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J Food Sci Technol ; 58(12): 4451-4464, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629509


Seed oil quality is a function of several attributes which include its bioactive compounds, physicochemical and functional properties. These quality attributes are important in seed oil processing as they determine the oil palatability, nutritional and market value. Besides the health, environmental and economic issues related to seed oil extraction using organic solvents such as hexane, other conventional seed oil extraction techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enzyme digestion and cold pressing are associated with low recovery of oil and bioactive compounds. Application of novel seeds pretreatments techniques such as microwaving, enzymatic digestion, pulsed electric field and ultrasonication do not only improve the oil yield and quality attributes, but also reduces seed oil extraction time, solvent and energy consumption. Higher phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols, phytosterols and antioxidant properties in oil from pretreated seeds offer health benefits related to the prevention of cancer, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. Increased consumer interest in functional foods and the potential of seeds pretreatments in enhancing the extractability of bioactive compounds from plant material has increased the application of novel pretreatment techniques on diverse oilseeds. This review describes the commonly studied novel seeds pretreatment techniques and critically discusses their influence on the oil physicochemical attributes, oxidation indices, bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties.

Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361727


Enzymatic pretreatment of seeds is a novel approach that enhances the health benefits of the extracted oil. The study investigated the influence of the enzymatic pretreatment of seeds on the quality of oil from different pomegranate cultivars. The quality of the ultrasound-assisted (and ethanol-extracted) oil was studied, with respect to the refractive index (RI), yellowness index (YI), conjugated dienes (K232), peroxide value (PV) ρ-anisidine value (AV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic compounds (TPC), fatty acid composition, phytosterol composition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The seeds of three different pomegranate cultivars ('Wonderful', 'Herskawitz', and 'Acco') were digested with an equal mixture of Pectinex Ultra SPL, Flavourzyme 100 L, and cellulase crude enzymes, at a concentration, pH, temperature, and time of 1.7%, 4.5, 40 °C, and 5 h, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment of PS increased oil yield, PV, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity, but decreased the YI. The levels of K232, AV and TOTOX, fatty acids, phytosterols, RI, and FRAP, were not significantly affected by enzymatic pretreatment of PS. Principal component analysis (PCA) established that oil extracted from the 'Acco' seed after enzymatic pretreatment had higher yield, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Therefore, enzyme-pretreated 'Acco' pomegranate fruit seed is a source of quality seed oil with excellent antioxidant properties.

Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Romã (Fruta)/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química , Sonicação/métodos
Foods ; 10(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810607


The present research studied the influence of blanching and microwave pretreatment of seeds on the quality of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) extracted by cold pressing. Pomegranate seeds (cv. Acco) were independently blanched (95 ± 2 °C/3 min) and microwave heated (261 W/102 s) before cold pressing. The quality of the extracted oil was evaluated with respect to oxidation indices, refractive index, yellowness index, total carotenoids content, total phenolic content, flavor compounds, fatty acid composition, and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2.2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity. Blanching and microwave pretreatments of seeds before pressing enhanced oil yield, total phenolic content, flavor compounds, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity. Although the levels of oxidation indices, including the peroxide value, free fatty acids, acid value, ρ-anisidine value, and total oxidation value, also increased, and the oil quality conformed to the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CODEX STAN 19-1981) standard for cold-pressed vegetable oils. On the other hand, blanching and microwave heating of seeds decreased the pomegranate seed oil's yellowness index, whilst the refractive index was not significantly (p > 0.05) affected. Even though both blanching and microwave pretreatment of seeds added value to the cold-pressed PSO, the oil extracted from blanched seeds exhibited lower oxidation indices. Regarding fatty acids, microwave pretreatment of seeds before cold pressing significantly increased palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, whilst it decreased the level of punicic acid. On the contrary, blanching of seeds did not significantly affect the fatty acid composition of PSO, indicating that the nutritional quality of the oil was not significantly affected. Therefore, blanching of seeds is an appropriate and valuable step that could be incorporated into the mechanical processing of PSO.

Foods ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937735


Microwave pretreatment of oilseeds is a novel technique used to enhance oil nutraceutical properties. In this study, the effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds was investigated on pomegranate seed oil quality attributes including oil yield, yellowness index, refractive index, peroxide value, ρ-anisidine value, total oxidation value, conjugated dienes, total phenolic content, total carotenoids content, phytosterol composition, fatty acid composition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The seeds of three different pomegranate cultivars ('Acco', 'Herskawitz', and 'Wonderful') were microwave heated at 261 W for 102 s. Pomegranate seeds microwave pretreatment enhanced oil yield, yellowness index, total carotenoids content, total phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging capacity, despite an increase in conjugated dienes, and peroxide value. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, saturated, and monosaturated fatty acids were increased after pomegranate seeds microwave pretreatment, whilst the levels of punicic acid and ß-sitosterol were reduced. Nevertheless, the refractive index, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid of the extracted oil were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by pomegranate seeds microwave pretreatment. Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering established that 'Acco' and 'Wonderful' oil extracts from microwave pretreated PS exhibited better oil yield, whilst 'Herskawitz' oil extracts showed higher total carotenoids content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity.

Heliyon ; 6(9): e04962, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995635


Fruit seed is a by-product of fruit processing into juice and other products. Despite being treated as waste, fruit seed contains oil with health benefits comparable or even higher than the conventional seed oil from field crops. In addition to essential fatty acids, the fruit seed oil is a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and phytosterols, which have been implicated in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The emerging potential of fruit seed oil application in food and nutraceuticals has prompted researchers to study the effect of preharvest and processing factors on the seed oil quality with respect to nutritional qualities, antioxidant compounds and properties. Herein, the effect of cultivar, fruit-growing region, seeds pretreatment, seeds drying and seed oil extraction on tocopherols, polyphenols, phytosterols, carotenoids, fatty acids, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of the fruit seed oil is critically discussed. Understanding the influence of these factors on seed oil bioactive phytochemicals, nutritional qualities and antioxidant properties is critical not only for genetically improving the oilseeds plants with desired characteristics, but also in seed oil processing and value addition. Therefore, preharvest and processing factors are essential considerations when determining the application of fruit seed oil.

Molecules ; 25(11)2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486338


This study investigated the effect of blanching pomegranate seeds (PS) on oil yield, refractive index (RI), yellowness index (YI), conjugated dienes (K232), conjugated trienes (K270), total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging of the extracted oil. Furthermore, phytosterol and fatty acid compositions of the oil extracted under optimum blanching conditions were compared with those from the oil extracted from unblanched PS. Three different blanching temperature levels (80, 90, and 100 °C) were studied at a constant blanching time of 3 min. The blanching time was then increased to 5 min at the established optimum blanching temperature (90 °C). Blanching PS increased oil yield, K232, K270, stigmasterol, punicic acid, TPC and DPPH radical scavenging, whereas YI, ß-sitosterol, palmitic acid and linoleic acid were decreased. The RI, TCC, brassicasterol, stearic acid, oleic acid and arachidic acid of the extracted oil were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by blanching. Blanching PS at 90 °C for 3 to 5 min was associated with oil yield, TPC and DPPH. Blanching PS at 90 °C for 3 to 5 min will not only increase oil yield but could also improve functional properties such as antioxidant activity, which are desirable in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food industries.

Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Sementes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Colestadienóis/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Eicosanoicos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Ácido Linoleico/química , Ácidos Linolênicos/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Fitosteróis/química , Picratos/química , Refratometria , Ácidos Esteáricos/química , Temperatura