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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097272

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database analysis OBJECTIVE.: To assess the effect of age on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and complication rates after surgical treatment for spondylolisthesis SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis affects 3-20% of the population and up to 30% of the elderly. There is not yet consensus on whether age is a contraindication for surgical treatment of elderly patients. METHODS: The Quality Outcomes Database lumbar registry was used to evaluate patients from 12 U.S. academic and private centers who underwent surgical treatment for grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis between July 2014 and June 2016. RESULTS: A total of 608 patients who fit the inclusion criteria were categorized by age into the following groups: <60 (n = 239), 60-70 (n = 209), 71-80 (n = 128), and >80 (n = 32) years. Older patients showed lower mean body mass index (p < 0.001) and higher rates of diabetes (p = 0.007), coronary artery disease (p < 0.001), and osteoporosis (p = 0.005). A lower likelihood for home disposition was seen with higher age (89.1% in <60-year-old vs. 75% in >80-year-old patients; p = 0.002). There were no baseline differences in PROs (Oswestry Disability Index, EQ-5D, Numeric Rating Scale for leg pain and back pain) among age categories. A significant improvement for all PROs was seen regardless of age (p < 0.05), and most patients met minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for improvement in postoperative PROs. No differences in hospital readmissions or reoperations were seen among age groups (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that, after controlling other variables, a higher age did not decrease the odds of achieving MCID at 12 months for the PROs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that well-selected elderly patients undergoing surgical treatment of grade 1 spondylolisthesis can achieve meaningful outcomes. This modern, multicenter U.S. study reflects the current use and limitations of spondylolisthesis treatment in the elderly, which may be informative to patients and providers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

2.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(1): E8, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Primary brain tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in children and pose difficult questions for the treating physician regarding issues such as the risk/benefit of performing a biopsy, the accuracy of monitoring methods, and the availability of prognostic indicators. It has been recently shown that tumor-specific DNA and proteins can be successfully isolated in liquid biopsies, and it may be possible to exploit this potential as a particularly useful tool for the clinician in addressing these issues. METHODS: A review of the current literature was conducted by searching PubMed and Scopus. MeSH terms for the search included "liquid biopsy," "brain," "tumor," and "pediatrics" in all fields. Articles were reviewed to identify the type of brain tumor involved, the method of tumor DNA/protein analysis, and the potential clinical utility. All articles involving primary studies of pediatric brain tumors were included, but reviews were excluded. RESULTS: The successful isolation of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), extracellular vesicles, and tumor-specific proteins from liquid biopsies has been consistently demonstrated. This most commonly occurs through CSF analysis, but it has also been successfully demonstrated using plasma and urine samples. Tumor-related gene mutations and alterations in protein expression are identifiable and, in some cases, have been correlated to specific neoplasms. The quantity of ctDNA isolated also appears to have a direct relationship with tumor progression and response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The use of liquid biopsies for the diagnosis and monitoring of primary pediatric brain tumors is a foreseeable possibility, as the requisite developmental steps have largely been demonstrated. Increasingly advanced molecular methods are being developed to improve the identification of tumor subtypes and tumor grades, and they may offer a method for monitoring treatment response. These minimally invasive markers will likely be used in the clinical treatment of pediatric brain tumors in the future.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The internal auditory canal (IAC) is an important landmark during surgery for lesions of the cerebellopontine angle. There is significant variability in the position and orientation of the IAC radiographically, and the authors have noted differences in surgical exposure depending on the individual anatomy of the IAC. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that IAC position and orientation affects the surgical exposure of the IAC and facial nerve, especially when performing the translabyrinthine approach. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed magnetic resonance imaging studies of 50 randomly selected patients with pathologically confirmed vestibular schwannomas. Measurements, including the anterior (APD) and posterior (PPD) petrous distances, the anterior (APA) and posterior (PPA) petro-auditory angles, and the internal auditory angle (IAA), were obtained to quantify the position and orientation of the IAC within the petrous temporal bone. RESULTS: The results quantitatively demonstrate tremendous variability of the position and orientation of the IAC in the petrous temporal bone. The measurement ranges were APD 10.2 to 26.1 mm, PPD 15.1 to 37.2 mm, APA 104 to 157°, PPA 30 to 96°, and IAA -5 to 40°. CONCLUSION: IAC variability can have a substantial effect on the surgical exposure of the IAC and facial and vestibulocochlear nerves. Specifically, a horizontally oriented IAC with a small IAA may have significant impact on visualization of the facial nerve within its cisternal segment with the translabyrinthine approach. The retrosigmoid approach is less affected with IAC variability in position and angle.

4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e774-e783, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of venous duplex ultrasonography (VDU) for confirmation of deep venous thrombosis in neurosurgical patients is costly and requires experienced personnel. We evaluated a protocol using D-dimer levels to screen for venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as deep venous thrombosis and asymptomatic pulmonary embolism. METHODS: We used a retrospective bioinformatics analysis to identify neurosurgical inpatients who had undergone a protocol assessing the serum D-dimer levels and had undergone a VDU study to evaluate for the presence of VTE from March 2008 through July 2017. The clinical risk factors and D-dimer levels were evaluated for the prediction of VTE. RESULTS: In the 1918 patient encounters identified, the overall VTE detection rate was 28.7%. Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, an area under the curve of 0.58 was identified for all D-dimer values (P = 0.0001). A D-dimer level of ≥2.5 µg/mL on admission conferred a 30% greater relative risk of VTE (sensitivity, 0.43; specificity, 0.67; positive predictive value, 0.27; negative predictive value, 0.8). A D-dimer value of ≥3.5 µg/mL during hospitalization yielded a 28% greater relative risk of VTE (sensitivity, 0.73; specificity, 0.32; positive predictive value, 0.24; negative predictive value, 0.81). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age, male sex, length of stay, tumor or other neurological disease diagnosis, and D-dimer level ≥3.5 µg/mL during hospitalization were independent predictors of VTE. CONCLUSIONS: The D-dimer protocol was beneficial in identifying VTE in a heterogeneous group of neurosurgical patients by prompting VDU evaluation for patients with a D-dimer values of ≥3.5 µg/mL during hospitalization. Refinement of this screening model is necessary to improve the identification of VTE in a practical and cost-effective manner.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trombose Venosa/sangue
5.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e76-e83, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spine fractures, including associated spinal cord injury, account for 3%-6% of all skeletal fractures annually in the United States. Patients who undergo interhospital transfer after injury may have a greater likelihood of nonroutine disposition, longer hospital stay, and higher cost. We evaluated the effects of patient transfer on functional outcomes after spine trauma. METHODS: Patients were treated after acute traumatic spine injury at a rehabilitation hospital in 2011-2017. Compared patients were those directly admitted to the tertiary hospital or transferred from a community hospital. RESULTS: A total of 188 patients (mean age 46.1 ± 18.6 years, 77.1% men) were evaluated, including 130 (69.1%) directly admitted and 58 (30.9%) transferred patients. The most common levels of injury were at C5 (19.1%) and C6 (12.2%), and most injuries were American Spinal Injury Association injury severity score grade D (33.2%) or grade A (32.1%). No statistical difference in age, injury pattern, timing from injury to surgery, or rehabilitation length of stay was seen between admitted and transferred patients. A significant improvement in ambulation distances was seen at discharge for directly admitted compared with transferred patients (447.7 ± 724.9 vs. 159.9 ± 359.5 feet; P = 0.005). However, no significant difference primary outcomes, namely American Spinal Injury Association injury severity score distribution (P = 0.2) or Functional Independence Measures (Δ30.9 ± 15.9 vs. 30.1 ± 17.1; P = 0.7), were seen between admitted and transferred patients at time of rehabilitation discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Interhospital transfer status did not diminish time to rehabilitation after injury or reduce functional recovery, suggesting early surgical treatment in community settings may have merit prior to transfer.


Assuntos
Transferência de Pacientes , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/reabilitação , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Centros de Traumatologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(1): 157-167, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have not evaluated the impact of illness severity and postrupture procedures in the cost of care for intracranial aneurysms. We hypothesize that the severity of aneurysm rupture and the aggressiveness of postrupture interventions play a role in cost. METHODS: The Value Driven Outcomes database was used to assess direct patient cost during the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm with clipping, coiling, and Pipeline flow diverters. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-eight patients (mean age 52.8 ± 14.1 years; 40.0% male) underwent craniotomy (64.6%), coiling (26.7%), or flow diversion (8.6%). Coiling was 1.4× more expensive than clipping (p = .005) and flow diversion was 1.7× more expensive than clipping (p < .001). More severe illness as measured by American Society of Anesthesia, Hunt/Hess, and Fisher scales incurred higher costs than less severe illness (p < .05). Use of a lumbar drain protocol to reduce subarachnoid hemorrhage and use of an external ventricular drain to manage intracranial pressure were associated with reduced (p = .05) and increased (p < .001) total costs, respectively. Patients with severe vasospasm (p < .005), those that received shunts (p < .001), and those who had complications (p < .001) had higher costs. Multivariate analysis showed that procedure type, length of stay, number of angiograms, vasospasm severity, disposition, and year of treatment were independent predictors of cost. CONCLUSIONS: These results show for the first time that disease and vasospasm severity and intensity of treatment directly impact the cost of care for patients with aneurysms in the USA. Strategies to alter these variables may prove important for cost reduction.

7.
Cureus ; 11(10): e5953, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799094

RESUMO

Transsphenoidal resection of the sellar and suprasellar lesions, whether microscopic or endoscopic, has been traditionally limited by tumors extending laterally to the carotid artery and cavernous sinus. Extended endoscopic or transmaxillary approaches may be warranted depending on these tumor extensions. We describe the use of an intraoperative Valsalva maneuver as a surgical adjunct to the transsphenoidal approach to improve the extent of resection for a favorable outcome. The patient was a 65-year-old woman who underwent resection of a giant pituitary tumor that extended laterally to the cavernous sinus to occupy a volume within the middle fossa. It was the senior author's impression that the lateral cavernous wall was intact at the time of surgery although this is difficult to determine definitively. After a transsphenoidal intrasellar resection of the intrasellar tumor, side-angled endoscopic visualization enabled identification of the breach in the medial cavernous wall where the tumor had invaded the cavernous sinus and ultimately grown into the middle fossa. A Valsalva maneuver was then applied, and the tumor was extruded from the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid. The significant tumor was removed under direct visualization of the abducens nerve, which was well preserved. Postoperative imaging showed a sufficient extent of resection, and there were no postoperative complications. An intraoperative Valsalva maneuver can be a potentially useful technique for extending tumor resection in cases with a soft tumor and visualization of the opening within the cavernous sinus wall.

8.
Cureus ; 11(9): e5692, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720160

RESUMO

Purpose Intracranial aneurysms are relatively common epidemiological problems for which the surveillance, treatment, and follow-up are costly. Although multiple studies have evaluated the treatment cost of aneurysms, the follow-up costs are often not examined. In our study, we analyzed how follow-up costs after treatment affected the overall cost of different endovascular techniques for treating aneurysms. Materials and methods An institutional database was used to evaluate the upfront and follow-up costs incurred by patients who underwent elective coiling or placement of a pipeline embolization device (PED) for the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms from July 2011 to December 2017. Results A total of 114 patients (coiling, n = 37; PED, n = 77 ) were included in the study. There was no significant difference among patients in mean age [61.3 (±12.8 years) vs. 57.0 (±14.5 years); probability value (p) = 0.2], sex (male: 32.4% vs. 22.1%; p = 0.2), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade (p = 0.5), discharge disposition (p = 0.1), mean length of stay [3.1 days (±5.5) vs. 2.4 days (±2.6); p = 0.2) or follow-up period [22.7 months (±18.5) vs. 18.6 months (±14.9); p = 0.2). There were no differences in costs during admission (p = 0.5) or in follow-up (p = 0.3) between coiling and PED treatments. Initial costs were predominantly related to supplies/implants (56.1% vs. 63.7%) for both treatments. Follow-up costs mostly comprised facility costs (68.2% vs. 67.5%), and there were no differences in costs of subgroups such as supplies/implants (10.5% vs. 9.4%), imaging (17.0% vs. 17.8%), or facilties between coiling and PED. Conclusion These results suggest that the upfront and follow-up costs are mostly similar for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms irrespective of whether the providers used coiling or PED endovascular techniques. Hence, we conclude that follow-up costs should not be a deciding factor when considering these treatments.

9.
Cureus ; 11(9): e5747, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723508

RESUMO

Objective The lifetime direct and indirect costs of spinal injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) increase as the severity of injury worsens. Despite the potential for substantial improvement in function with acute rehabilitation, the factors affecting its cost have not yet been evaluated. We used a proprietary hospital database to evaluate the direct costs of rehabilitation after spine injury. Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort cost analysis of patients with acute, traumatic spine injury treated at a tertiary facility from 2011 to 2017 was performed. Results In the 190 patients (mean age 46.1 ± 18.6 years, 76.3% males) identified, American Spinal Injury Association impairment scores on admission were 32.1% A, 14.7% B, 14.7% C, 33.2% D, and 1.1% E. Surgical treatment was performed in 179 (94.2%) cases. Most injuries were in the cervical spine (53.2%). A mean improvement of Functional Impairment Score of 30.7 ± 16.2 was seen after acute rehabilitation. Costs for care comprised facility (86.5%), pharmacy (9.2%), supplies (2.0%), laboratory (1.5%), and imaging (0.8%) categories. Injury level, injury severity, and prior inpatient surgical treatment did not affect the cost of rehabilitation. Higher injury severity (p = 0.0001, one-way ANOVA) and spinal level of injury (p = 0.001, one-way ANOVA) were associated with higher length of rehabilitation stay in univariate analysis. However, length of rehabilitation stay was the strongest independent predictor of higher-than-median cost (risk ratio = 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.0, p = 0.001) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions Spine injury has a high upfront cost of care, with greater need for rehabilitation substantially affecting cost. Improving the efficacy of rehabilitation to reduce length of stay may be effective in reducing cost.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occipitocervical instability may result from transcondylar resection of the occipital condyle. Initially, patients may be able to maintain a neutral alignment but severe occipitoatlantal subluxation may subsequently occur, with cranial settling, spinal cord kinking, and neurological injury. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of posterior fixation constructs to prevent progression to severe deformity after radical unilateral condylectomy. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric specimens (Oc-C2) underwent biomechanical testing to compare stiffness under physiological loads (1.5 N m). A complete unilateral condylectomy was performed to destabilize one Oc-C1 joint, and the contralateral joint was left intact. Unilateral Oc-C1 or Oc-C2 constructs on the resected side and bilateral Oc-C1 or Oc-C2 constructs were tested. RESULTS: The bilateral Oc-C2 construct provided the greatest stiffness, but the difference was only statistically significant in certain planes of motion. The unilateral constructs had similar stiffness in lateral bending, but the unilateral Oc-C1 construct was less stiff in axial rotation and flexion-extension than the unilateral Oc-C2 construct. The bilateral Oc-C2 construct was stiffer than the unilateral Oc-C2 construct in axial rotation and lateral bending, but there was no difference between these constructs in flexion-extension. CONCLUSION: Patients who undergo a complete unilateral condylectomy require close surveillance for occipitocervical instability. A bilateral Oc-C2 construct provides suitable biomechanical strength, which is superior to other constructs. A unilateral construct decreases abnormal motion but lacks the stiffness of a bilateral construct. However, given that most patients undergo a partial condylectomy and only a small proportion of patients develop instability, there may be scenarios in which a unilateral construct may be appropriate, such as for temporary internal stabilization.

11.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 80(6): 626-631, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754596

RESUMO

Objectives Intraoperative navigation during neurosurgery can aid in the detection of critical structures and target lesions. The safety and efficacy of intraoperative, stereotactic computed tomography (CT) in the transnasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas were explored. Design Retrospective chart review Setting Tertiary care hospital Participants Patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas from February 2002 to May 2017. Intraoperative stereotactic CT navigation was used for all patients after mid-October 2013. Main Outcome Measures Operative time, estimated blood loss, gross total resection rate. Results Of 634 patients included, 175 underwent surgery with intraoperative navigation and 444 had no intraoperative navigation during surgery. There was no difference in mean age, sex, tumor type, or tumor size between the two groups. Operative time, endoscope use, cerebrospinal fluid diversion, and estimated blood loss were also similar. Two patients showed intraoperative, iatrogenic misdirection in the absence of stereotactic CT navigation ( p = 0.99) but similar numbers of patients having navigated and non-navigated surgery returned to the operating room, underwent gross total resection, and showed endocrinological normalization. Conclusions These results suggest that intraoperative navigation can reduce injury without resulting in increased operative time, estimated blood loss, or reduction in gross total resection.

12.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 161(12): 2453-2466, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroma pathology is commonly described as lacking a clear internal structure, but we observed evidence that there are consistent architectural elements. Using human neuroma samples, we sought to identify molecular features that characterize neuroma pathophysiology. METHODS: Thirty specimens-12 neuromas-in-continuity (NICs), 11 stump neuromas, two brachial plexus avulsions, and five controls-were immunohistochemically analyzed with antibodies against various components of normal nerve substructures. RESULTS: There were no substantial histopathologic differences between stump neuromas and NICs, except that NICs had intact fascicle(s) in the specimen. These intact fascicles showed evidence of injury and fibrosis. On immunohistochemical analysis of the neuromas, laminin demonstrated a consistent double-lumen configuration. The outer lumen stained with GLUT1 antibodies, consistent with perineurium and microfascicle formation. Antibodies to NF200 revealed small clusters of small-diameter axons within the inner lumen, and the anti-S100 antibody showed a relatively regular pattern of non-myelinating Schwann cells. CD68+ cells were only seen in a limited temporal window after injury. T-cells were seen in neuroma specimens, with both a temporal evolution as well as persistence long after injury. Avulsion injury specimens had similar architecture to control nerves. Seven pediatric specimens were not qualitatively different from adult specimens. NICs demonstrated intact but abnormal fascicles that may account for the neurologically impoverished outcomes from untreated NICs. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that there is consistent pathophysiologic remodeling after fascicle disruption. Particular features, such as predominance of small caliber axons and persistence of numerous T-cells long after injury, suggest a potential role in chronic pain associated with neuromas.

13.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-6, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to improve pain relief and reduce narcotic analgesic use in cases of complex refractory pain syndromes. However, a subset of patients ultimately undergoes removal of the spinal cord stimulator (SCS) system, presumably because of surgical complications or poor efficacy. This retrospective study addresses the paucity of evidence regarding risk factors and underlying causes of spinal cord stimulation failures that necessitate this explantation. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center review, 129 patients underwent explantation of SCS hardware during a 9-year period (2005-2013) following initial placement at the authors' institution or elsewhere. Medical history, including indication of implantation, device characteristics, revision history, and reported reasons for removal of hardware, were reviewed. RESULTS: The 74 (57%) women and 55 (43%) men were a median of 49 years old (IQR 41-61 years) at explantation; the median time to explantation was 20 months (IQR 7.5-45.5 months). Thoracic or upper lumbar leads were placed in 89.9% of patients primarily for the diagnosis of postsurgical failed-back surgery syndrome (70.5%), chronic regional pain syndrome (14.7%), and neuropathic pain (8.5%). More than half of patients were legally disabled. Initial postoperative reduction in pain was reported in 81% of patients, and 37.8% returned to work. Among 15 patients with acute postsurgical complications (12 infections, 2 hemorrhages, 1 immediate paraplegia), the median time to removal was 2 months. Primary reasons for hardware removal were lack of stimulation efficacy (81%), electrode failure due to migration (14%), and allergic reactions to implanted hardware in 2 patients. The 72 patients who underwent formal psychiatric evaluation before implantation were affected by high rates of major depression (64%), anxiety (34%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (12%), drug or alcohol abuse (12%), and physical or sexual abuse (22%). CONCLUSIONS: The authors' findings provide insight regarding the mechanisms of spinal cord stimulation failure that resulted in total removal of the implanted system. The relationship between spinal cord stimulation failure and certain psychiatric disorders, such as PTSD, depression, and anxiety, is highlighted. Ultimately, this work may shed light on potential avenues to reduce morbidity and improve patient outcomes.

14.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in neurocritical care patients, but the potential to improve patient outcome by replenishing vitamin D has not been investigated. This single-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized (1:1) clinical trial was designed to assess the effect on patient outcome of vitamin D supplementation in neurocritical care patients with hypovitaminosis D. METHODS: From October 2016 until April 2018, emergently admitted neurocritical care patients with vitamin D deficiency (≤ 20 ng/ml) were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 540,000 IU) (n = 134) or placebo (n = 133). Hospital length of stay (LOS) was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, repeat vitamin D levels, patient complications, and patient disposition. Exploratory analysis evaluated specific subgroups of patients by LOS, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II). RESULTS: Two-hundred seventy-four patients were randomized (intent-to-treat) and 267 were administered treatment within 48 hours of admission (as-treated; 61.2% of planned recruitment) and monitored. The mean age of as-treated patients was 54.0 ± 17.2 years (56.9% male, 77.2% white). After interim analysis suggested a low conditional power for outcome difference (predictive power 0.12), the trial was halted. For as-treated patients, no significant difference in hospital LOS (10.4 ± 14.5 days vs 9.1 ± 7.9 days, p = 0.4; mean difference 1.3, 95% CI -1.5 to 4.1) or ICU LOS (5.8 ± 7.5 days vs 5.4 ± 6.4 days, p = 0.4; mean difference 0.4, 95% CI -1.3 to 2.1) was seen between vitamin D3 and placebo groups, respectively. Vitamin D3 supplementation significantly improved repeat serum levels compared with placebo (20.8 ± 9.3 ng/ml vs 12.8 ± 4.8 ng/ml, p < 0.001) without adverse side effects. No subgroups were identified by exclusion of LOS outliers or segregation by GCS score, SAPS II, or severe vitamin D deficiency (≤ 10 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Despite studies showing that vitamin D can predict prognosis, supplementation in vitamin D-deficient neurocritical care patients did not result in appreciable improvement in outcomes and likely does not play a role in acute clinical recovery.Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02881957 (clinicaltrials.gov).

17.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive multicenter data on the surgical treatment of pediatric cerebrovascular malformations (CVMs) in the US are lacking. The goal of this study was to identify national trends in patient demographics and assess the effect of hospital case volume on outcomes. METHODS: Admissions for CVMs (1997-2012) were identified from the nationwide Kids' Inpatient Database. Admissions with and without craniotomy were reviewed separately. Patients were categorized by whether they were treated at low-, medium-, or high-volume centers (< 10, 10-40, > 40 cases/year, respectively). A generalized linear model was used to evaluate the association of hospital pediatric CVM case volume and clinical variables assessing outcomes. RESULTS: Among the 9655 patients, 1828 underwent craniotomy and 7827 did not. Patient age and race differed in the two groups, as did the rate of private medical payers. High-volume hospitals had fewer nonroutine discharges (11.2% [high] vs 16.4% [medium] vs 22.3% [low], p = 0.0001). For admissions requiring craniotomy, total charges ($106,282 [high] vs $126,215 [medium] vs $134,978 [low], p < 0.001) and complication rates (0.09% [high] vs 0.11% [medium] vs 0.16% [low], p = 0.001) were lower in high-volume centers. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that further investigation may be needed regarding barriers to surgical treatment of pediatric CVMs. The authors found that surgical treatment of pediatric CVM at high-volume centers is associated with significantly fewer complications, better dispositions, and lower costs, but for noncraniotomy patients, low-volume centers had lower rates of complications and death and lower costs. These findings may support the consideration of appropriate referral of CVM patients requiring surgery or with intracranial hemorrhage toward high-volume, specialized centers.

18.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 19(9): 65, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363857

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spinal cord injury (SCI) shows an incidence of 10.4-83 cases/million/year globally and remains a significant source of morbidity and cost to society. Despite greater understanding of the pathophysiology of SCI, neuroprotective and regenerative approaches to treatment have had limited clinical utility to date. Here, we review the key components of supportive care that are thus the mainstay of therapy and that have improved outcomes for victims of acute SCI in recent decades. RECENT STUDIES: Current management strategies for acute SCI involve early surgical decompression and fixation, the use of vasopressor medications for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) augmentation to improve spinal cord perfusion, and corticosteroids. We highlight recent literature supporting the role of norepinephrine in acute SCI management and also an emerging neurocritical care strategy that seeks to optimize spinal cord perfusion pressure with the assistance of invasive monitoring. This review will highlight key pathophysiologic principles and targets for current acute clinical treatments in SCI, which include early surgical decompression, MAP augmentation, and corticosteroids. We discuss anticipated future research in these areas and focus on potential risks inherent to these treatments.

19.
North Clin Istanb ; 6(1): 69-74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer contributes to a significant global health burden with room for improvement of primary prevention methods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Turkish women with abnormal cytology and their management by comparing results from repeat cytological analysis with close follow-up and colposcopy. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of 8738 women who underwent Pap smears at a single institution during 2011 was performed. Either repeat cytological analysis or colposcopic biopsy was used for follow-up evaluation of women who had abnormal index cytology. RESULTS: From the 8670 women, 8259 of had normal cytology results (95.3%) and 411 women had abnormal cytology (4.7%) in the index Pap smear. The frequency of initial abnormal cytology was 65% (n=267), 27% (n=111), 3.4% (n=14), 2.4% (n=10), 1.9% (n=8), and 0.3% (n=1) for atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), ASC cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H), high-grade SIL (HSIL), atypical glandular cells (AGC), and invasive cancer, respectively. Of the 267 women with initial ASCUS, 108 (40.4%) underwent repeat cytology analysis, 84 (31.5%) underwent colposcopic biopsy, and 75 (28.1%) were lost to follow-up. On histopathology, 8.3% (n=7) of patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 2 (CIN2) on colposcopy. Of 60 women with LSIL that underwent colposcopic biopsy, 13.3% (n=8) had CIN2/3. CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that routine cytological follow-up may be an appropriate method in the management of ASCUS instead of immediate colposcopy while immediate colposcopy cannot place repeat cytology for LSIL in developing countries.

20.
Cureus ; 11(4): e4457, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205843

RESUMO

Objective Residency program coordinators play an important role behind the scenes, in the function of residency and fellowship programs. In addition, coordinators have significantly heterogeneous job roles among institutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the training, responsibilities, and contribution of residency program coordinators within the field of neurosurgery. Methods A 24-question survey was submitted to 133 program coordinators, and 78 responses (59% response rate) were received. Results The survey results showed that >80% of coordinators have been in their current position for ≥3 years. Coordinators identified at least 24 unique departmental responsibilities with an average of 85% of the time devoted to residency program management. Among coordinators, 82% reported no formal training, with 60% and 55% reporting inadequate training from their department and institution, respectively. Interestingly, 84% completely or partially agreed that their work is valued by residents, 91% by the program director(s), 78% by the department chair, 62% by other faculty, and 56% by other departmental staff. Lastly, 50% of coordinators reported that their department has not been receptive to receiving feedback on how to improve the roles of the position, with 80% reporting no career advancement track. Conclusion Residency program coordinators reported a wide range of experience and responsibilities within their respective departments. The majority reported limited training for their current position, and a significant number reported not feeling valued by members of their department, suggesting two areas for improvement. As coordinators continue to play a larger role in the management and accreditation of their departments, strategies to optimize their role may be important.

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