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1.
AIDS ; 31 Suppl 3: S195-S201, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of youth engagement in designing, implementing and evaluating programs has garnered more attention as international initiatives seek to address the HIV crisis among this population. Adolescents, however, are not often included in HIV implementation science research and have not had opportunities to contribute to the development of HIV-related research agendas. Project Supporting Operational AIDS Research (SOAR), a United States Agency for International Development-funded global operations research project, involved youth living with HIV in a meeting to develop a strategic implementation science research agenda to improve adolescent HIV care continuum outcomes, including HIV testing and counseling (HTC) and linkage to care. METHODS: Project SOAR convened a 2-day meeting of 50 experts, including four youth living with HIV. Participants examined the literature, developed research questions, and voted to prioritize these questions for the implementation science research agenda. This article presents the process of involving youth, how they shaped the course of discussions, and the resulting priority research gaps identified at the meeting. RESULTS: Youth participation influenced working group discussions and the development of the implementation science agenda. Research gaps identified included how to engage vulnerable adolescents, determining the role that stigma, peers, and self-testing have in shaping adolescent HTC behaviors, and examining the costs of different HTC and linkage to care strategies. CONCLUSION: The meeting participants developed the research agenda to guide future implementation science research to improve HIV outcomes among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. This process highlighted the importance of youth in shaping implementation science research agendas and the need for greater youth engagement.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Participação do Paciente , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet HIV ; 3(7): e323-32, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27365207

RESUMO

Although effective programmes are available and several countries have seen substantial declines in new HIV infections, progress in the reduction of adult HIV incidence has been slower than expected worldwide and many countries have not had large decreases in new infections in adults despite large reductions in paediatric infections. Reasons for slow progress include inadequate commitment, investment, focus, scale, and quality of implementation of prevention and treatment interventions. The UNAIDS-Lancet Commission on Defeating AIDS-Advancing Global Health reported that the provision of large-scale, effective HIV prevention programmes has failed and called on stakeholders to "get serious about HIV prevention". An ambitious worldwide target has been set by UNAIDS to reduce new infections below 500 000 by 2020-a 75% reduction from 2010. Models show that such a reduction requires a combination of primary prevention interventions and preventative effects of treatment. Achievement of the target will require more effective delivery of HIV prevention for sufficient coverage in populations at greatest risk of infection ensuring that interventions that have proved effective are made available, barriers to their uptake are overcome, demand is created, and use is consistent and occurs at the right scale with high coverage. This paper discusses how programmatic targets for prevention in a worldwide plan could be used to re-energise the HIV prevention approach. A management framework is proposed outlining global, regional, national, and subnational actions and is summarised in a call for action on HIV prevention for 2020.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência
3.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0149892, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26938639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. CONCLUSIONS: VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 113: 161-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24880658

RESUMO

This qualitative study examines the role of older people (60 years and above) in fostering decisions for orphans and non-orphans within extended families in a rural Ugandan community heavily affected by HIV. Fieldwork conducted in 2006 provided information on the influence of HIV on fostering decisions through 48 individual in-depth interviews and two group interviews with foster-children and family members to develop detailed case studies related to 13 fostered adolescents. The adolescents included five non-orphans and eight orphans (five were double orphans because they had lost both parents). Older people play a very important role in fostering decisions as potential foster-parents, advisers, mediators and gatekeepers. They have a high level of authority over the foster-children, who are regarded as important resources within the extended family. With fewer potential caregivers available because of HIV-related deaths, the responsibility for fostering orphans has often fallen to surviving older people. Fostering is used by older people and the child's extended family as a strategy to ensure the welfare of the foster-child. When the foster-parent is an older person, it is also used to ensure physical and emotional support for the older person themselves. Support from the extended family towards foster households is widely reported to have been reduced by HIV by diminishing resources that would otherwise have been made available to support foster care. New initiatives and investment are required to complement community and family resources within well-managed social protection and welfare programmes. To be effective, such programmes will require adequate investment in administrative capacity and monitoring. They must aim to strengthen families and, recognizing that resources are limited, should prioritize the community's poorest households, rather than specifically targeting households with orphans or other foster-children.


Assuntos
Crianças Órfãs/psicologia , Epidemias , Família/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 66 Suppl 2: S139-43, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global HIV epidemic in adolescents is not controlled, and this group has not received sufficient attention in programming and research efforts addressing HIV prevention, treatment, and care. METHODS: A global technical consultation on adolescents and HIV addressing services and research gaps was convened by United Nations Children's Fund and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in July 2013. Proceedings from this meeting are presented in this issue of the Supplement. RESULTS: Several reviews highlight poor levels of coverage of critical HIV prevention, treatment, and care interventions for adolescents, disparities in HIV prevalence among adolescent girls, and low-risk perceptions associated with risk behaviors among key risk groups. Others underscore the significance of clear national targets and strengthening data, government involvement, enhanced systems capacity and policy, engagement of community and adolescent social networks, and of mobile and internet technologies to the success of interventions for adolescents. Finally, reviews identified several efficacious interventions for adults that could benefit from operational research to inform optimizing implementation in adolescents and how to do so with maximal cost efficiency and impact on the epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the adolescent gap in the response to the HIV epidemic is essential to a more sustainable and effective response and is critical to overall adolescent health and well-being. The global community has the means and the responsibility to put measures in place to make AIDS-free survival the reality for children in this second decade of life.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 66 Suppl 2: S144-53, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine levels and patterns of HIV prevalence, knowledge, sexual behavior, and coverage of selected HIV services among adolescents aged 10-19 years and highlight data gaps and challenges. METHODS: Data were reviewed from Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS HIV estimates, nationally representative household surveys, behavioral surveillance surveys, and published literature. RESULTS: A number of gaps exist for adolescent-specific HIV-related data; however, important implications for programming can be drawn. Eighty-two percent of the estimated 2.1 million adolescents aged 10-19 years living with HIV in 2012 were in sub-Saharan Africa, and the majority of these (58%) were females. Comprehensive accurate knowledge about HIV, condom use, HIV testing, and antiretroviral treatment coverage remain low in most countries. Early sexual debut (sex before 15 years of age) is more common among adolescent girls than boys in low- and middle-income countries, consistent with early marriage and early childbirth in these countries. In low and concentrated epidemic countries, HIV prevalence is highest among key populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although the available HIV-related data on adolescents are limited, increased HIV vulnerability in the second decade of life is evident in the data. Improving data gathering, analysis, and reporting systems specific to adolescents is essential to monitoring progress and improving health outcomes for adolescents. More systematic and better quality disaggregated data are needed to understand differences by sex, age, geography, and socioeconomic factors and to address equity and human rights obligations, especially for key populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Envelhecimento , Criança , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 66 Suppl 2: S170-5, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2005, the resources needed to support orphans and vulnerable children in sub-Saharan Africa were estimated at US$ 1.1-4.1 billion. Approaches to support vulnerable children have changed considerably since then. This study updates previous estimates by including new types of support and information on support costs. METHODS: We considered 16 types of support categorized as economic strengthening, education support, social care and community outreach, and program support. The estimates combine the number of children in need of each intervention with unit costs derived from the literature and coverage goals based on current coverage and feasible future improvements. RESULTS: The number of children affected by AIDS in low- and middle-income countries varies from 58 million to 315 million depending on the definition of need. The resources required to provide support to children living in poor households will grow from US$ 4.2 billion in 2012 to US$ 5-8 billion by 2020. Almost two-thirds of these resources will be needed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The largest needs are for cash transfers, community care workers, early childhood development, block grants for education, M&E monitoring and evaluation, and direct material support. DISCUSSION: The results show that we can significantly improve the coverage of services for vulnerable children with only modest increases in resources. This results from stable or declining numbers of orphans and children living with HIV plus economic growth that is moving more households out of poverty. The results also reflect an important shift toward providing support to strengthen families and communities that care for children rather than direct material support. CONCLUSION: More resources are required to support children affected by AIDS, but new approaches to provide that support will be cost effective and have broad social and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Educação em Saúde/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 66 Suppl 2: S193-9, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24918595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: By December 2013, it was estimated that close to 6 million men had been circumcised in the 14 priority countries for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), the majority being adolescents (10-19 years). This article discusses why efforts to scale up VMMC should prioritize adolescent men, drawing from new evidence and experiences at the international, country, and service delivery levels. Furthermore, we review the extent to which VMMC programs have reached adolescents, addressed their specific needs, and can be linked to their sexual and reproductive health and other key services. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In priority countries, adolescents represent 34%-55% of the target population to be circumcised, whereas program data from these countries show that adolescents represent between 35% and 74% of the circumcised men. VMMC for adolescents has several advantages: uptake of services among adolescents is culturally and socially more acceptable than for adults; there are fewer barriers regarding sexual abstinence during healing or female partner pressures; VMMC performed before the age of sexual debut has maximum long-term impact on reducing HIV risk at the individual level and consequently reduces the risk of transmission in the population. Offered as a comprehensive package, adolescent VMMC can potentially increase public health benefits and offers opportunities for addressing gender norms. Additional research is needed to assess whether current VMMC services address the specific needs of adolescent clients, to test adapted tools, and to assess linkages between VMMC and other adolescent-focused HIV, health, and social services.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual
9.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 10(2): 159-68, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23563990

RESUMO

Adolescents are critical to efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. Few national AIDS strategies explicitly program for children in their second decade of life. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) are therefore largely invisible in global, regional, and country HIV and AIDS reports making it difficult to assess progress in this population. We have unprecedented knowledge to guide investment towards greater impact on HIV prevention, treatment, and care in adolescents, but it has not been applied to reach those most vulnerable and optimize efficiency and scale. The cost of this is increasing AIDS-related deaths and largely unchanged levels of new HIV infections in adolescents. An AIDS-free generation will remain out of reach if the global community does not prioritize adolescents. National AIDS responses must be accountable to adolescents, invest in strengthening and monitoring protective and supportive laws and policies and access for adolescents to high impact HIV interventions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Criança , Aconselhamento Diretivo/organização & administração , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Assunção de Riscos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
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