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1.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250804

RESUMO

False negative outcome of a diagnosis is one the major reasons for the dissemination of the diseases with high risk of propagation. Diagnostic sensitivity and the margin of error determine the false negative outcome of the diagnosis. A mathematical model had been developed to estimate the mean % secondary infections based on the margin of error of diagnostic sensitivity, % prevalence and R0 value. This model recommends a diagnostic test with diagnostic sensitivity [≥] 96% and at least 92% lower bound limit of the 95% CI or [≤] 4% margin of error for a highly infectious diseases like COVID-19 to curb the secondary transmission of the infection due to false negative cases. Positive relationship was found between mean % secondary infection and margin of error of sensitivity suggesting greater the margin of error of a diagnostic test sensitivity, higher the number of secondary infections in a population due to false negative cases. Negative correlation was found between number of COVID-19 test kits (>90% sensitivity) with regulatory approval and margin of error (R= -0.92, p=0.023) suggesting lesser the margin of error of a diagnostic test, higher the chances of getting approved by the regulatory agencies. However, there are no specific regulatory standards available for margin of error of the diagnostic sensitivity of COVID-19 diagnostic tests. Highly infectious disease such as COVID-19, certainly need specific regulatory standards on margin of error or 95% CI of the diagnostic sensitivity to curb the dissemination of the disease due to false negative cases and our model can be used to set the standards such as sensitivity, margin of error or lower bound limit of 95% CI.

2.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 107-136, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509059

RESUMO

Mastitis (intramammary inflammation) caused by infectious pathogens is still considered a devastating condition of dairy animals affecting animal welfare as well as economically incurring huge losses to the dairy industry by means of decreased production performance and increased culling rates. Bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary glands/udder of bovines, caused by bacterial pathogens, in most cases. Routine diagnosis is based on clinical and subclinical forms of the disease. This underlines the significance of early and rapid identification/detection of etiological agents at the farm level, for which several diagnostic techniques have been developed. Therapeutic regimens such as antibiotics, immunotherapy, bacteriocins, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, probiotics, stem cell therapy, native secretory factors, nutritional, dry cow and lactation therapy, genetic selection, herbs, and nanoparticle technology-based therapy have been evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment of mastitis. Even though several strategies have been developed over the years for the purpose of managing both clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis, all of them lacked the efficacy to eliminate the associated etiological agent when used as a monotherapy. Further, research has to be directed towards the development of new therapeutic agents/techniques that can both replace conventional techniques and also solve the problem of emerging antibiotic resistance. The objective of the present review is to describe the etiological agents, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in brief along with an extensive discussion on the advances in the treatment and management of mastitis, which would help safeguard the health of dairy animals.

3.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 61-88, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353489

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of great animal welfare and economic implications worldwide known since ancient times. The emergence of brucellosis in new areas as well as transmission of brucellosis from wild and domestic animals is of great significance in terms of new epidemiological dimensions. Brucellosis poses a major public health threat by the consumption of non-pasteurized milk and milk products produced by unhygienic dairy farms in endemic areas. Regular and meticulous surveillance is essentially required to determine the true picture of brucellosis especially in areas with continuous high prevalence. Additionally, international migration of humans, animals and trade of animal products has created a challenge for disease spread and diagnosis in non-endemic areas. Isolation and identification remain the gold standard test, which requires expertise. The advancement in diagnostic strategies coupled with screening of newly introduced animals is warranted to control the disease. Of note, the diagnostic value of miRNAs for appropriate detection of B. abortus infection has been shown. The most widely used vaccine strains to protect against Brucella infection and related abortions in cattle are strain 19 and RB51. Moreover, it is very important to note that no vaccine, which is highly protective, safe and effective is available either for bovines or human beings. Research results encourage the use of bacteriophage lysates in treatment of bovine brucellosis. One Health approach can aid in control of this disease, both in animals and man.

4.
Anaerobe ; 67: 102298, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220406

RESUMO

The present study was designed to understand the presence of antimicrobial resistance among the prevalent toxinotypes of Clostridium perfringens recovered from different animals of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 75 (10.76%) C. perfringens were isolated from 697 multi-species fecal and intestinal content samples. C. perfringens type A (90.67%), type C (2.67%), type D (4%) and type F (2.67%) were recovered. Maximum number of isolates were recovered from dog (n = 20, 24.10%) followed by chicken (n = 19, 5.88%). Recovered isolates were resistant to gentamicin (44.00%), erythromycin (40.00%), bacitracin (40.00%), and tetracycline (26.67%), phenotypically and most of the isolates were found to be resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Genotypic characterization revealed that tetracycline (41.33%), erythromycin (34.66%) and bacitracin (17.33%) resistant genes were present individually or in combination among the isolates. Combined results of phenotypic and genotypic characterization showed the highest percentage of erythromycin resistance (26.66%) among the isolates. None of the isolates showed amplification for lincomycin resistance genes. The correlation matrix analysis of genotypic resistance showed a weak positive relationship between the tetracycline and bacitracin resistance while a weak negative relationship between the tetracycline and erythromycin resistance. The present study thus reports the presence of multiple-resistance genes among C. perfringens isolates that may be involved in the dissemination of resistance to other bacteria present across species. Further insights into the genome can help to understand the mechanism involved in gene transfer so that measures can be taken to prevent the AMR spread.

5.
Vet Q ; : 1-45, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250002

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals have gained immense importance in poultry science recently considering the nutritional and beneficial health effects of their constituents. Besides providing nutritional requirements to birds, nutraceuticals have beneficial pharmacological effects, for example, they help in establishing normal physiological health status, prevent diseases and thereby improve production performance. Nutraceuticals include amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, etc. which are important for preventing oxidative stress, regulating the immune response and maintaining normal physiological, biochemical and homeostatic mechanisms. Nutraceuticals help in supplying nutrients in balanced amounts for supporting the optimal growth performance in modern poultry flocks, and as a dietary supplement can reduce the use of antibiotics. The application of antibiotic growth enhancers in poultry leads to the propagation of antibiotic-resistant microbes and drug residues; therefore, they have been restricted in many countries. Thus, there is a demand for natural feed additives that lead to the same growth enhancement without affecting the health. Nutraceuticals substances have an essential role in the development of the animals' normal physiological functions and in protecting them against infectious diseases. In this review, the uses of amino acids, vitamins and minerals as well as their mode of action in growth promotion and elevation of immune system are discussed.

6.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 623-630, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948378

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in China, has created a panic among the general public and health care/laboratory workers. Thus far, there is no medication or vaccine to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19. As the virus is airborne and transmitted through droplets, there has been significant demand for face masks and other personal protective equipment to prevent the spread of infection. Health care and laboratory workers who come in close contact with infected people or material are at a high risk of infection. Therefore, robust biosafety measures are required at hospitals and laboratories to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Various diagnostic platforms including of serological, molecular and other advanced tools and techniques have been designed and developed for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 and each has its own merits and demerits. Molecular assays such as real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) has been used worldwide for diagnosis of COVID-19. Samples such as nasal swabs or oropharyngeal swabs are used for rRT-PCR. Laboratory acquired infection has been a significant problem worldwide, which has gained importance during the current pandemic as the samples for rRT-PCR may contain intact virus with serious threat. COVID-19 can spread to workers during the sampling, transportation, processing, and disposal of tested samples. Here, we present an overview on advances in diagnosis of COVID-19 and details the issues associated with biosafety procedures and potential safety precautions to be followed during collection, transportation, and processing of COVID-19 samples for laboratory diagnosis so as to avoid virus infection.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915100

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is suspected to have been first contracted via animal-human interactions; it has further spread across the world by efficient human-to-human transmission. Recent reports of COVID-19 in companion animals (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores such as tigers have created a dilemma regarding its zoonotic transmission. Although in silico docking studies, sequence-based computational studies, and experimental studies have shown the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in cats, ferrets, and other domestic/wild animals, the results are not conclusive of infection under natural conditions. Identifying the potential host range of SARS-CoV-2 will not only help prevent the possibility of human-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission but also assist in identifying efficient animal models that can mimic the clinical symptoms, transmission potential, and pathogenesis of the disease. Such an efficient animal model will accelerate the process of development and evaluation of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and other remedies for SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845733

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global threat and death tolls are increasing worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 though shares similarities with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, immunopathology of the novel virus is not understood properly. Previous reports from SARS and MERS-CoV documents that preexisting, non-neutralizing or poorly neutralizing antibodies developed as a result of vaccine or infection enhance subsequent infection, a phenomenon called as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Since immunotherapy has been implicated for COVID-19 treatment and vaccine is under development, due consideration has to be provided on ADE to prevent untoward reactions. ADE mitigation strategies like the development of vaccine or immunotherapeutics targeting receptor binding motif can be designed to minimize ADE of SARS-CoV-2 since full-length protein-based approach can lead to ADE as reported in MERS-CoV. The present mini-review aims to address the phenomenon of ADE of SARS-CoV-2 through the lessons learned from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and ways to mitigate them so as to develop better vaccines and immunotherapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 140-161, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315579

RESUMO

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious upper respiratory tract disease of chicken caused by a Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1) belonging to the genus Iltovirus, and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae within Herpesviridae family. The disease is characterized by conjunctivitis, sinusitis, oculo-nasal discharge, respiratory distress, bloody mucus, swollen orbital sinuses, high morbidity, considerable mortality and decreased egg production. It is well established in highly dense poultry producing areas of the world due to characteristic latency and carrier status of the virus. Co-infections with other respiratory pathogens and environmental factors adversely affect the respiratory system and prolong the course of the disease. Latently infected chickens are the primary source of ILT virus (ILTV) outbreaks irrespective of vaccination. Apart from conventional diagnostic methods including isolation and identification of ILTV, serological detection, advanced biotechnological tools such as PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, next generation sequencing, and others are being used in accurate diagnosis and epidemiological studies of ILTV. Vaccination is followed with the use of conventional vaccines including modified live attenuated ILTV vaccines, and advanced recombinant vector vaccines expressing different ILTV glycoproteins, but still these candidates frequently fail to reduce challenge virus shedding. Some herbal components have proved to be beneficial in reducing the severity of the clinical disease. The present review discusses ILT with respect to its current status, virus characteristics, epidemiology, transmission, pathobiology, and advances in diagnosis, vaccination and control strategies to counter this important disease of poultry.

10.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 16-34, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902298

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Pasteurellaceae family that resides normally in the respiratory and reproductive tracts in poultry. It is a major cause of oophoritis, salpingitis, and peritonitis, decreases egg production and mortality in hens thereby severely affecting animal welfare and overall productivity by poultry industries across Europe, Asia, America, and Africa. In addition, it has the ability to infect wider host range including domesticated and free-ranging avian hosts as well as mammalian hosts such as cattle, pigs and human. Evaluating the common virulence factors including outer membrane vesicles, fimbriae, capsule, metalloproteases, biofilm formation, hemagglutinin, and determining novel factors such as the RTX-like toxin GtxA, elongation factor-Tu, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has pathobiological, diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic significance. Treating this bacterial pathogen with traditional antimicrobial drugs is discouraged owing to the emergence of widespread multidrug resistance, whereas the efficacy of preventing this disease by classical vaccines is limited due to its antigenic diversity. It will be necessary to acquire in-depth knowledge on important virulence factors, pathogenesis and, concerns of rising antibiotic resistance, improvised treatment regimes, and novel vaccine candidates to effectively tackle this pathogen. This review substantially describes the etio-epidemiological aspects of G. anatis infection in poultry, and updates the recent development in understanding the pathogenesis, organism evolution and therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to counter G. anatis infection for safeguarding the welfare and health of poultry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Bacterianas , Pasteurellaceae/imunologia , Pasteurellaceae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia
11.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 245-256, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595607

RESUMO

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a popular herbal plant with abundant health benefits, and thus, it has been used as a potent antioxidant for a long time. Based on the available literature, the diversity and the availability of multifunctional compounds in green tea offer its noteworthy potential against many diseases such as liver and heart diseases, inflammatory conditions and different metabolic syndromes. Owing to its bioactive constituents including caffeine, amino acids, l-theanine, polyphenols/flavonoids and carbohydrates among other potent molecules, green tea has many pharmacological and physiological effects. The effects of green tea include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-stress, hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, skin/collagen protective, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti-infective, anti-parasitic, anti-cancerous, inhibition of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, anti-mutagenic, and memory and bone health-improving activities. Apart from its utilization in humans, green tea has also played a significant role in livestock production such as in dairy, piggery, goatry and poultry industries. Supplementation of animal feeds with green tea and its products is in line with the modern concepts of organic livestock production. Hence, incorporating green tea or green tea by-products into the diet of poultry and other livestock can enhance the value of the products obtained from these animals. Herein, an effort is made to extend the knowledge on the importance and useful applications of green tea and its important constituents in animal production including poultry. This review will be a guideline for researchers and entrepreneurs who want to explore the utilization of feeds supplemented with green tea and green tea by-products for the enhancement of livestock production.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Gado , Chá , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
12.
Anaerobe ; 61: 102116, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711886

RESUMO

Clostridium chauvoei causes blackleg disease in domestic animals, especially cattle and sheep. The pathogen produces several toxins including CctA - a hemolysin and protective antigen. Molecular pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood, possibly due to lack of genetic manipulation tools for C. chauvoei. In the present study, we report the marker-less deletion of cctA gene using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. The C. chauvoei cctA deletion mutant had negligible hemolytic and significantly reduced cytotoxic activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic manipulation of C. chauvoei. The method we used in this study can be applied for genetic manipulation of C. chauvoei to better understand the pathogenesis and genetics of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium chauvoei/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Clostridium chauvoei/efeitos dos fármacos , Edição de Genes , Hemólise , Mutação
13.
Front Mol Biosci ; 6: 91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750312

RESUMO

Various internal and external factors negatively affect the homeostatic equilibrium of organisms at the molecular to the whole-body level, inducing the so-called state of stress. Stress affects an organism's welfare status and induces energy-consuming mechanisms to combat the subsequent ill effects; thus, the individual may be immunocompromised, making them vulnerable to pathogens. The information presented here has been extensively reviewed, compiled, and analyzed from authenticated published resources available on Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and other scientific databases. Stress levels can be monitored by the quantitative and qualitative measurement of biomarkers. Potential markers of stress include thermal stress markers, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs), innate immune markers, such as Acute Phase Proteins (APPs), oxidative stress markers, and chemical secretions in the saliva and urine. In addition, stress biomarkers also play critical roles in the prognosis of stress-related diseases and disorders, and therapy guidance. Moreover, different components have been identified as potent mediators of cardiovascular, central nervous system, hepatic, and nephrological disorders, which can also be employed to evaluate these conditions precisely, but with stringent validation and specificity. Considerable scientific advances have been made in the detection, quantitation, and application of these biomarkers. The present review describes the current progress of identifying biomarkers, their prognostic, and therapeutic values.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608017

RESUMO

The applications of correct diagnostic approaches play a decisive role in timely containment of infectious diseases spread and mitigation of public health risks. Nevertheless, there is a need to update the diagnostics regularly to capture the new, emergent, and highly divergent viruses. Acute gastroenteritis of viral origin has been identified as a significant cause of mortality across the globe, with the more serious consequences seen at the extremes of age groups (young and elderly) and immune-compromised individuals. Therefore, significant advancements and efforts have been put in the development of enteric virus diagnostics to meet the WHO ASSURED criteria as a benchmark over the years. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are the basic assays that provided the platform for development of several efficient diagnostics such as real-time RT-PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), polymerase spiral reaction (PSR), biosensors, microarrays and next generation sequencing. Herein, we describe and discuss the applications of these advanced technologies in context to enteric virus detection by delineating their features, advantages and limitations.

15.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 143-152, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524561

RESUMO

High endemicity of Johne's disease (JD) in herds adversely affects heavy milk yielding breeds by reducing the per animal productivity and 'productive life-span'. This review evaluates different vaccines used for its control and summarizes the benefits of 'global vaccine' in the four major domestic livestock species, namely goat, sheep, buffalo and cattle. Vaccines developed by using 'native strains' revealed both 'therapeutic' and preventive effects in domestic livestock. The 'therapeutic' role of vaccine in animals suffering from clinical JD turned out to be valuable in some cases by reversing the disease process and animals returning back to health and production. Good herd management, improved hygiene, 'test and cull' methodology, proper disposal of animal excreta and monitoring of MAP bio-load were also regarded as crucial in the 'therapeutic' management of JD. Vaccine approaches have been widely adopted in JD control programs and may be considered as a valuable adjunct in order to utilize huge populations of otherwise un-productive livestock. It has been shown that vaccination was the preeminent strategy to control JD, because it yielded approximately 3-4 times better benefit-to-cost ratios than other strategies. Internationally, 146 vaccine trials/studies have been conducted in different countries for the control of JD and have shown remarkable reduction in its national prevalence. It is concluded that for JD, there cannot be global vaccines or diagnostic kits as solutions have to come from locally prevalent strains of MAP. Despite some limitations, vaccines might still be an effective strategy to reduce or eradicate JD.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Gado , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
Cells ; 8(7)2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277291

RESUMO

Autophagy (self-eating) is a conserved cellular degradation process that plays important roles in maintaining homeostasis and preventing nutritional, metabolic, and infection-mediated stresses. Autophagy dysfunction can have various pathological consequences, including tumor progression, pathogen hyper-virulence, and neurodegeneration. This review describes the mechanisms of autophagy and its associations with other cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autosis. Autophagy has both positive and negative roles in infection, cancer, neural development, metabolism, cardiovascular health, immunity, and iron homeostasis. Genetic defects in autophagy can have pathological consequences, such as static childhood encephalopathy with neurodegeneration in adulthood, Crohn's disease, hereditary spastic paraparesis, Danon disease, X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Further studies on the process of autophagy in different microbial infections could help to design and develop novel therapeutic strategies against important pathogenic microbes. This review on the progress and prospects of autophagy research describes various activators and suppressors, which could be used to design novel intervention strategies against numerous diseases and develop therapeutic drugs to protect human and animal health.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Doença , Desenho de Fármacos , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Preventiva/métodos
17.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 1-25, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929577

RESUMO

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a serious disease of goats, occasionally sheep and wild ruminants, caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp). The disease is characterized by severe serofibrinous pleuropneumonia, very high morbidity (∼100%), and mortality (80-100%). CCPP affects goats in more than 40 countries of the world thereby posing a serious threat to goat farming around the globe. The characteristic clinical signs of CCPP are severe respiratory distress associated with sero-mucoid nasal discharge, coughing, dyspnea, pyrexia, pleurodynia, and general malaise. In later stages, severe lobar fibrinous pleuropneumonia, profuse fluid accumulation in pleural cavity, severe congestion of lungs and adhesion formation is observed. Mycoplasmal antigen interactions with host immune system and its role in CCPP pathogenesis are not clearly understood. CCPP is not a zoonotic disease. Diagnosis has overcome cumbersome and lengthy conventional tests involving culture, isolation, and identification by advanced serological (LAT, cELISA) or gene-based amplification of DNA (PCR, RFLP, and hybridization) and sequencing. The latex agglutination test (LAT) is rapid, simple, and better test for field and real-time diagnosis applicable to whole blood or serum and is more sensitive than the CFT and easier than the cELISA. Moreover, the studies on antibiotic sensitivity and exploration of novel antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, macrolides) can help in better therapeutic management besides preventing menace of antibiotic resistance. Re-visiting conventional prophylactic measures focussing on developing novel strain-based or recombinant vaccines using specific antigens (capsular or cellular) should be the most important strategy for controlling the disease worldwide.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Mycoplasma capricolum/fisiologia , Pleuropneumonia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Pleuropneumonia/diagnóstico , Pleuropneumonia/epidemiologia , Pleuropneumonia/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão
18.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 26-55, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006350

RESUMO

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occurs. Outbreaks have been reported also from other countries in South and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed the circulation of two major clades of NiV as based on currently available complete N and G gene sequences. NiV isolates from Malaysia and Cambodia clustered together in NiV-MY clade, whereas isolates from Bangladesh and India clusterered within NiV-BD clade. NiV isolates from Thailand harboured mixed population of sequences. In humans, the virus is responsible for causing rapidly progressing severe illness which might be characterized by severe respiratory illness and/or deadly encephalitis. In pigs below six months of age, respiratory illness along with nervous symptoms may develop. Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Due to the expensive nature of the antibody drugs, identification of broad-spectrum antivirals is essential along with focusing on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). High pathogenicity of NiV in humans, and lack of vaccines or therapeutics to counter this disease have attracted attention of researchers worldwide for developing effective NiV vaccine and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/análise , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3727-3739, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637739

RESUMO

The technique of delivering various nutrients, supplements, immunostimulants, vaccines, and drugs via the in ovo route is gaining wide attention among researchers worldwide for boosting production performance, immunity and safeguarding the health of poultry. It involves direct administration of the nutrients and biologics into poultry eggs during the incubation period and before the chicks hatch out. In ovo delivery of nutrients has been found to be more effective than post-hatch administration in poultry production. The supplementation of feed additives, nutrients, hormones, probiotics, prebiotics, or their combination via in ovo techniques has shown diverse advantages for poultry products, such as improved growth performance and feed conversion efficiency, optimum development of the gastrointestinal tract, enhancing carcass yield, decreased embryo mortality, and enhanced immunity of poultry. In ovo delivery of vaccination has yielded a better response against various poultry pathogens than vaccination after hatch. So, this review has aimed to provide an insight on in ovo technology and its potential applications in poultry production to deliver different nutrients, supplements, beneficial microbes, vaccines, and drugs directly into the developing embryo to achieve an improvement in post-hatch growth, immunity, and health of poultry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/veterinária , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia
20.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2478, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483247

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral infection with skin-to-skin based transmission mode. HPV annually caused over 500,000 cancer cases including cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer among others. HPV vaccination has become a public-health concern, worldwide, to prevent the cases of HPV infections including precancerous lesions, cervical cancers, and genital warts especially in adolescent female and male population by launching national programs with international alliances. Currently, available prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines are expensive to be used in developing countries for vaccination programs. The recent progress in immunotherapy, biotechnology, recombinant DNA technology and molecular biology along with alternative and complementary medicinal systems have paved novel ways and valuable opportunities to design and develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, drugs and treatment approach to counter HPV effectively. Exploration and more researches on such advances could result in the gradual reduction in the incidences of HPV cases across the world. The present review presents a current global scenario and futuristic prospects of the advanced prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against HPV along with recent patents coverage of the progress and advances in drugs, vaccines and therapeutic regimens to effectively combat HPV infections and its cancerous conditions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Condiloma Acuminado/imunologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Adolescente , Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
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