselves from SARS-CoV-2 and must therefore be protected from excessive heat periods. Some existing recommendations for heat health protection contradict recommendations for COVID-19 protection. This paper provides a preliminary overview of possible strategies and interventions to tackle these ambiguities. The existing recommendations for protection against heat-related illnesses need revisions to determine whether they include essential aspects of infection control and occupational safety and how they may be supplemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(2): 289-298, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Even impaired levels of glucose and insulin might harm organ function prior to diabetes onset. Whether serum glucose or insulin plays a direct role in cardiac dysfunction or lung volume reduction remains unclear. The aim was to investigate the relationship between glucose and insulin with the right ventricle and lung volumes within KORA-MRI FF4 study. METHODS: From the KORA-MRI FF4 cohort study 337 subjects (mean age 55.7 ± 9.1 years; 43% women) underwent a whole-body 3T MRI scan. Cardiac parameters derived from a cine-steady-state free precession sequence using cvi42. MRI-based lung volumes derived semi-automatically using an in-house algorithm. Fasting serum glucose, fasting insulin levels, and HOMA index were calculated in all study subjects. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between glucose and insulin levels with right ventricle volumes and lung volumes adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: In univariate and multivariate-adjusted models, high serum insulin was inversely associated with end-diastolic volume (ß = -12.43, P < 0.001), end-systolic volume (ß = -7.12, P < 0.001), stroke volume (ß = -5.32, P < 0.001), but not with ejection fraction. The association remained significant after additional adjustment for lung volumes. Similarly, serum insulin was inversely associated with lung volume (ß = -0.15, P = 0.04). Sensitivity analysis confirmed results after excluding subjects with known diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum insulin was inversely associated with right ventricle function and lung volumes in subjects from the general population free of cardiovascular disease, suggesting that increased insulin levels may contribute to subclinical cardiopulmonary circulation impairment.


Assuntos
Insulina/sangue , Pulmão/patologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
12.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(4): 269-278, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pintura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Respir Med ; 171: 106087, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend supplementing pharmacotherapy with non-pharmacological interventions. Little is known about the use of such interventions by patients. We analyzed the utilization of a number of non-pharmacological interventions and identified potential determinants of use. METHODS: Based on self-reports, use of interventions (smoking cessation, influenza vaccination, physiotherapy, sports program, patient education, pulmonary rehabilitation) and recommendation to use were assessed in 1410 patients with COPD. The utilization was analyzed according to sex and severity of disease. Potential determinants of utilization included demographic variables and disease characteristics and were analyzed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Influenza vaccination in the previous autumn/winter was reported by 73% of patients. About 19% were currently participating in a reimbursed sports program, 10% received physiotherapy, 38% were ever enrolled in an educational program, and 34% had ever participated in an outpatient or inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Out of 553 current or former smokers, 24% had participated in a smoking cessation program. While reports of having received a recommendation to use mainly did not differ according to sex, women showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher utilization rates than men for all interventions except influenza vaccination. Smoking was a predictor for not having received a recommendation for utilization and also significantly associated with a reduced odds of utilization. We found a correlation between recommendation to use and utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of non-pharmacological interventions was lower in men and smokers. A recommendation or offer to use by the physician could help to increase uptake.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Esportes
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(16): 16539-16554, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747609

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a frequent diagnosis in older individuals and contributor to global morbidity and mortality. Given the link between lung disease and aging, we need to understand how molecular indicators of aging relate to lung function and disease. Using data from the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) surveys, we associated baseline epigenetic (DNA methylation) age acceleration with incident COPD and lung function. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, height, weight, and baseline lung disease as appropriate. Associations were replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Of 770 KORA participants, 131 developed incident COPD over 7 years. Baseline accelerated epigenetic aging was significantly associated with incident COPD. The change in age acceleration (follow-up - baseline) was more strongly associated with COPD than baseline aging alone. The association between the change in age acceleration between baseline and follow-up and incident COPD replicated in the Normative Aging Study. Associations with spirometric lung function parameters were weaker than those with COPD, but a meta-analysis of both cohorts provide suggestive evidence of associations. Accelerated epigenetic aging, both baseline measures and changes over time, may be a risk factor for COPD and reduced lung function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(16): 1174-1178, 2020 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791555

RESUMO

In case of obstructive, interstitial and malignant respiratory and lung diseases, occupational causes must always be searched for. The sensitivity and specificity of specific IgE determinations in the diagnosis of occupational asthma are only slightly above 70 %, even for high-molecular allergens. If the patient's medical history is positive, further diagnostics must be carried out, if necessary up to specific exposure testing in specialised institutions. New data show that the serial FeNO determination after working days compared to days off contains additional information that can lead to a positive diagnostic classification. In case of interstitial lung diseases, (avoidable) occupational triggers must be searched for - a new questionnaire provides practical assistance. Patients with lung carcinoma should also be investigated for occupational causes. Here too, questionnaires and tables are available in simple language. In future lung cancer caused by long-term exposure to passive smoke will be considered an occupational disease.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Asma Ocupacional/etiologia , Asma Ocupacional/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 148, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) characterizes the pathophysiology of COPD and different trajectories of FEV1 decline have been observed in patients with COPD (e.g. gradual or episodic). There is limited information about the development of patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) over the full range of the natural history of COPD. We examined the longitudinal association between change in FEV1 and change in disease-specific and generic HRQL. METHODS: We analysed data of 1734 patients with COPD participating in the COSYCONET cohort with up to 3 years of follow-up. Patients completed the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (EQ VAS). Change score models were used to investigate the relationship between HRQL and FEV1 and to calculate mean changes in HRQL per FEV1 change categories [decrease (≤ - 100 ml), no change, increase (≥ 100 ml)] after 3 years. Applying hierarchical linear models (HLM), we estimated the cross-sectional between-subject difference and the longitudinal within-subject change of HRQL as related to a FEV1 difference or change. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant deterioration in SGRQ (total score + 1.3 units) after 3 years, which was completely driven by the activity component (+ 4 units). No significant change was found for the generic EQ VAS. Over the same period, 58% of patients experienced a decrease in FEV1, 28% were recorded as no change in FEV1, and 13% experienced an increase. The relationship between HRQL and FEV1 was found to be approximately linear with decrease in FEV1 being statistically significantly associated with a deterioration in SGRQ (+ 3.20 units). Increase in FEV1 was associated with improvements in SGRQ (- 3.81 units). The associations between change in FEV1 and the EQ VAS were similar. Results of the HLMs were consistent and highly statistically significant, indicating cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. The largest estimates were found for the association between FEV1 and the SGRQ activity domain. CONCLUSIONS: Difference and change in FEV1 over time correlate with difference and change in disease-specific and generic HRQL. We conclude, that deterioration of HRQL should induce timely re-examination of physical status and lung function and possibly reassessment of therapeutic regimes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01245933. Date of registration: 18 November 2010.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Asthma first occurring in adulthood (adult-onset asthma, AOA) is associated with poorer prognosis compared to childhood-onset asthma (COA), which urgently calls for more research in this area. The aim of this work was to analyze the data on asthma collected in the German National Cohort and compare it with the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS), in particular regarding AOA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our analysis was based on the dataset of the main questionnaire at mid-term of the German National Cohort baseline examination, comprising 101,723 participants. Variables considered in the analyses were self-reported diagnosis of asthma, age at first diagnosis, asthma treatment in the past 12 months, age, and sex. RESULTS: In the midterm dataset, 8.7% of women and 7.0% of men in the German National Cohort reported that they had ever been diagnosed with asthma. Approximately one third of participants with asthma received their initial diagnosis before their 18th birthday. COA affected 2.2% of women and 2.8% of men, whereas AOA affected 6.5% of women and 4.2% of men. During the previous 12 months, 33% of COA cases and 60% of AOA cases were medically treated. CONCLUSION: The proportion of persons affected by asthma in the German National Cohort, as well as observed patterns regarding age and gender, corresponds to other data sources such as DEGS. However, in our analysis, the proportion of individuals with AOA was higher than described in the literature. The increase in cumulative asthma diagnoses with age is markedly steeper in younger participants, indicating a rising trend over time.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide assessment of the respiratory status on the basis of standardized lung function measurements has so far not been available in Germany. The present work describes the lung function tests in the German National Cohort (GNC) and presents initial results based on the GNC Midterm Baseline Dataset. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment of lung function in the GNC comprised spirometry (level 1) and the determination of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, level 2). Our quality assurance concept included regular training of lung function test procedures at various GNC sites, interim evaluations of test quality, as well as regular calibration/measurement checks of test equipment. For spirometry, we established a stepwise procedure for offline quality control based on raw flow volume curves. RESULTS: In the present dataset (n = 101,734), spirometry was available for 86,893 study participants and FeNO was available for 15,228 participants. The average (±SD) FEV1 Z score (according to GLI 2012) was -0.321 ± 1.047, the FVC Z score was -0.153 ± 0.941, and the FEV1/FVC Z score was -0.337 ± 0.901. The difference in FEV1/FVC between current smokers and never-smokers increased with age. The average FeNO was 14.2 ÷ 2.0 ppb. Current smoking reduced FeNO levels by 43%, whereas respiratory allergy increased FeNO levels by 16% in nonsmokers. DISCUSSION: The results of spirometry and the FeNO measurements are in the expected range with regard to their distributions and correlates. The GNC provides a valuable basis for future investigations of respiratory health and its determinants as well as research into the prevention of respiratory diseases in Germany.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Asma , Expiração , Alemanha , Humanos , Espirometria
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...