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1.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 17, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birthweight (< 2500 g) is an important marker of maternal health and is associated with neonatal mortality, long-term development and chronic diseases. Household surveys remain an important source of population-based birthweight information, notably Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS); however, data quality concerns remain. Few studies have addressed how to close these gaps in surveys. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of 69,176 women was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites (Matlab-Bangladesh, Dabat-Ethiopia, Kintampo-Ghana, Bandim-Guinea-Bissau, IgangaMayuge-Uganda). Responses to existing DHS/MICS birthweight questions on 14,411 livebirths were analysed and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) associated with reporting weighing, birthweight and heaping reported. Twenty-eight focus group discussions with women and interviewers explored barriers and enablers to reporting birthweight. RESULTS: Almost all women provided responses to birthweight survey questions, taking on average 0.2 min to answer. Of all babies, 62.4% were weighed at birth, 53.8% reported birthweight and 21.1% provided health cards with recorded birthweight. High levels of heterogeneity were observed between sites. Home births and neonatal deaths were less likely to be weighed at birth (home births aOR 0.03(95%CI 0.02-0.03), neonatal deaths (aOR 0.19(95%CI 0.16-0.24)), and when weighed, actual birthweight was less likely to be known (aOR 0.44(95%CI 0.33-0.58), aOR 0.30(95%CI 0.22-0.41)) compared to facility births and post-neonatal survivors. Increased levels of maternal education were associated with increases in reporting weighing and knowing birthweight. Half of recorded birthweights were heaped on multiples of 500 g. Heaping was more common in IgangaMayuge (aOR 14.91(95%CI 11.37-19.55) and Dabat (aOR 14.25(95%CI 10.13-20.3) compared to Bandim. Recalled birthweights were more heaped than those recorded by card (aOR 2.59(95%CI 2.11-3.19)). A gap analysis showed large missed opportunity between facility birth and known birthweight, especially for neonatal deaths. Qualitative data suggested that knowing their baby's weight was perceived as valuable by women in all sites, but lack of measurement and poor communication, alongside social perceptions and spiritual beliefs surrounding birthweight, impacted women's ability to report birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial data gaps remain for birthweight data in household surveys, even amongst facility births. Improving the accuracy and recording of birthweights, and better communication with women, for example using health cards, could improve survey birthweight data availability and quality.

2.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 14, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth registration is a child's first right. Registration of live births, stillbirths and deaths is foundational for national planning. Completeness of birth registration for live births in low- and middle-income countries is measured through population-based surveys which do not currently include completeness of stillbirth or death registration. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of women of reproductive age was undertaken in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda (2017-2018). In four African sites, we included new/modified questions regarding registration for 1177 stillbirths and 11,881 livebirths (1333 neonatal deaths and 10,548 surviving the neonatal period). Questions were evaluated for completeness of responses, data quality, time to administer and estimates of registration completeness using descriptive statistics. Timing of birth registration, factors associated with non-registration and reported barriers were assessed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost all women, irrespective of their baby's survival, responded to registration questions, taking an average of < 1 min. Reported completeness of birth registration was 30.7% (6.1-53.5%) for babies surviving the neonatal period, compared to 1.7% for neonatal deaths (0.4-5.7%). Women were able to report age at birth registration for 93.6% of babies. Non-registration of babies surviving the neonatal period was significantly higher for home-born children (aOR 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.60)) and in Dabat (Ethiopia) (aOR 4.11 (95% CI 3.37-5.01)). Other socio-demographic factors associated with non-registration included younger age of mother, more prior births, little or no education, and lower socio-economic status. Neonatal death registration questions were feasible (100% women responded; only 1% did not know), revealing extremely low completeness with only 1.2% of neonatal deaths reported as registered. Despite > 70% of stillbirths occurring in facilities, only 2.5% were reported as registered. CONCLUSIONS: Questions on birth, stillbirth and death registration were feasible in a household survey. Completeness of birth registration is low in all four sites, but stillbirth and neonatal death registration was very low. Closing the registration gap amongst facility births could increase registration of both livebirths and facility deaths, including stillbirths, but will require co-ordination between civil registration systems and the often over-stretched health sector. Investment and innovation is required to capture birth and especially deaths in both facility and community systems.

3.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 12, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Termination of pregnancy (TOP) is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. Population-based surveys are the major data source for TOP data in LMICs but are known to have shortcomings that require improving. The EN-INDEPTH multi-country survey employed a full pregnancy history approach with roster and new questions on TOP and Menstrual Restoration. This mixed methods paper assesses the completeness of responses to questions eliciting TOP information from respondents and reports on practices, barriers, and facilitators to TOP reporting. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH study was a population-based cross-sectional study. The Full Pregnancy History arm of the study surveyed 34,371 women of reproductive age between 2017 and 2018 in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites of the INDEPTH network: Bandim, Guinea-Bissau; Dabat, Ethiopia; IgangaMayuge, Uganda; Kintampo, Ghana; and Matlab, Bangladesh. Completeness and time spent in answering TOP questions were evaluated using simple tabulations and summary statistics. Exact binomial 95% confidence intervals were computed for TOP rates and ratios. Twenty-eight (28) focus group discussions were undertaken and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Completeness of responses regarding TOP was between 90.3 and 100.0% for all question types. The new questions elicited between 2.0% (1.0-3.4), 15.5% (13.9-17.3), and 11.5% (8.8-14.7) lifetime TOP cases over the roster questions from Dabat, Ethiopia; Matlab, Bangladesh; and Kintampo, Ghana, respectively. The median response time on the roster TOP questions was below 1.3 minutes in all sites. Qualitative results revealed that TOP was frequently stigmatised and perceived as immoral, inhumane, and shameful. Hence, it was kept secret rendering it difficult and uncomfortable to report. Miscarriages were perceived to be natural, being easier to report than TOP. Interviewer techniques, which were perceived to facilitate TOP disclosure, included cultural competence, knowledge of contextually appropriate terms for TOP, adaptation to interviewee's individual circumstances, being non-judgmental, speaking a common language, and providing detailed informed consent. CONCLUSIONS: Survey roster questions may under-represent true TOP rates, since the new questions elicited responses from women who had not disclosed TOP in the roster questions. Further research is recommended particularly into standardised training and approaches to improving interview context and techniques to facilitate TOP reporting in surveys.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e555-e566, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 5·1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Household surveys, most notably the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), run in more than 90 countries and are the main data source from the highest burden regions, but data-quality concerns remain. We aimed to compare two questionnaires: a full birth history module with additional questions on pregnancy losses (FBH+; the current DHS standard) and a full pregnancy history module (FPH), which collects information on all livebirths, stillbirths, miscarriages, and neonatal deaths. METHODS: Women residing in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites within the INDEPTH Network (Bandim in Guinea-Bissau, Dabat in Ethiopia, IgangaMayuge in Uganda, Matlab in Bangladesh, and Kintampo in Ghana) were randomly assigned (individually) to be interviewed using either FBH+ or FPH between July 28, 2017, and Aug 13, 2018. The primary outcomes were stillbirths and neonatal deaths in the 5 years before the survey interview (measured by stillbirth rate [SBR] and neonatal mortality rate [NMR]) and mean time taken to complete the maternity history section of the questionnaire. We also assessed between-site heterogeneity. This study is registered with the Research Registry, 4720. FINDINGS: 69 176 women were allocated to be interviewed by either FBH+ (n=34 805) or FPH (n=34 371). The mean time taken to complete FPH (10·5 min) was longer than for FBH+ (9·1 min; p<0·0001). Using FPH, the estimated SBR was 17·4 per 1000 total births, 21% (95% CI -10 to 62) higher than with FBH+ (15·2 per 1000 total births; p=0·20) in the 5 years preceding the survey interview. There was strong evidence of between-site heterogeneity (I2=80·9%; p<0·0001), with SBR higher for FPH than for FBH+ in four of five sites. The estimated NMR did not differ between modules (FPH 25·1 per 1000 livebirths vs FBH+ 25·4 per 1000 livebirths), with no evidence of between-site heterogeneity (I2=0·7%; p=0·40). INTERPRETATION: FPH takes an average of 1·4 min longer to complete than does FBH+, but has the potential to increase reporting of stillbirths in high burden contexts. The between-site heterogeneity we found might reflect variations in interviewer training and survey implementation, emphasising the importance of interviewer skills, training, and consistent implementation in data quality. FUNDING: Children's Investment Fund Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(5): 457-466, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Partnership for HIV-Free Survival (PHFS) in Uganda used a quality improvement (QI) approach to integrate the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, maternal and child health, and nutrition services, with the goal of increasing the retention of mother-baby pairs in care and decreasing vertical transmission of HIV. METHODS: This evaluation of PHFS used a retrospective longitudinal design to assess the program's association with 4 outcomes. Data were extracted from patient records from 2011 (before the program) to 2018 (after the program) at 18 demonstration, 18 scale-up, and 24 comparison facilities. Difference-in-differences analyses were conducted with significance set at P < 0.15 during and P > 0.15 or a significant continued improvement after PHFS. RESULTS: PHFS was associated with an increase in exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) (P = 0.08), 12-month retention in care (P < 0.001), and completeness of child 18-month HIV test results (P = 0.13) at demonstration facilities during program implementation. MTCT at 18 months decreased, but did not differ between groups. Increases in EBF (P = 0.67) and retention in care (P = 0.16) were sustained, and data completeness (P = 0.10) continued to increase at demonstration facilities after the program. PHFS was associated with an increase in EBF (P < 0.001) at scale-up facilities, but there was no difference between groups for retention in care, MTCT, or data completeness. Gains in EBF were lost (P = 0.08) and retention in care declined (P < 0.001) at scale-up facilities after the program. CONCLUSION: PHFS' quality improvement approach increased EBF, retention in care, and data completeness in demonstration facilities during the program and these benefits were sustained.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Aleitamento Materno , Saúde da Criança , Aconselhamento , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Prevalência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Programas Médicos Regionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1330, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce the under-five mortality (U5M), fine-gained spatial assessment of the effects of health interventions is critical because national averages can obscure important sub-national disparities. In turn, sub-national estimates can guide control programmes for spatial targeting. The purpose of our study is to quantify associations of interventions with U5M rate at national and sub-national scales in Uganda and to identify interventions associated with the largest reductions in U5M rate at the sub-national scale. METHODS: Spatially explicit data on U5M, interventions and sociodemographic indicators were obtained from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Climatic data were extracted from remote sensing sources. Bayesian geostatistical Weibull proportional hazards models with spatially varying effects at sub-national scales were utilized to quantify associations between all-cause U5M and interventions at national and regional levels. Bayesian variable selection was employed to select the most important determinants of U5M. RESULTS: At the national level, interventions associated with the highest reduction in U5M were artemisinin-based combination therapy (hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 0.60; 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI): 0.11, 0.79), initiation of breastfeeding within 1 h of birth (HR = 0.70; 95% BCI: 0.51, 0.86), intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) (HRR = 0.74; 95% BCI: 0.67, 0.97) and access to insecticide-treated nets (ITN) (HRR = 0.75; 95% BCI: 0.63, 0.84). In Central 2, Mid-Western and South-West, largest reduction in U5M was associated with access to ITNs. In Mid-North and West-Nile, improved source of drinking water explained most of the U5M reduction. In North-East, improved sanitation facilities were associated with the highest decline in U5M. In Kampala and Mid-Eastern, IPTp had the largest associated with U5M. In Central1 and East-Central, oral rehydration solution and postnatal care were associated with highest decreases in U5M respectively. CONCLUSION: Sub-national estimates of the associations between U5M and interventions can guide control programmes for spatial targeting and accelerate progress towards mortality-related Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Uganda
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010901, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820319

RESUMO

Background: Under-five and maternal mortality were halved in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) era, with slower reductions for 2.6 million neonatal deaths and 2.6 million stillbirths. The Every Newborn Action Plan aims to accelerate progress towards national targets, and includes an ambitious Measurement Improvement Roadmap. Population-based household surveys, notably Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, are major sources of population-level data on child mortality in countries with weaker civil registration and vital statistics systems, where over two-thirds of global child deaths occur. To estimate neonatal/child mortality and pregnancy outcomes (stillbirths, miscarriages, birthweight, gestational age) the most common direct methods are: (1) the standard DHS-7 with Full Birth History with additional questions on pregnancy losses in the past 5 years (FBH+) or (2) a Full Pregnancy History (FPH). No direct comparison of these two methods has been undertaken, although descriptive analyses suggest that the FBH+ may underestimate mortality rates particularly for stillbirths. Methods: This is the protocol paper for the Every Newborn-INDEPTH study (INDEPTH Network, International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health Every Newborn, Every Newborn Action Plan), aiming to undertake a randomised comparison of FBH+ and FPH to measure pregnancy outcomes in a household survey in five selected INDEPTH Network sites in Africa and South Asia (Bandim in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau; Dabat in Ethiopia; IgangaMayuge in Uganda; Kintampo in Ghana; Matlab in Bangladesh). The survey will reach >68 000 pregnancies to assess if there is ≥15% difference in stillbirth rates. Additional questions will capture birthweight, gestational age, birth/death certification, termination of pregnancy and fertility intentions. The World Bank's Survey Solutions platform will be tailored for data collection, including recording paradata to evaluate timing. A mixed methods assessment of barriers and enablers to reporting of pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes will be undertaken. Conclusions: This large-scale study is the first randomised comparison of these two methods to capture pregnancy outcomes. Results are expected to inform the evidence base for survey methodology, especially in DHS, regarding capture of stillbirths and other outcomes, notably neonatal deaths, abortions (spontaneous and induced), birthweight and gestational age. In addition, this study will inform strategies to improve health and demographic surveillance capture of neonatal/child mortality and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Vigilância da População/métodos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Parasite Epidemiol Control ; 5: e00089, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923753

RESUMO

Introduction: Information on the causes of death among under-five children is key in designing and implementation of appropriate interventions. In Uganda, civil death registration is incomplete which limits the estimation of disease-related mortality burden especially at a local scale. In the absence of routine cause-specific data, we used household surveys to quantify the effects and contribution of main childhood diseases such as malaria, severe or moderate anaemia, severe or moderate malnutrition, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) on all-cause under-five mortality (U5M) at national and sub-national levels. We related all-cause U5M with risks of childhood diseases after adjusting for geographical disparities in coverages of health interventions, socio-economic, environmental factors and disease co-endemicities. Methods: Data on U5M, disease prevalence, socio-economic and intervention coverage indicators were obtained from the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey, while data on malaria prevalence were extracted from the 2009 Malaria Indicator Survey. Bayesian geostatistical Weibull proportional hazards models with spatially varying disease effects at sub-national scales were fitted to quantify the associations between childhood diseases and the U5M. Spatial correlation between clusters was incorporated via locational random effects while region-specific random effects with conditional autoregressive prior distributions modeled the geographical variation in the effects of childhood diseases. The models addressed geographical misalignment in the locations of the two surveys. The contribution of childhood diseases to under-five mortality was estimated using population attributable fractions. Results: The overall U5M rate was 90 deaths per 1000 live births. Large regional variations in U5M rates were observed, lowest in Kampala at 56 and highest in the North-East at 152 per 1000 live births. National malaria parasitemia prevalence was 42%, with Kampala experiencing the lowest of 5% and the Mid-North the highest of 62%. About 27% of Ugandan children aged 6-59 months were severely or moderately anaemic; lowest in South-West (8%) and highest in East-Central (46%). Overall, 17% of children were either severely or moderately malnourished. The percentage of moderately/severely malnourished children varied by region with Kampala having the lowest (8%) and North-East the highest (45%). Nearly a quarter of the children under-five years were reported to have diarrhoea at national level, and this proportion was highest in East-Central (32%) and Mid-Eastern (33%) and lowest in South-West (14%). Overall, ARIs in the two weeks before the survey was 15%; highest in Mid-North (22%) and lowest in Central 1 (9%). At national level, the U5M was associated with prevalence of malaria (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74; 95% BCI: 1.42, 2.16), severe or moderate anaemia (HR =1.37; 95% BCI: 1.20, 1.75), severe or moderate malnutrition (HR = 1.49; 95% BCI: 1.25, 1.66) and diarrhoea (HR = 1.61; 95% BCI: 1.31, 2.05). The relationship between malaria and U5M was important in the regions of Central 2, East-Central, Mid-North, North-East and West-Nile. Diarrhoea was associated with under-five deaths in Central 2, East-central, Mid-Eastern and Mid-Western. Moderate/severe malnutrition was associated with U5M in East-Central, Mid-Eastern and North-East. Moderate/severe anaemia was associated with deaths in Central 1, Kampala, Mid-North, Mid-Western, North-East, South-West and West-Nile.At the national level, 97% (PAF = 96.9; 95%BCI: 94.4, 98.0), 91% (PAF = 90.9; 95%BCI: 84.4, 95.3), 89% (PAF = 89.3; 95%BCI: 76.0,93.8) and 93% (PAF = 93.3 95%BCI: 87.7,96.0) of the deaths among children less than five years in Uganda were attributable to malaria, severe/moderate anaemia, severe/moderate malnutrition and diarrhoea respectively. The attribution of malaria was comparable in Central 2, East-Central, Mid-North, North-East and West-Nile while severe/moderate anaemia was more common in all regions except Central 2, East-Central and Mid-Eastern. The attribution of diarrhoea in Central 2, East-Central, Mid-Eastern and Mid-Western was similar. The attribution of severe/moderate malnutrition was common in East-Central, Mid-Eastern and North-East. Conclusion: In Uganda, the contribution and effects of childhood diseases on U5M vary by region. Majority of the under-five deaths are due to malaria, followed by diarrhoea, severe/moderate anaemia and severe/moderate malnutrition. Thus, strengthening disease-specific interventions especially in the affected regions may be an important strategy to accelerate progress towards the reduction of the U5M as per the SDG target by 2030. In particular, Indoor Residual Spraying, iron supplementation, deworming, exclusive breastfeeding, investment in nutrition and education in nutrition practices, oral rehydration therapy or recommended home fluid, improved sanitation facilities should be improved.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17928, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560884

RESUMO

There is paucity of evidence for the role of health service delivery to the malaria decline in Uganda We developed a methodology to quantify health facility readiness and assessed its role on severe malaria outcomes among lower-level facilities (HCIIIs and HCIIs) in the country. Malaria data was extracted from the Health Management Information System (HMIS). General service and malaria-specific readiness indicators were obtained from the 2013 Uganda service delivery indicator survey. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to construct a composite facility readiness score based on multiple factorial axes. Geostatistical models assessed the effect of facility readiness on malaria deaths and severe cases. Malaria readiness was achieved in one-quarter of the facilities. The composite readiness score explained 48% and 46% of the variation in the original indicators compared to 23% and 27%, explained by the first axis alone for HCIIIs and HCIIs, respectively. Mortality rate was 64% (IRR = 0.36, 95% BCI: 0.14-0.61) and 68% (IRR = 0.32, 95% BCI: 0.12-0.54) lower in the medium and high compared to low readiness groups, respectively. A composite readiness index is more informative and consistent than the one based on the first MCA factorial axis. In Uganda, higher facility readiness is associated with a reduced risk of severe malaria outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Malária/mortalidade , Fortalecimento Institucional , Instalações de Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Humanos , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205210, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), other complimentary measures including suitable housing structures, and environmental management that reduce breeding of malaria vectors, can be implemented at households to prevent the disease. However, most studies on malaria prevention have focused mainly on ITNs and IRS. The aim of this study was therefore to assess malaria prevention practices beyond ITNs and IRS, and associated environmental risk factors including housing structure in rural Wakiso district, Uganda. METHODS: A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households in Wakiso district. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and observational checklist. The questionnaire assessed participants' household practices on malaria prevention, whereas the checklist recorded environmental risk factors for malaria transmission, and structural condition of houses. Poisson regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with use of mosquito nets by households. RESULTS: Of the 727 households, 471 (64.8%) owned at least one mosquito net. Use of mosquito nets by households was higher with increasing education level of participants-primary (aPR = 1.27 [95% CI: 1.00-1.60]), secondary (ordinary level) (aPR = 1.47 [95% CI: 1.16-1.85]) and advanced level / tertiary (aPR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.19-2.01]), and higher household income (aPR = 1.09 [95% CI: 1.00-1.20]). Additionally, participants who were not employed were less likely to have mosquito nets used in their households (aPR = 0.83 [95% CI: 0.70-0.98]). Houses that had undergone IRS in the previous 12 months were 42 (5.8%), while 220 (43.2%) households closed their windows before 6.00 pm. Environmental risk factors found at households included presence of vessels that could potentially hold water for mosquito breeding 414 (56.9%), and stagnant water in compounds 144 (19.8%). Several structural deficiencies on houses that could promote entry of mosquitoes were found such as lack of screening in ventilators 645 (94.7%), and external doors not fitting perfectly into walls hence potential for mosquito entry 305 (42.0%). CONCLUSION: There is need to increase coverage and utilisation of ITNs and IRS for malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. In addition, other malaria prevention strategies such as environmental management, and improving structural condition of houses are required to strengthen existing malaria prevention approaches.


Assuntos
Habitação , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Saúde da População Rural , Adulto , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/provisão & distribução , Inseticidas , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Fatores de Risco , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203747, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240400

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reliable and timely immunization data is vital at all levels of health care to inform decisions and improve program performance. Inadequate data quality may impair our understanding of the true vaccination coverage and also hinder our capability to meet the program objectives. It's therefore important to regularly assess immunization data quality to ensure good performance, sound decision making and efficient use of resources. METHODS: We conducted an immunization data quality audit between July and August 2016. The verification factor was estimated by dividing the recounted diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus third dose vaccination for children under 1 year (DPT3<1 year) by reported DPT3<1 year. The quality of data collection processes was measured using quality indices for the 3 different components: recording practices, storage/reporting, monitoring and evaluation. These indices were applied to the different levels of the health care service delivery system. Quality index score was estimated by dividing the total question or observation correctly answered by the total number of answers/ observations for a particular component. RESULTS: The mean health center verification factor was 87%. Sixty five percent (32/49) of the health centers had consistent data, 27% (13/49) over reported and 4% (2/49) under-reported. Health center 11s and 111s contributed to over-reporting and under-reporting. All the health centers' reports were complete and timely between January and June and from November to December. The mean quality indices for the 3 different componets assessed were; recording practices 66%, storing/reporting 75%, monitoring and evaluation 43%. There was a weak positive correlation between the health center verifaction factor and quality index though this was not statistically significant (r = 0.014; p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Lower level health centers contributed significantly to the inconsistencies in immunization data; there were wide variation between the quality indices of recording practices, storage/reporting, monitoring and evaluation. We recommended that District Local Governments and Ministry of Health focus on improving data quality at lower levels of health service delivery.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Cobertura Vacinal , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
Contraception ; 98(5): 423-429, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine continuation of subcutaneous and intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM) when administered by facility-based health workers in Burkina Faso and Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were family planning clients of health centers (Burkina Faso) or VHTs (Uganda) who had decided to initiate injectable use. Women selected DMPA-SC or DMPA-IM and study staff followed them for up to four injections (providing 12 months of pregnancy protection) to determine contraceptive continuation. Study staff interviewed women at their first injection (baseline), second injection, fourth injection and if they discontinued either product. RESULTS: Twelve-month continuation in Burkina Faso was 50% for DMPA-SC and 47.4% for DMPA-IM (p=.41, N=990, 492 DMPA-SC and 498 DMPA-IM). Twelve-month continuation in Uganda was 77.8% for DMPA-SC and 77.4% for DMPA-IM (p=.85, N=1224, 609 DMPA-SC and 615 DMPA-IM). Reasons for discontinuation of DMPA across groups in Burkina Faso included side effects (90/492, 18.3%), being late for injection (68/492, 13.8%) and refusal of spouse (51/492, 10.4%). Reasons for discontinuation in Uganda included being late for injection (65/229, 28.4%), received from non-VHT (50/229, 21.8%) and side effects (34/229, 14.8%). Increased age (adjusted hazard ratio=0.98, p=.01) and partner acceptance of family planning (adjusted hazard ratio=0.48, p<.001) had protective effects against discontinuation in Burkina Faso; we did not find statistically significant variables in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in 12-month continuation (through four injections) between DMPA-SC and DMPA-IM whether from facility-based health workers in Burkina Faso or VHTs in Uganda. Continuation was higher through community-based distribution in Uganda than health facilities in Burkina Faso. IMPLICATIONS: The subcutaneous formulation of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) is increasingly available in Family Planning 2020 countries. Use of DMPA-SC does not appear to change continuation relative to traditional intramuscular DMPA. Growing evidence of DMPA-SC's suitability for community-based distribution and self-injection may yield indirect benefits for contraceptive continuation and help reach new users.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Subcutâneas , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
14.
Parasite Epidemiol Control ; 3(3): e00070, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988311

RESUMO

Background: Although malaria burden in Uganda has declined since 2009 following the scale-up of interventions, the disease is still the leading cause of hospitalization and death. Transmission remains high and is driven by suitable weather conditions. There is a real concern that intervention gains may be reversed by climatic changes in the country. In this study, we investigate the effects of climate on the spatio-temporal trends of malaria incidence in Uganda during 2013-2017. Methods: Bayesian spatio-temporal negative binomial models were fitted on district-aggregated monthly malaria cases, reported by two age groups, defined by a cut-off age of 5 years. Weather data was obtained from remote sensing sources including rainfall, day land surface temperature (LSTD) and night land surface temperature (LSTN), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), altitude, land cover, and distance to water bodies. Spatial and temporal correlations were taken into account by assuming a conditional autoregressive and a first-order autoregressive process on district and monthly specific random effects, respectively. Fourier trigonometric functions modeled seasonal fluctuations in malaria transmission. The effects of climatic changes on the malaria incidence changes between 2013 and 2017 were estimated by modeling the difference in time varying climatic conditions at the two time points and adjusting for the effects of intervention coverage, socio-economic status and health seeking behavior. Results: Malaria incidence declined steadily from 2013 to 2015 and then increased in 2016. The decrease was by over 38% and 20% in children <5 years and individuals ≥5 years, respectively. Temporal trends depict a strong bi-annual seasonal pattern with two peaks during April-June and October-December. The annual average of rainfall, LSTD and LSTN increased by 3.7 mm, 2.2 °C and 1.0 °C, respectively, between 2013 and 2017, whereas NDVI decreased by 6.8%. On the one hand, the increase in LSTD and decrease in NDVI were associated with a reduction in the incidence decline. On the other hand, malaria interventions and treatment seeking behavior had reverse effects, that were stronger compared to the effects of climatic changes. Important interactions between interventions with NDVI and LSTD suggest a varying impact of interventions on malaria burden in different climatic conditions. Conclusion: Climatic changes in Uganda during the last five years contributed to a favorable environment for malaria transmission, and had a detrimental effect on malaria reduction gains achieved through interventions scale-up efforts. The NMCP should create synergies with the National Meteorological Authority with an ultimate goal of developing a Malaria Early Warning System to mitigate adverse climatic change effects on malaria risk in the country.

15.
Malar J ; 17(1): 162, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic reporting of routine health facility data in Uganda began with the adoption of the District Health Information Software System version 2 (DHIS2) in 2011. This has improved health facility reporting and overall data quality. In this study, the effects of case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and vector control interventions on space-time patterns of disease incidence were determined using DHIS2 data reported during 2013-2016. METHODS: Bayesian spatio-temporal negative binomial models were fitted on district-aggregated monthly malaria cases, reported by two age groups, defined by a cut-off age of 5 years. The effects of interventions were adjusted for socio-economic and climatic factors. Spatial and temporal correlations were taken into account by assuming a conditional autoregressive and a first-order autoregressive AR(1) process on district and monthly specific random effects, respectively. Fourier trigonometric functions were incorporated in the models to take into account seasonal fluctuations in malaria transmission. RESULTS: The temporal variation in incidence was similar in both age groups and depicted a steady decline up to February 2014, followed by an increase from March 2015 onwards. The trends were characterized by a strong bi-annual seasonal pattern with two peaks during May-July and September-December. Average monthly incidence in children < 5 years declined from 74.7 cases (95% CI 72.4-77.1) in 2013 to 49.4 (95% CI 42.9-55.8) per 1000 in 2015 and followed by an increase in 2016 of up to 51.3 (95% CI 42.9-55.8). In individuals ≥ 5 years, a decline in incidence from 2013 to 2015 was followed by an increase in 2016. A 100% increase in insecticide-treated nets (ITN) coverage was associated with a decline in incidence by 44% (95% BCI 28-59%). Similarly, a 100% increase in ACT coverage reduces incidence by 28% (95% BCI 11-45%) and 25% (95% BCI 20-28%) in children < 5 years and individuals ≥ 5 years, respectively. The ITN effect was not statistically important in older individuals. The space-time patterns of malaria incidence in children < 5 are similar to those of parasitaemia risk predicted from the malaria indicator survey of 2014-15. CONCLUSION: The decline in malaria incidence highlights the effectiveness of vector-control interventions and case management with ACT in Uganda. This calls for optimizing and sustaining interventions to achieve universal coverage and curb reverses in malaria decline.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Administração de Caso , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Environ Public Health ; 2018: 3710120, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623096

RESUMO

Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) continue to contribute to the high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in low-income countries such as Uganda particularly in slums. We implemented a 3-year WASH project in two urban slums in Uganda with a focus on safe drinking water and improvement in sanitation. The project implemented community and school interventions in addition to capacity building initiatives. Community interventions included home improvement campaigns, clean-up exercises, water quality assessment, promotion of drinking safe water through household point-of-use chlorination, promotion of hand washing, and support towards solid waste management. In schools, the project supported health clubs and provided them with "talking compound" messages. The capacity building initiatives undertaken included training of youth and community health workers. Project evaluation revealed several improvements in WASH status of the slums including increase in piped water usage from 38% to 86%, reduction in use of unprotected water sources from 30% to 2%, reduction in indiscriminate disposal of solid waste from 18% to 2%, and increase in satisfaction with solid waste management services from 40% to 92%. Such proactive and sustainable community interventions have the potential to not only improve lives of slum inhabitants in developing countries but also create lasting impact.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene , Áreas de Pobreza , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Uganda , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 12, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456843

RESUMO

Background: Policy implementation remains an under researched area in most low and middle income countries and it is not surprising that several policies are implemented without a systematic follow up of why and how they are working or failing. This study is part of a larger project called Supporting Policy Engagement for Evidence-based Decisions (SPEED) for Universal Health Coverage in Uganda. It seeks to support policymakers monitor the implementation of vital programmes for the realisation of policy goals for Universal Health Coverage. A Policy Implementation Barometer (PIB) is proposed as a mechanism to provide feedback to the decision makers about the implementation of a selected set of policy programmes at various implementation levels (macro, meso and micro level). The main objective is to establish the extent of implementation of malaria, family planning and emergency obstetric care policies in Uganda and use these results to support stakeholder engagements for corrective action. This is the first PIB survey of the three planned surveys and its specific objectives include: assessment of the perceived appropriateness of implementation programmes to the identified policy problems; determination of enablers and constraints to implementation of the policies; comparison of on-line and face-to-face administration of the PIB questionnaire among target respondents; and documentation of stakeholder responses to PIB findings with regard to corrective actions for implementation. Methods/Design: The PIB will be a descriptive and analytical study employing mixed methods in which both quantitative and qualitative data will be systematically collected and analysed. The first wave will focus on 10 districts and primary data will be collected through interviews. The study seeks to interview 570 respondents of which 120 will be selected at national level with 40 based on each of the three policy domains, 200 from 10 randomly selected districts, and 250 from 50 facilities. Half of the respondents at each level will be randomly assigned to either face-to-face or on-line interviews. An integrated questionnaire for these interviews will collect both quantitative data through Likert scale-type questions, and qualitative data through open-ended questions. And finally focused dialogues will be conducted with selected stakeholders for feedback on the PIB findings. Secondary data will be collected using data extraction tools for performance statistics. Discussion: It is anticipated that the PIB findings and more importantly, the focused dialogues with relevant stakeholders, that will be convened to discuss the findings and establish corrective actions, will enhance uptake of results and effective health policy implementation towards universal health coverage in Uganda.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 21, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In April 2015, Kamwenge District, western Uganda reported a measles outbreak. We investigated the outbreak to identify potential exposures that facilitated measles transmission, assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) and vaccination coverage (VC), and recommend prevention and control measures. METHODS: For this investigation, a probable case was defined as onset of fever and generalized maculopapular rash, plus ≥1 of the following symptoms: Coryza, conjunctivitis, or cough. A confirmed case was defined as a probable case plus identification of measles-specific IgM in serum. For case-finding, we reviewed patients' medical records and conducted in-home patient examination. In a case-control study, we compared exposures of case-patients and controls matched by age and village of residence. For children aged 9 m-5y, we estimated VC using the percent of children among the controls who had been vaccinated against measles, and calculated VE using the formula, VE = 1 - ORM-H, where ORM-H was the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio associated with having a measles vaccination history. RESULTS: We identified 213 probable cases with onset between April and August, 2015. Of 23 blood specimens collected, 78% were positive for measles-specific IgM. Measles attack rate was highest in the youngest age-group, 0-5y (13/10,000), and decreased as age increased. The epidemic curve indicated sustained propagation in the community. Of the 50 case-patients and 200 controls, 42% of case-patients and 12% of controls visited health centers during their likely exposure period (ORM-H = 6.1; 95% CI = 2.7-14). Among children aged 9 m-5y, VE was estimated at 70% (95% CI: 24-88%), and VC at 75% (95% CI: 67-83%). Excessive crowding was observed at all health centers; no patient triage-system existed. CONCLUSIONS: The spread of measles during this outbreak was facilitated by patient mixing at crowded health centers, suboptimal VE and inadequate VC. We recommended emergency immunization campaign targeting children <5y in the affected sub-counties, as well as triaging and isolation of febrile or rash patients visiting health centers.


Assuntos
Sarampo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntivite/etiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/transmissão , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Morbillivirus/imunologia , Razão de Chances , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 450, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28964263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Uganda, malaria vector control interventions and case management with Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) have been scaled up over the last few years as a result of increased funding. Data on parasitaemia prevalence among children less than 5 years old and coverage of interventions was collected during the first two Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 2009 and 2014, respectively. In this study, we quantify the effects of control interventions on parasitaemia risk changes between the two MIS in a spatio-temporal analysis. METHODS: Bayesian geostatistical and temporal models were fitted on the MIS data of 2009 and 2014. The models took into account geographical misalignment in the locations of the two surveys and adjusted for climatic changes and socio-economic differentials. Parasitaemia risk was predicted over a 2 × 2 km2 grid and the number of infected children less than 5 years old was estimated. Geostatistical variable selection was applied to identify the most important ITN coverage indicators. A spatially varying coefficient model was used to estimate intervention effects at sub-national level. RESULTS: The coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and ACTs more than doubled at country and sub-national levels during the period 2009-2014. The coverage of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) remained static at all levels. ITNs, IRS, and ACTs were associated with a reduction in parasitaemia odds of 19% (95% BCI: 18-29%), 78% (95% BCI: 67-84%), and 34% (95% BCI: 28-66%), respectively. Intervention effects varied with region. Higher socio-economic status and living in urban areas were associated with parasitaemia odds reduction of 46% (95% BCI: 0.51-0.57) and 57% (95% BCI: 0.40-0.53), respectively. The probability of parasitaemia risk decline in the country was 85% and varied from 70% in the North-East region to 100% in Kampala region. The estimated number of children infected with malaria declined from 2,480,373 in 2009 to 825,636 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions have had a strong effect on the decline of parasitaemia risk in Uganda during 2009-2014, albeit with varying magnitude in the regions. This success should be sustained by optimizing ITN coverage to achieve universal coverage.


Assuntos
Malária/prevenção & controle , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Pré-Escolar , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184549, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice. METHODS: An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS) as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +). We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015. RESULTS: A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14%) were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda. We recommended strengthening of case-based surveillance to ensure that all suspected measles cases have blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation to improve detection and ensure elimination by 2020.


Assuntos
Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Sarampo/história , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda/epidemiologia
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