Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 112
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 17(1): 62, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) have known toxicity but simultaneous comparative studies of the broad material class, especially those with a larger diameter, with computational analyses linking toxicity to their fundamental material characteristics was lacking. It was unclear if all CNT/F confer similar toxicity, in particular, genotoxicity. Nine CNT/F (MW #1-7 and CNF #1-2), commonly found in exposure assessment studies of U.S. facilities, were evaluated with reported diameters ranging from 6 to 150 nm. All materials were extensively characterized to include distributions of physical dimensions and prevalence of bundled agglomerates. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to the nine CNT/F (0-24 µg/ml) to determine cell viability, inflammation, cellular oxidative stress, micronuclei formation, and DNA double-strand breakage. Computational modeling was used to understand various permutations of physicochemical characteristics and toxicity outcomes. RESULTS: Analyses of the CNT/F physicochemical characteristics illustrate that using detailed distributions of physical dimensions provided a more consistent grouping of CNT/F compared to using particle dimension means alone. In fact, analysis of binning of nominal tube physical dimensions alone produced a similar grouping as all characterization parameters together. All materials induced epithelial cell toxicity and micronuclei formation within the dose range tested. Cellular oxidative stress, DNA double strand breaks, and micronuclei formation consistently clustered together and with larger physical CNT/F dimensions and agglomerate characteristics but were distinct from inflammatory protein changes. Larger nominal tube diameters, greater lengths, and bundled agglomerate characteristics were associated with greater severity of effect. The portion of tubes with greater nominal length and larger diameters within a sample was not the majority in number, meaning a smaller percentage of tubes with these characteristics was sufficient to increase toxicity. Many of the traditional physicochemical characteristics including surface area, density, impurities, and dustiness did not cluster with the toxicity outcomes. CONCLUSION: Distributions of physical dimensions provided more consistent grouping of CNT/F with respect to toxicity outcomes compared to means only. All CNT/F induced some level of genotoxicity in human epithelial cells. The severity of toxicity was dependent on the sample containing a proportion of tubes with greater nominal lengths and diameters.

2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 408: 115280, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065154

RESUMO

The pulmonary inflammatory response to inhalation exposure to a fracking sand dust (FSD 8) was investigated in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to air or an aerosol of a FSD, i.e., FSD 8, at concentrations of 10 or 30 mg/m3, 6 h/d for 4 d. The control and FSD 8-exposed rats were euthanized at post-exposure time intervals of 1, 7 or 27 d and pulmonary inflammatory, cytotoxic and oxidant responses were determined. Deposition of FSD 8 particles was detected in the lungs of all the FSD 8-exposed rats. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage parameters of toxicity, oxidant generation, and inflammation did not reveal any significant persistent pulmonary toxicity in the FSD 8-exposed rats. Similarly, the lung histology of the FSD 8-exposed rats showed only minimal changes in influx of macrophages following the exposure. Determination of global gene expression profiles detected statistically significant differential expressions of only six and five genes in the 10 mg/m3, 1-d post-exposure, and the 30 mg/m3, 7-d post-exposure FSD 8 groups, respectively. Taken together, data obtained from the present study demonstrated that FSD 8 inhalation exposure resulted in no statistically significant toxicity or gene expression changes in the lungs of the rats. In the absence of any information about its potential toxicity, a comprehensive rat animal model study (see Fedan, J.S., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 000, 000-000, 2020) has been designed to investigate the bioactivities of several FSDs in comparison to MIN-U-SIL® 5, a respirable α-quartz reference dust used in previous animal models of silicosis, in several organ systems.

3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 408: 115281, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065155

RESUMO

Cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) were used to investigate the effects of fracking sand dust (FSD) for its pro-inflammatory activity, in order to gain insight into the potential toxicity to workers associated with inhalation of FSD during hydraulic fracturing. While the role of respirable crystalline silica in the development of silicosis is well documented, nothing is known about the toxicity of inhaled FSD. The FSD (FSD 8) used in these studies was from an unconventional gas well drilling site. FSD 8was prepared as a 10 mg/ml stock solution in sterile PBS, vortexed for 15 s, and allowed to sit at room temperature for 30 min before applying the suspension to RAW 264.7cells. Compared to PBS controls, cellular viability was significantly decreased after a 24 h exposure to FSD. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the production of IL-6, TNFα, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were up-regulated as a result of the exposure, whereas the hydroxyl radical (.OH) was only detected in an acellular system. Immunofluorescent staining of cells against TNFα revealed that FSD 8 caused cellular blebbing, and engulfment of FSD 8 by macrophages was observed with enhanced dark-field microscopy. The observed changes in cellular viability, cellular morphology, free radical generation and cytokine production all confirm that FSD 8 is cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells and warrants future studies into the specific pathways and mechanisms by which these toxicities occur.

4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 409: 115284, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068619

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing creates fissures in subterranean rock to increase the flow and retrieval of natural gas. Sand ("proppant") in fracking fluid injected into the well bore maintains fissure patency. Fracking sand dust (FSD) is generated during manipulation of sand to prepare the fracking fluid. Containing respirable crystalline silica, FSD could pose hazards similar to those found in work sites where silica inhalation induces lung disease such as silicosis. This study was performed to evaluate the possible toxic effects following inhalation of a FSD (FSD 8) in the lung and airways. Rats were exposed (6 h/d × 4 d) to 10 or 30 mg/m3 of a FSD collected at a gas well, and measurements were performed 1, 7, 27 and, in one series of experiments, 90 d post-exposure. The following ventilatory and non-ventilatory parameters were measured in vivo and/or in vitro: 1) lung mechanics (respiratory system resistance and elastance, tissue damping, tissue elastance, Newtonian resistance and hysteresivity); 2) airway reactivity to inhaled methacholine (MCh); airway epithelium integrity (isolated, perfused trachea); airway efferent motor nerve activity (electric field stimulation in vitro); airway smooth muscle contractility; ion transport in intact and cultured epithelium; airway effector and sensory nerves; tracheal particle deposition; and neurogenic inflammation/vascular permeability. FSD 8 was without large effect on most parameters, and was not pro-inflammatory, as judged histologically and in cultured epithelial cells, but increased reactivity to inhaled MCh at some post-exposure time points and affected Na+ transport in airway epithelial cells.

5.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 409: 115282, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068622

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is used in unconventional gas drilling to allow for the free flow of natural gas from rock. Sand in fracking fluid is pumped into the well bore under high pressure to enter and stabilize fissures in the rock. In the process of manipulating the sand on site, respirable dust (fracking sand dust, FSD) is generated. Inhalation of FSD is a potential hazard to workers inasmuch as respirable crystalline silica causes silicosis, and levels of FSD at drilling work sites have exceeded occupational exposure limits set by OSHA. In the absence of any information about its potential toxicity, a comprehensive rat animal model was designed to investigate the bioactivities of several FSDs in comparison to MIN-U-SIL® 5, a respirable α-quartz reference dust used in previous animal models of silicosis, in several organ systems (Fedan, J.S., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 00, 000-000, 2020). The present report, part of the larger investigation, describes: 1) a comparison of the physico-chemical properties of nine FSDs, collected at drilling sites, and MIN-U-SIL® 5, a reference silica dust, and 2) a comparison of the pulmonary inflammatory responses to intratracheal instillation of the nine FSDs and MIN-U-SIL® 5. Our findings indicate that, in many respects, the physico-chemical characteristics, and the biological effects of the FSDs and MIN-U-SIL® 5 after intratracheal instillation, have distinct differences.

6.
Toxicol Lett ; 334: 60-65, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961271

RESUMO

Iron oxides are Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding and hematite underground mining as well as other iron predominant exposures such as welding are Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of iron as iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) to initiate lung tumors in A/J mice, a lung tumor susceptible strain. Male A/J mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to suspensions of Fe2O3 (1 mg) or calcium chromate (CaCrO4; 100 µg; positive control) for 26 weeks (once per week). Shams were exposed to 50 µL phosphate buffered saline (PBS; vehicle). Mice were euthanized 70 weeks after the first exposure and lung nodules were enumerated. Both CaCrO4 and Fe2O3 significantly increased gross-observed lung tumor multiplicity in A/J mice (9.63 ± 0.55 and 3.35 ± 0.30, respectively) compared to sham (2.31 ± 0.19). Histopathological analysis showed that bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas (BAA) and carcinomas (BAC) were the primary lung tumor types in all groups and were increased in the exposed groups compared to sham. BAC were significantly increased (146 %) in the CaCrO4 group and neared significance in the Fe2O3 group (100 % increase; p = 0.085). BAA and other histopathological indices of toxicity followed the same pattern with exposed groups increased compared to sham control. In conclusion, evidence from this study, in combination with our previous studies, demonstrate that exposure to iron alone may be a potential risk factor for lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Compostos de Cálcio/toxicidade , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatos/toxicidade , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hiperplasia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Soldagem
7.
Toxicol Sci ; 178(2): 375-390, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976597

RESUMO

Smoking may modify the lung response to silica exposure including cancer and silicosis. Nevertheless, the precise role of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the lung response to crystalline silica (CS) exposure and the underlying mechanisms need further clarification. The objectives of the present study were to determine the role of TS on lung response to CS exposure and the underlying mechanism(s). Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to air, CS (15 mg/m3, 6 h/day, 5 days), TS (80 mg/m3, 3 h/day, twice weekly, 6 months), or CS (15 mg/m3, 6 h/day, 5 days) followed by TS (80 mg/m3, 3 h/day, twice weekly, 6 months). The rats were euthanized 6 months and 3 weeks following initiation of the first exposure and the lung response was assessed. Silica exposure resulted in significant lung toxicity as evidenced by lung histological changes, enhanced neutrophil infiltration, increased lactate dehydrogenase levels, enhanced oxidant production, and increased cytokine levels. The TS exposure alone had only a minimal effect on these toxicity parameters. However, the combined exposure to TS and CS exacerbated the lung response, compared with TS or CS exposure alone. Global gene expression changes in the lungs correlated with the lung toxicity severity. Bioinformatic analysis of the gene expression data demonstrated significant enrichment in functions, pathways, and networks relevant to the response to CS exposure which correlated with the lung toxicity detected. Collectively our data demonstrated an exacerbation of CS-induced lung toxicity by TS exposure and the molecular mechanisms underlying the exacerbated toxicity.

8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 406: 115242, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931794

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing is used to access oil and natural gas reserves. This process involves the high-pressure injection of fluid to fracture shale. Fracking fluid contains approximately 95% water, chemicals and 4.5% fracking sand. Workers may be exposed to fracking sand dust (FSD) during the manipulation of the sand, and negative health consequences could occur if FSD is inhaled. In the absence of any information about its potential toxicity, a comprehensive rat animal model study (see Fedan et al., 2020) was designed to investigate the bioactivities of several FSDs in comparison to MIN-U-SIL® 5, a respirable α-quartz reference dust used in previous animal models of silicosis, in several organ systems. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of inhalation of one FSD, i.e., FSD 8, on factors and tissues that affect cardiovascular function. Male rats were exposed to 10 or 30 mg/m3 FSD (6 h/d for 4 d) by whole body inhalation, with measurements made 1, 7 or 27 d post-exposure. One day following exposure to 10 mg/m3 FSD the sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in tail arteries in vitro was increased. FSD exposure at both doses resulted in decreases in heart rate (HR), HR variability, and blood pressure in vivo. FSD induced changes in hydrogen peroxide concentrations and transcript levels for pro-inflammatory factors in heart tissues. In kidney, expression of proteins indicative of injury and remodeling was reduced after FSD exposure. When analyzed using regression analysis, changes in proteins involved in repair and remodeling were correlated. Thus, it appears that inhalation of FSD does have some prolonged effects on cardiovascular, and, possibly, renal function. The findings also provide information regarding potential mechanisms that may lead to these changes, and biomarkers that could be examined to monitor physiological changes that could be indicative of impending cardiovascular dysfunction.

9.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 17(9): 416-425, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749920

RESUMO

A pilot project was conducted to determine the effect of common construction dusts as interferences in a new portable end-of-shift (EoS), direct-on-filter (DoF) sampling and analysis method for respirable crystalline silica (RCS), in this case, quartz. Construction dusts were prepared from plaster, drywall, cement and brick by grinding, aerosolizing, and collecting respirable dust with high flow rate cyclones. Filters were loaded with different levels of commercial α-quartz powder Min-u-Sil 5, and different levels of interfering dusts, singly and in combination. Samples were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Good correlations were found between nominal quartz loading (0 µg, 25 µg, 50 µg, and 100 µg) adjusted for quartz in the interfering dust and FTIR absorbance alone and in the presence of all interfering dusts. The slopes of the correlations were similar whether the loading was quartz without interference, or with plaster, drywall, and cement dusts, regardless of quantity. The results show that (a) plaster and drywall dusts do not interfere substantially; (b) cement does not interfere, but a change in the intercept suggests an effect on the background absorbance of the filter; and (c) in addition to having a substantial quartz content, brick dust contains an additional material, probably a silicate mineral, which interferes with the quartz peak. Thus, the presence of cement leads to lower quartz values and brick leads to higher values, but overall, 83% of the quartz contents predicted from the calibration data agreed within 50% of the adjusted nominal loadings within the range 20-110 µg. This result is encouraging given the high levels of interfering dusts. Nine samples loaded with smaller amounts of all four dusts together gave results within 25% of the adjusted nominal loadings. A single mixture addition of the dusts to the filter gave tighter variance in results than sequential additions. Unexpectedly, the two Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) 1878a and 1878b, gave different results when used to calibrate XRD analysis of Min-u-Sil 5.

10.
Toxicol Sci ; 177(1): 108-120, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514565

RESUMO

Studies suggest that alterations in circulating factors are a driver of pulmonary-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. To evaluate, if circulating factors effect endothelial function after a pulmonary exposure to welding fumes, an exposure known to induce cardiovascular dysfunction, serum collected from Sprague Dawley rats 24 h after an intratracheal instillation exposure to 2 mg/rat of 2 compositionally distinct metal-rich welding fume particulates (manual metal arc welding using stainless steel electrodes [MMA-SS] or gas metal arc welding using mild steel electrodes [GMA-MS]) or saline was used to test molecular and functional effects of in vitro cultures of primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (PCMEs) or ex vivo organ cultures. The welding fumes elicited significant pulmonary injury and inflammation with only minor changes in measured serum antioxidant and cytokine levels. PCME cells were challenged for 4 h with serum collected from exposed rats, and 84 genes related to endothelial function were analyzed. Changes in relative mRNA patterns indicated that serum from rats exposed to MMA-SS, and not GMA-MS or PBS, could influence several functional aspects related to endothelial cells, including cell migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and vascular function. The predictions were confirmed using a functional in vitro assay (scratch assay) as well as an ex vivo multicellular environment (aortic ring angiogenesis assay), validating the concept that endothelial cells can be used as an effective screening tool of exposed workers for determining bioactivity of altered circulatory factors. Overall, the results indicate that pulmonary MMA-SS fume exposure can cause altered endothelial function systemically via altered circulating factors.

11.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 64(1): 96-105, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786604

RESUMO

This study experimentally evaluates the performance of different sorbent tubes for sampling acetone vapor in workplace air. A dynamic atmosphere system produced an acetone alone and a mixture with other analytes containing ~73, 483, and 1898 µg acetone mass loading at 25, 50, and 75% relative humidity (RH) at 25°C. Sorbent samples were analyzed in accordance with OSHA Method 69 (Carbosieve S-III) and NMAM 1501, modified to use Anasorb 747 sorbent. Both methods were modified to include the additional analytes. Additional extraction procedures with and without 1% dimethylformamide and anhydrous magnesium sulfate were included in the modified NMAM 1501 using Anasorb 747. Silica gel sorbent tubes analyzed according to NMAM 2027 were included. There were significant reductions in the recovery of acetone from both Anasorb 747 and Carbosieve S-III collected from air at 75% RH, relative to collection at 25 or 50% RH at very low loading compared with that of samples collected at mid to high loading. Silica gel provided a consistent recovery of acetone at all RHs and in the presence of other chemical interferences at 75% RH. The likely cause of mass dependence may arise from the humidity effect on acetone adsorption onto both beaded active carbon and carbon molecular sieve either in sampling or in analysis. The present study confirms not only previous observations but also adds to the literature showing carbonaceous sorbents are not well suited for sampling ketones at high humidity and low concentration.

12.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 16(1): 36, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unique physicochemical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have led to many industrial applications. Due to their low density and small size, MWCNT are easily aerosolized in the workplace making respiratory exposures likely in workers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer designated the pristine Mitsui-7 MWCNT (MWCNT-7) as a Group 2B carcinogen, but there was insufficient data to classify all other MWCNT. Previously, MWCNT exposed to high temperature (MWCNT-HT) or synthesized with nitrogen (MWCNT-ND) have been found to elicit attenuated toxicity; however, their genotoxic and carcinogenic potential are not known. Our aim was to measure the genotoxicity of MWCNT-7 compared to these two physicochemically-altered MWCNTs in human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B & SAEC). RESULTS: Dose-dependent partitioning of individual nanotubes in the cell nuclei was observed for each MWCNT material and was greatest for MWCNT-7. Exposure to each MWCNT led to significantly increased mitotic aberrations with multi- and monopolar spindle morphologies and fragmented centrosomes. Quantitative analysis of the spindle pole demonstrated significantly increased centrosome fragmentation from 0.024-2.4 µg/mL of each MWCNT. Significant aneuploidy was measured in a dose-response from each MWCNT-7, HT, and ND; the highest dose of 24 µg/mL produced 67, 61, and 55%, respectively. Chromosome analysis demonstrated significantly increased centromere fragmentation and translocations from each MWCNT at each dose. Following 24 h of exposure to MWCNT-7, ND and/or HT in BEAS-2B a significant arrest in the G1/S phase in the cell cycle occurred, whereas the MWCNT-ND also induced a G2 arrest. Primary SAEC exposed for 24 h to each MWCNT elicited a significantly greater arrest in the G1 and G2 phases. However, SAEC arrested in the G1/S phase after 72 h of exposure. Lastly, a significant increase in clonal growth was observed one month after exposure to 0.024 µg/mL MWCNT-HT & ND. CONCLUSIONS: Although MWCNT-HT & ND cause a lower incidence of genotoxicity, all three MWCNTs cause the same type of mitotic and chromosomal disruptions. Chromosomal fragmentation and translocations have not been observed with other nanomaterials. Because in vitro genotoxicity is correlated with in vivo genotoxic response, these studies in primary human lung cells may predict the genotoxic potency in exposed human populations.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Nitrogênio/química , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 14: 10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949228

RESUMO

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination on surfaces including turnout gear had been found throughout a number of fire stations. As such, the outer shell barrier of turnout gear jackets may be an indirect transmission source and proper disinfection is essential to reduce the risk of exposure to fire fighters. Cleaning practices vary considerably among fire stations, and a method to assess disinfection of gear washed in commercial washer/extractors is needed. Methods: Swatches (1 in. ×  1.5 in.) of the outer shell fabrics, Gemini™, Advance™, and Pioneer™, of turnout gear were inoculated with S. aureus, and washed with an Environmental Protection Agency-registered sanitizer commonly used to wash turnout gear. To initially assess the sanitizer, inoculated swatches were washed in small tubes according to the American Society for Testing Materials E2274 Protocol for evaluating laundry sanitizers. Inoculated swatches were also pinned to turnout gear jackets and washed in a Milnor commercial washer/extractor. Viable S. aureus that remained attached to fabric swatches after washing were recovered and quantified. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to characterize the stages of S. aureus biofilm formation on the swatches that can result in resistance to disinfection. Results: Disinfection in small tubes for only 10 s reduced the viability of S. aureus on Gemini™, Advance™, and Pioneer™ by 73, 99, and 100%, respectively. In contrast, disinfection of S. aureus-contaminated Gemini™ swatches pinned to turnout gear and washed in the washer/extractor was 99.7% effective. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that biofilm formation begins as early as 5 h after attachment of S. aureus. Conclusion: This sanitizer and, likely, others containing the anti-microbial agent didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, is an effective disinfectant of S. aureus. Inclusion of contaminated outer shell swatches in the wash cycle affords a simple and quantitative method to assess sanitization of gear by commercial gear cleaning facilities. This methodology can be extended to assess for other bacterial contaminants. Sanitizer-resistant strains will continue to pose problems, and biofilm formation may affect the cleanliness of the washed turnout gear. Our methodology for assessing effectiveness of disinfection may help reduce the occupational exposure to fire fighters from bacterial contaminants.

14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 126(4): 1074-1087, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676867

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to characterize the growth and remodeling molecular signaling response in aged skeletal muscle following 1 mo of "resistance-type exercise" training. Male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway hybrid rats aged 3 (young) and 30 mo (old) underwent stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) loading 2 or 3 days/wk; muscles were removed 72 h posttraining. Young rats SSC loaded 3 (Y3x) or 2 days/wk (Y2x) adapted via increased work performance. Old rats SSC loaded 3 days/wk (O3x) maladapted via decreased negative work; however, old rats SSC loaded 2 days/wk (O2x) adapted through improved negative and positive work. Y3x, Y2x, and O2x, but not O3x, displayed hypertrophy via larger fiber area and myonuclear domains. Y3x, Y2x, and O2x differentially expressed 19, 30, and 8 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt genes, respectively, whereas O3x only expressed 2. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rats in the adapting groups presented growth and remodeling processes (i.e., increased protein synthesis), whereas O3x demonstrated inflammatory signaling. In conclusion, reducing SSC-loading frequency in aged rodents positively influences the molecular signaling microenvironment, promoting muscle adaptation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Decreasing resistance-type exercise training frequency in old rodents led to adaptation through enhancements in performance, fiber areas, and myonuclear domains. Modifying frequency influenced the molecular environment through improvements in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway-specific expression and bioinformatics indicating increased protein synthesis. Reducing training frequency may be appropriate in older individuals who respond unfavorably to higher frequencies (i.e., maladaptation); overall, modifying the parameters of the exercise prescription can affect the cellular environment, ultimately leading to adaptive or maladaptive outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
15.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 16(3): 250-257, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640589

RESUMO

This study evaluates the performance of the disposable inhalable aerosol sampler (DIAS), a new sampler developed to be more cost-effective than the traditional inhalable particle samplers and comparable to the inhalable particle sampling convention. Forty-eight pairs of the DIAS prototype and the IOM sampler were utilized to collect copper exposure measurements (23 personal and 25 area) at an electrorefinery facility. The geometric mean (GM) value of ratios of exposure data (DIAS/IOM) was 1.1, while the GM of ratios (DIAS/IOM) was 1.6 for the area exposure data, revealing 84% of the ratios were greater than one. For both personal and area exposure data, the concordance correlation coefficient tests revealed significant disagreements between the two types of samplers and suggested precision as the source of the disagreement. The estimated mean concentration was higher for the DIAS compared that for the IOM for the area exposure data (p < 0.05), while the results were comparable for the personal exposure data (p = 0.49). Overall, the DIAS generated higher exposure results compared to the IOM sampler for the area exposures. For the personal exposures, the findings were inconclusive due to inconsistent results of factors aforementioned. This study is limited to one metal component (copper) of the dust at a worksite. To date, this is the first field evaluation using personal exposure data to test the performance of the DIAS and the second evaluation using area exposure data. Thus, it will be necessary to conduct additional field evaluations with various elements to further evaluate the performance of the DIAS. In addition, particle migration to the internal walls of the cap was observed during the transportation of collected samples to a laboratory for both sampler types (6.4% for the DIAS and 7.4% for the IOM). Occupational health and safety professionals should be aware of potential errors caused from transferring samples from a field to a laboratory and should be careful not to exclude particles collected on the caps.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Cobre , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
16.
Toxicol Sci ; 168(2): 508-518, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649503

RESUMO

Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is an antimicrobial dialkyl-quaternary ammonium compound used in industrial and commercial products. Clinical data suggest that DDAC exposure elicits multiple types of hypersensitivity reactions; here, we confirm this observation in a BALB/c murine model. To examine the immunological mechanism behind this mixed-type response and the potential involvement of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), we assessed early immune responses in the skin following topical DDAC exposure (0.125% and 0.5%). DDAC exposure resulted in a rapid and dramatic increase in the Th2-skewing and ILC2-activating cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Correspondingly, dermal ILC2s were activated 24 h after DDAC exposure, resulting in increased expression of CD25, ICOS and KLRG1, and decreased CD127 throughout 7 days of exposure. Following ILC2 activation, the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was elevated compared with control mice in total ear protein lysate (0.5% DDAC). Rag2-/- mice were used to determine a functional role for ILC2s in DDAC-induced sensitization. ILC2s from Rag2-/- mice were similarly activated by DDAC and, importantly, produced significant levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the skin (0.5% DDAC). These data indicate that ILC2s contribute to early Th2 immune responses following DDAC exposure. ILC2s have been previously implicated in allergic responses, but to our knowledge have not been thoroughly investigated in chemical sensitization. These results indicate that following DDAC exposure, skin ILC2s become activated and produce Th2 cytokines, providing a possible mechanism for the development of the mixed-type allergic responses commonly observed with chemical sensitizers.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/toxicidade , Administração Tópica , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout
17.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 63(2): 218-229, 2019 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534938

RESUMO

Tier 1 occupational exposure assessment tools recommended for use under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) were evaluated using newly collected measurement data. Evaluated tools included the ECETOC TRAv2 and TRAv3, MEASEv1.02.01, and EMKG-EXPO-TOOL. Fifty-three exposure situations (ESs) based on tasks/chemicals were developed from National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health field surveys. During the field surveys, high quality contextual information required for evaluating the tools was also collected. For each ES, applicable tools were then used to generate exposure estimates using a consensus approach. Among 53 ESs, only those related to an exposure category of liquids with vapor pressure (VP) > 10 Pa had sufficient numbers of exposure measurements (42 ESs with n = 251 for TRAv2 and TRAv3 and 40 ESs with n = 243 for EMKG-EXPO-TOOL) to be considered in detail. The results for other exposure categories (aqueous solutions, liquids with VP ≤ 10 Pa, metal processing, powders, and solid objects) had insufficient measurement to allow detailed analyses (results listed in the Supplementary File). Overall, EMKG-EXPO-TOOL generated more conservative results than TRAv2 and TRAv3 for liquids with high VP. This finding is at least partly due to the fact that the EMKG-EXPO-TOOL only considers pure substances and not mixtures of chemical agents. For 34 out of 40 ESs available for chemicals with VP > 10 Pa, the liquid was a mixture rather than a pure substance. TRAv3 was less conservative than TRAv2, probably due to additional refinement of some input parameters. The percentages of exposure measurement results exceeding the corresponding tool estimates for liquids with VP > 10 Pa by process category and by input parameters were always higher for TRAv3 compared to those for TRAv2. Although the conclusions of this study are limited to liquids with VP > 10 Pa and few process categories, this study utilized the most transparent contextual information compared to previous studies, reducing uncertainty from assumptions for unknown input parameters. A further validation is recommended by collecting sufficient exposure data covering other exposure categories and all process categories under REACH.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos
18.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 63(2): 230-241, 2019 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535049

RESUMO

Stoffenmanager®v4.5 and Advanced REACH Tool (ART) v1.5, two higher tier exposure assessment tools for use under REACH, were evaluated by determining accuracy and robustness. A total of 282 exposure measurements from 51 exposure situations (ESs) were collected and categorized by exposure category. In this study, only the results of liquids with vapor pressure (VP) > 10 Pa category having a sufficient number of exposure measurements (n = 251 with 42 ESs) were utilized. In addition, the results were presented by handling/activity description and input parameters for the same exposure category. It should be noted that the performance results of Stoffenmanager and ART in this study cannot be directly compared for some ESs because ART allows a combination of up to four subtasks (and nonexposed periods) to be included, whereas the database for Stoffenmanager, separately developed under the permission of the legal owner of Stoffenmanager, permits the use of only one task to predict exposure estimates. Thus, it would be most appropriate to compare full-shift measurements against ART predictions (full shift including nonexposed periods) and task-based measurements against task-based Stoffenmanager predictions. For liquids with VP > 10 Pa category, Stoffenmanager®v4.5 appeared to be reasonably accurate and robust when predicting exposures [percentage of measurements exceeding the tool's 90th percentile estimate (%M > T) was 15%]. Areas that could potentially be improved include ESs involving the task of handling of liquids on large surfaces or large work pieces, allocation of high and medium VP inputs, and absence of local exhaust ventilation input. Although the ART's median predictions appeared to be reasonably accurate for liquids with VP > 10 Pa, the %M > T for the 90th percentile estimates was 41%, indicating that variance in exposure levels is underestimated by ART. The %M > T using the estimates of the upper value of 90% confidence interval (CI) of the 90th percentile estimate (UCI90) was considerably reduced to 18% for liquids with VP > 10 Pa. On the basis of this observation, users might be to consider using the upper limit value of 90% CI of the 90th percentile estimate for predicting reasonable worst case situations. Nevertheless, for some activities and input parameters, ART still shows areas to be improved. Hence, it is suggested that ART developers review the assumptions in relation to exposure variability within the tool, toward improving the tool performance in estimating percentile exposure levels. In addition, for both tools, only some handling/activity descriptions and input parameters were considered. Thus, further validation studies are still necessary.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Ventilação
19.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209413, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586399

RESUMO

In 2017, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified welding fumes as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1). Both mild steel (MS) welding, where fumes lack carcinogenic chromium and nickel, and stainless steel (SS) increase lung cancer risk in welders; therefore, further research to better understand the toxicity of the individual metals is needed. The objectives were to (1) compare the pulmonary toxicity of chromium (as Cr(III) oxide [Cr2O3] and Cr (VI) calcium chromate [CaCrO4]), nickel [II] oxide (NiO), iron [III] oxide (Fe2O3), and gas metal arc welding-SS (GMAW-SS) fume; and (2) determine if these metal oxides can promote lung tumors. Lung tumor susceptible A/J mice (male, 4-5 weeks old) were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to vehicle, GMAW-SS fume (1.7 mg), or a low or high dose of surrogate metal oxides based on the respective weight percent of each metal in the fume: Cr2O3 + CaCrO4 (366 + 5 µg and 731 + 11 µg), NiO (141 and 281 µg), or Fe2O3 (1 and 2 mg). Bronchoalveolar lavage, histopathology, and lung/liver qPCR were done at 1, 7, 28, and 84 days post-aspiration. In a two-stage lung carcinogenesis model, mice were initiated with 3-methylcholanthrene (10 µg/g; intraperitoneal; 1x) or corn oil then exposed to metal oxides or vehicle (1 x/week for 5 weeks) by oropharyngeal aspiration. Lung tumors were counted at 30 weeks post-initiation. Results indicate the inflammatory potential of the metal oxides was Fe2O3 > Cr2O3 + CaCrO4 > NiO. Overall, the pneumotoxic effects were negligible for NiO, acute but not persistent for Cr2O3 + CaCrO4, and persistent for the Fe2O3 exposures. Fe2O3, but not Cr2O3 + CaCrO4 or NiO significantly promoted lung tumors. These results provide experimental evidence that Fe2O3 is an important mediator of welding fume toxicity and support epidemiological findings and the IARC classification.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Soldagem/métodos , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio/toxicidade , Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Cromatos/toxicidade , Compostos de Cromo/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Metilcolantreno/toxicidade , Camundongos , Níquel/toxicidade , Aço Inoxidável/química , Aço Inoxidável/toxicidade
20.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 189, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) as a marker reflects the activity of the autonomic nervous system. The prognostic significance of HRV for cardiovascular disease has been reported in clinical and epidemiological studies. Our laboratory has reported alterations in rat heart rate variability (HRV) due to increasing activity of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system after pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). This suggests that pulmonary inhalation of engineered nanoparticles (ENs) may lead to functional changes in the cardiovascular system. The present study further investigated the effects of inhaled MWCNTs on the cardiovascular system and evaluated the correlation between the alterations in HRV and changes in cardiovascular function. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-implanted with a telemetry device and exposed by inhalation to MWCNTs for 5 h at a concentration of 5 mg/m3. The electrocardiogram (EKG) and blood pressure were recorded in real time by the telemetry system at pre-exposure, during exposure, and 1 and 7 days post-exposure. In vivo cardiac functional performance in response to dobutamine was determined by a computerized pressure-volume loop system. RESULTS: Inhalation of MWCNTs significantly increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased heart rate in awake freely moving rat. Additionally, inhalation of MWCNTs also reduced cardiac stroke work, stroke volume, and output in response to dobutamine in anesthetized rats. CONCLUSIONS: Inhalation of MWCNTs altered cardiovascular performance, which was associated with MWCNT exposure-induced alterations in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. These findings suggest the need to further investigate the cardiovascular effects of inhaled MWCNTs.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA