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1.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1663-1668, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594142

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine the associations between gait speed and sleep quality in first-year university students, according to gender. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 193 first-year university students [mean age±standard deviation (SD): 19.6±1.1 years; mean height: 178.0±10.5 cm; mean weight: 74.0±11.0 kg; 26.9% women). Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality questionnaire, with a lower score indicating "better" sleep quality. Gait speed was measured using the Zebris pressure platform. The associations were examined with generalized linear models and multiple regression analysis. Results: In the unadjusted model, faster participants had significantly "better" sleep quality (ß=-3.15, 95% CI -3.82 to -2.47, p<0.001). When the model was adjusted for sex, age, body-mass index, self-rated health, smoking status, and psychological distress, faster participants remained having "better" sleep quality (ß=-2.88, 95% CI -3.53 to -2.22, p<0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that sleep quality can be predicted by gait speed in the first-year university students.

2.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663188

RESUMO

Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to establish normative data for health-related musculoskeletal fitness. Method: We recruited 13,217 children and adolescents aged 11-18 years (6,181 boys and 7,036 girls; 57% of girls). To evaluate musculoskeletal fitness, the following field tests were applied: standing broad jump (cm), sprint 20 m (sec), medicine-ball throw (dm), sit-ups in one minute (#), sit-ups in one minute (short, #), and squats in one minute (#). Curves for the 10th, 20th, 30th, 40th, 50th (median), 60th, 70th, 80th, and 90th percentiles were calculated using the Lambda (L), Mu (M), and Sigma (S) method. The LMS method assumes that the data can be normalized by using a power transformation and removing the skewness. Results: Median scores for standing broad jump, sprint 20 m, medicine-ball throw, sit-ups in one minute, sit-ups in one minute (short) and squats in one minute were 185.00 cm, 3.66 sec, 80.00 dm, 46.00 x, 56.00 x and 49 x in boys and 160.00 cm, 4.01 sec, 60.00 dm, 40.00 x, 49.00 and 43 x in girls. Effect sizes (ES) showed that boys performed better in all physical fitness tests (ES = 0.50-1.05), compared to girls. In general, age-related physical fitness changes showed the plateau between ages 15 and 16 in boys, while in girls, the plateau was reached at the age of 14. Conclusions: This study shows standards for musculoskeletal tests in youth.

3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 297, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 6-min walk test (6MWT) has become an established measure for assessing exercise capacity in children with chronic diseases. However, little evidence has been provided regarding population-based normal data in healthy children. The main purpose of the study was to provide normative data in a large sample of children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 4352 children between 11 and 14 years were recruited (66% girls). The main outcome measure was the distance walked for six minutes. Sex- and age-specific percentile values (5th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th and 95th) for the 6MWT were created and the differences and correlations were examined by the analysis of variance and Pearson's coefficient of correlation. RESULTS: The mean distance walked in 6 min was 576 ± 93 m in boys and 545 ± 92 m in girls, respectively. The mean walking speed for boys and girls was 98 ± 5 m/min and 91 ± 6 m/min. Older boys and girls performed better, compared to their younger counterparts (p for age < 0.001). The 6MWT was significantly correlated with age (r = 0.24, p < 0.001), height (r = 0.09, p < 0.001), weight (r = - 0.13, p < 0.001) and body-mass index (r = - 0.26, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based study aiming to provide normative data for the 6MWT in healthy children between 11 to 14 years. Children in lower percentiles are 'target groups' for special intervention aiming to enhance the performance.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444250

RESUMO

Fat mass and fat-free mass have become useful clinical indices in determining healthy growth and physical development during critical periods of childhood and adolescence; however, despite a wide range of nutritional surveillance its study is limited by a lack of reference data. The purpose of this study was to establish sex-specific and age-specific standards for fat mass and fat-free mass in a large sample of Croatian children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from 12,678 participants aged 11 to 18 years old (mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 14.17 ± 2.25 years; height 164.56 ± 11.31 cm; weight: 57.45 ± 13.73 kg; body mass index: 21.24 ± 3.67 kg/m2; 53% girls). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured three times by bioelectrical impedance. The Lambda, Mu and Sigma methods were used to create percentile charts for fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat mass and fat-free mass divided by height2). Sex and age differences were calculated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc comparisons. Boys had lower FMI (from 2.66 to 3.89) and higher FFMI values (from 16.90 to 17.80) in all age groups, compared to girls (for FMI from 2.79 to 5.17 and for FFMI from 14.50 to 14.90, p < 0.001). In boys, FMI slightly declined until the age of 14, after which an increase from the age of 15 to 18 was observed. In girls, FMI gradually increased from the age of 11 to 18 (p < 0.001). In general, FFMI increased by age in boys [F(7,5440) = 52.674, p < 0.001], while girls had more stable FFMI across all age groups [F(7,7222) = 2.728, p = 0.057]. The newly established sex-specific and age-specific reference data could be used for national surveillance and to screen for children and adolescents with high FMI and low FFMI.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11039, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040133

RESUMO

The main purpose of the study was to analyze secular trends of health-related physical fitness in 7-14-year-old Croatian children and adolescents from 1999 and 2014. In this observational cross-sectional study, we recruited 5077 children and adolescents between ages 11 and 14 (50.8% girls) from five primary schools located in the capital city of Zagreb. Physical fitness performance was tested from 1999 until 2014. Physical fitness performance included: (1) body-mass index (measure of body size), (2) standing broad jump (measure of lower-body power), (3) polygon backwards (measure of general coordination and agility), (4) sit-ups in 60 s (measure of upper-body strength), (5) sit-and-reach test (measure of flexibility) and (6) 6-min run test (measure of cardiorespiratory fitness). Boys performed better in all physical fitness tests, except for sit-and-reach test (p < 0.001). In boys, between 1999 and 2014, body size, upper-body strength and coordination/agility increased, while flexibility, lower-body power and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased. During the same period, girls experienced an increase in body size, lower-body power, upper-body strength, coordination/agility and flexibility, while cardiorespiratory fitness decreased. This study shows that cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility and coordination/agility decrease, while upper-body strength increases in both sexes. These findings should serve as an avenue for national monitoring system to screen and track biological development in children and adolescents.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920854

RESUMO

Purpose: The current study aimed to investigate the normative data for blood pressure. Materials and Methods: From 2017 to 2020, 2032 men and women classified as 'war veterans' were recruited (mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 60.97 ± 7.98 years; mean stature: 172.50 ± 9.10 cm; mean body mass: 90.25 ± 36.45 kg; mean body-mass index: 29.66 ± 5.59 kg/m2; 29.9% women). Their systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured three times. The procedure was carried out according to the American Heart Organization. The sex-specific and age-specific normative data for the 5th, 25th, 50th (median), 75th, and 90th percentiles for systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (measured as SBP-DBP) and mid-BP (the average of SBP and DBP) were presented. Results: The men had higher SBP (p < 0.001), DBP (p < 0.001), pulse pressure (p < 0.001) and mid-BP (p < 0.001) compared to the women. The age-specific differences showed that older individuals had higher values of SBP (p < 0.001), pulse pressure (p < 0.001), and mid-BP (p < 0.001), while no significant differences for DBP (p = 0.496) were observed. Conclusions: This is the first study providing sex-specific and age-specific normative data for blood pressure in war veterans.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Veteranos , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 669, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests that functional endurance capacity is the most important component associated with future health, little is known of how it is associated with multiple other physical fitness components. Since various physical fitness aspects do not change the same as functional endurance capacity during childhood, it is necessary to establish possible associations between functional endurance capacity and other physical fitness components in children. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to test the associations between functional endurance capacity with other physical fitness components in 7-14-year-old children, stratified by gender. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 1612 children [mean age ± standard deviation (SD) = 9.72 ± 2.37 years; 52.5% girls). Health-related physical fitness components included: 1) body-mass index (kg/m2) calculated from height and weight (measure of body size), 2) sit-and-reach test (measure of flexibility), 3) standing broad jump (measure of explosive strength of lower extremities), 4) sit-ups in 30 s (measure of repetitive strength of the trunk), 5) 10 × 5 shuttle run test (measure of agility) and 6) 20-m shuttle run test (measure of functional endurance capacity). The associations were performed using generalized estimating equations with beta (ß) coefficients. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, functional endurance capacity was associated with sit-and-reach test (ß = 0.13, p < 0.001), standing broad jump (ß = 0.59, p < 0.001), sit-ups in 30 s (ß = 0.53, p < 0.001) and 10 × 5 shuttle run test (ß = - 0.56, p < 0.001) in boys. In girls, functional endurance capacity was associated with body-mass index (ß = - 0.12, p < 0.001), sit-and-reach test (ß = 0.21, p < 0.001), standing broad jump (ß = 0.25, p < 0.001), sit-ups in 30 s (ß = 0.36, p < 0.001) and 10 × 5 shuttle run test (ß = - 0.40, p < 0.001). No significant associations between functional endurance capacity and body-mass index in boys were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although significant, functional endurance capacity is weakly to moderately associated with other physical fitness components, pointing out that such measure should be tested separately from other aspects of physical fitness in school-aged children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 225-230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568903

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine normative data for gait speed and height-normalized gait speed in community-dwelling older men and women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 565 men and women aged ≥60 years old. Age was calculated from the date of birth and further classified into four categories: (1) 60-65 years, (2) 66-70 years, (3) 71-75 years and (4) ≥76 years. Gait speed was assessed by a pressure platform (ZEBRIS, Munich, Germany) in meters per second (m/s). Height and weight were objectively measured. Height-normalized gait speed was calculated by dividing gait speed by height. We created the 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th percentile curves for both outcome measures using Cole's Lambda (L), Mu (M) and Sigma (S) method. Results: Mean gait speed and height-normalized gait speed was 1.24 (standard deviation 0.28) and 0.75 (0.17). Significant age-related decline in gait speed for both sexes was observed (p < 0.001). Being a woman (ß = - 0.09, p < 0.001), being older (ß = - 0.02, p < 0.001) and having higher body mass index values (ß = - 0.02, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with slower gait speed. Conclusion: Gait speed significantly declines with age in both older men and women. Providing normative data can be used in screening and monitoring "slow" walkers to prevent from foot pain and higher risk of falls.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Fatores Sexuais
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009346

RESUMO

Stefan, L, Kasovic, M, and Culej, M. Normative values for health-related physical fitness in first-year police officers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The main aim of the study was to develop normative values for health-related physical fitness tests in first-year police officers. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 773 police officers aged 19-28 years old (mean age ± SD = 22 ± 3 years, 34% women). Health-related physical fitness included: (a) polygon backwards (agility), (b) standing broad jump (explosive power of lower extremities), (c) sit-and-reach test (flexibility), and (d) 2.4 km run (aerobic capacity). In addition, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) was calculated. Sex- and age-specific centile smoothed curves for the 20th, 40th, 60, and 80th percentiles using Cole's LMS method were created. The results showed that men performed better in all health-related physical fitness tests (p < 0.001), compared with women. The median values for polygon backwards, standing broad jump, sit-and-reach test, 2.4 km run and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were 8 seconds, 210, 15 cm, 721 seconds and 49 mlO2·kg·min in men and 10 seconds, 165, 10 cm, 915 seconds and 39 mlO2·kg·min in women. No significant interaction between age and health-related physical fitness was observed. This study provides sex- and age-specific normative values for health-related physical fitness in police officers. Findings from this study may be used in detecting a group of police officers who have lower levels of physical fitness. Thus, policies aiming to enhance the level of physical fitness could be implemented within the system.

10.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 1569-1574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943857

RESUMO

Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to establish a gait speed cut-off value to predict foot pain and the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, one-hundred and twenty White older women speaking Croatian (mean ± SD age 71.02 ± 6.78 years, height 161.77 ± 6.23 cm, weight 70.29 ± 12.97 kg, body mass index 26.79 ± 4.42 kg/m2) were recruited. The prevalence of foot pain was assessed by a single-item question and the risk of falls by the Downtown Fall Risk Index with a proposed cut-off value of "low risk" (<3 points) vs "high risk" (≥3 points) of falls. Self-selected gait speed (the independent variable) was estimated with a pressure platform (Zebris Company, Munich, Germany). Results: Mean gait speed was 0.95 m/s. Of the total sample, 53.30% and 33.30% reported foot pain and had higher risk of falls. For foot pain and the risk of falls, gait speed cut-off values were 0.88 m/s and 0.85 m/s (area under the curve = 0.80 and 0.83, standard error = 0.043 and 0.043, p < 0.001). Sensitivity for foot pain and the risk of falls was 66.20% and 85.90% and specificity was 84.80% and 69.00%. Slower gait speed was associated with higher prevalence of foot pain (OR = 10.92, 95% CI 4.28 to 27.89, p < 0.001) and higher risk of falls (OR = 13.59, 95% CI 5.45 to 33.87, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Proposed gait speed values of 0.88 m/s and 0.85 m/s may be used in clinical settings to predict foot pain and the risk of falls among community-dwelling older women.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Marcha/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239065, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925950

RESUMO

Although previous evidence has shown that deviated foot structure and function are associated with falls, little is known of the association between foot rotations and falls in apparently healthy older adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to determine the associations between foot rotation and falls. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 120 older women (mean±SD; age 71.01±6.77 years; height 158.92±21.41 cm; weight 70.29±12.97 kg; body-mass index 26.79±4.42 kg/m2). Foot rotations were assessed by using pressure platform (Zebris manufacturer, Munich, Germany), while the risk of falls was assessed by using Downtown Fall Risk Index questionnaire. Correlations and multiple regression models were applied to calculate the associations. In unadjusted model, higher foot rotation was associated with higher risk of falls (ß = 0.14, p<0.001 for both feet). In a model adjusted for age, body-mass index, foot pain and fitness index, higher foot rotation remained associated with higher risk of falls (ß = 0.10, p<0.001 for both feet). Our study shows that older adults with higher foot rotation are at higher risk of falls. Special interventions aiming to correct for deviated foot function in older women are warranted.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Pé/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Dor/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784845

RESUMO

The main purpose of the study was to explore the effects of carrying police equipment on spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters. Two-hundred and seventy-five healthy men and women attending police academy (32% women) were randomly recruited. Gait analysis without and with a police equipment load (≈3.5 kg) was analyzed using the Zebris pressure platform. Differences and effect sizes were calculated using a Student t-test and Wilcoxon test for dependent samples and Cohen's D statistics. In both men and women, carrying police equipment significantly increased the foot rotation (effect size 0.13-0.25), step width (0.13-0.33), step time (0.25), stride time (0.13-0.25) and peak plantar pressure beneath the forefoot (0.16-0.30), midfoot (0.15-0.32) and hindfoot (0.13-0.25) region of the foot. Significant reductions in the step length (0.12-0.25), stride length (0.14-0.23), cadence (0.15-0.28) and walking speed (0.20-0.22) were observed in both sexes. Although significant, the effect sizes were mostly trivial in men and small in women. Our study shows significant changes in the spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters when carrying police equipment for both men and women. Although the effect sizes are trivial to small, carrying police equipment of ≈3.5 kg may have a negative impact on gait characteristics in first-year police officers.


Assuntos
Marcha , Polícia , Caminhada , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9501, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528172

RESUMO

The main purpose of the study was to establish foot characteristics during walking in children. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 1 284 primary-school students aged 6-14 years (714 boys and 570 girls) randomly selected from five schools in the city of Brno, Czech Republic. Children walked across a pressure platform (EMED-xl; NovelGmbH, Munich, Germany) to collect the data for both left and right foot during three trials. After the procedure, the software generated several foot characteristic variables: (1) force-time integral, (2) pressure-time integral, (3) contact area, (4) contact time, (5) peak pressure and (6) average pressure for the total foot. Curves for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles were calculated using the Lambda, Mu and Sigma (LMS) Chartmaker software. Our results showed that boys had longer force-time integral, higher contact area and contact time values, and higher peak plantar pressure, while no significant differences in pressure-time integral and average plantar pressure between sexes were observed. Older boys and girls had higher values in all measured variables. Our results provide for the first-time sex- and age-specific foot characteristics during walking in 6-14-year-old children.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Caminhada , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 425-430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256057

RESUMO

Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine the level of correlation between self-reported and measured physical fitness. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 120 older women aged ≥60 years. Self-reported physical fitness was assessed on a scale from 1 to 10, where higher score indicated better physical fitness perception. Objective measure included seven physical fitness tests: 1) waist circumference, 2) chair stand in 30 sec, 3) arm curl in 30 sec, 4) 2-min step test, 5) chair sit-and-reach test, 6) back scratch test and 7) 8-feet up-and-go test. Correlation between the two measures was analyzed by using Spearman coefficient (p≤0.05). Results: In the whole sample, self-reported physical fitness was associated with chair stand in 30 sec (r=0.39, p<0.001), arm curl in 30 sec (r=0.54, p<0.001), 2-min step test (r=0.43, p<0.001), chair sit-and-reach test (r=0.39, p<0.001), back scratch test (r=0.36, p<0.001) and 8-feet up-and-go test (r=-0.29, p<0.001). No significant correlation between self-reported physical fitness and waist circumference was found (r=0.03, p=0.786). Overall physical fitness (sum of all physical fitness z-scores) was strongly correlated with self-reported physical fitness (r=0.63, p<0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that self-reported measure of physical fitness is moderately correlated to objectively measured physical fitness in relatively healthy older women.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Autorrelato , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245230

RESUMO

Background: Although obesity has been consistently correlated with higher plantar pressure during the lifespan, to date little evidence has been provided regarding of how domain-specific and total sedentary behaviors may be correlated with plantar pressures. Moreover, high peak plantar pressures have been consistently associated with foot pain and discomfort, which prevent individuals from being physically active. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to explore the correlations between time spent in sedentary behaviors and plantar pressures. Methods: We recruited 120 older women aged ≥60 years. To assess the time spent in different domains of sedentary behavior, we used the Measure of Older Adults' Sedentary Time (MOST) questionnaire. Peak pressures beneath forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot were measured with a Zebris pressure platform. Results: In the unadjusted model, peak pressures were significantly correlated with almost all domain-specific sedentary behaviors (r = 0.15-0.41). Total time spent in sedentary behaviors was significantly correlated with forefoot (r = 0.40, p < 0.001), hindfoot (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and total peak plantar pressure (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). In a model adjusted for age, the risk of falls, foot pain and gait velocity, similar significant correlations between sedentary behaviors and plantar pressures remained. Conclusions: Our study shows moderate correlation between domain-specific and total time spent in sedentary behaviors and plantar pressure beneath different foot regions in a sample of older women.


Assuntos
, Dor , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Marcha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Dor/etiologia , Pressão
16.
PeerJ ; 8: e8551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095366

RESUMO

Background: The main purpose of the study was to determine whether lower levels of physical activity were associated with higher plantar pressure generated under each foot. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 641 children aged 6-14 years (agemean ± SD = 9.7  ± 2.4 years; heightmean ± SD = 143.6  ± 15.3 cm, weightmean ± SD = 37.6  ± 13.4 kg; body-mass indexmean ± SD = 17.6  ± 3.2 kg/m2; 44.2% girls). We used EMED -XL pressure platform to measure force time integral, pressure-time integral, contact-time and contact area, peak plantar pressure and mean plantar pressure of the right and the left foot during the gait analysis. The level of physical activity was measured by using The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). The associations were calculated by using generalized estimating equations with linear regression models. Results: Lower levels of physical activity were associated with higher force- and pressure-time integrals, longer contact time and higher peak and mean plantar pressures in both feet. Conclusion: Our study shows that the level of physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with plantar pressure in a sample of 6-14 year olds.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963367

RESUMO

Although it has been well-documented that older adults spend a significant amount of time being sedentary and have slower gait velocity, little is known of how physical fitness mediates the association between them. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether objectively measured physical fitness mediates the association between domain-specific and total sedentary behavior and gait velocity. We recruited 120 older adults aged ≥ 60 years. Sedentary behavior was assessed by the Measure of Older Adults' Sedentary Time questionnaire. We used a Zebris pressure platform to assess gait velocity. To assess the level of overall physical fitness, we summed the z-scores of seven tests: (1) waist circumference, (2) chair stand in 30 s, (3) arm curl in 30 s, (4) 2-min step test, (5) chair sit-and-reach test, (6) back scratch test, and (7) 8-foot up-and-go test. Overall physical fitness was obtained by summing up all physical test z-scores. Gait velocity was significantly associated with all domain-specific and total sedentary behavior (ß = -0.04 to -0.35, p < 0.05). Overall physical fitness was significantly associated with all domain-specific and total sedentary behavior (ß = -0.21 to -1.24, p < 0.001) and gait velocity (ß = 0.23 to 0.24, p < 0.001). When physical fitness was put as the mediator, significant direct effects between sedentary behavior and gait velocity disappeared. Results indicate that physical fitness fully mediates the association between sedentary behavior and gait velocity in older adults.


Assuntos
Marcha , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765420

RESUMO

Little evidence from observational studies has been provided regarding 'optimal' relative schoolbag load during primary education. Also, no study to date has provided reference-based standards for relative schoolbag weight. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to establish normative values of relative schoolbag weight in a sample of children. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 584 primary school students aged 6-14 (meanage±SD = 9.6±2.4 yrs, meanheight±SD = 1.4±0.2 m, meanweight±SD = 37.5±13.3 kg, meanbody-mass index±SD = 17.6±3.1 kg/m2, 44.4% girls) chosen from five schools in the city of Brno. Schoolbag weight and child's body weight were objectively measured by using digital scale. Relative schoolbag weight was calculated by dividing schoolbag weight with child's body weight and the result was expressed in percentage. Lambda, Mu and Sigma (LMS) method was used to create sex- and age-percentile curves. Boys carried slightly heavier schoolbag, compared with girls (mean difference 0.2 kg, p = 0.020). No significant differences between sexes in relative schoolbag weight were observed (p = 0.240). Median values (P50) for boys and girls were similar and the largest observed between ages 6-9 in boys (15-17%) and 6-8 in girls (16-18%). The percentage of children carrying relative schoolbag weight beyond 10% of their body weight was very high, especially between ages 6-10 in boys (85.1-100%) and 6-11 in girls (86.8-95.4%). This study provides first sex- and age- relative schoolbag weight normative values in primary school children. Future studies should use similar methods for generating comparable data.


Assuntos
Suporte de Carga , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284625

RESUMO

Background: The main aim of the study was to explore the association between objectively measured physical fitness and the level of pain intensity. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 1036 adolescents (mage ± SD = 16.3 ± 1.1 years; mheight ± SD = 1.74 ± 0.1 m; mweight ± SD = 64.7 ± 12.4 kg; mbody-mass index ± SD = 21.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2) from 11 secondary schools located in the city of Zagreb (Croatia). Physical fitness was determined by using waist circumference, sit-ups in 1 min, standing long jump and sit-and-reach tests. Overall physical fitness index was calculated by summing the z-score values of each physical fitness test. The level of pain intensity was assessed with the Numeric Pain Rating Scale, a one-dimensional measure of pain intensity. Associations were calculated with correlation analyses. Results: In boys, pain intensity was associated with sit-ups in 1 min (r = -0.16, p < 0.001), standing long jump (r = -0.14, p = 0.003) and overall physical fitness index (r = -0.13, p = 0.004), while no significant associations with waist circumference (r = 0.04, p = 0.438) and sit-and-reach test (r = -0.01, p = 0.822) were observed. In girls, pain intensity was associated with standing long jump (r = -0.17, p < 0.001) and overall physical fitness index (r = -0.10, p = 0.018), while no significant associations with waist circumference (r = 0.01, p = 0.735), sit-ups in 1 min (r = -0.06, p = 0.126) and sit-and-reach test (r = -0.05, p = 0.232) were observed. When we adjusted for self-rated health, sleep duration, smoking status, alcohol consumption, screen-time and psychological distress, similar associations remained. Conclusions: Our study shows a weak association between physical fitness and pain intensity in a large sample of adolescents. Although a cross-sectional design, health-professionals should use physical fitness as a screening tool to assess the level of pain intensity.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor , Aptidão Física , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Cidades , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferência da Cintura
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331028

RESUMO

Background. The main purpose of this study was to explore the body-mass index and waist circumference associated with physical fitness by gender. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we included 1036 adolescents (55.4% girls) from eight randomly selected secondary schools within the city of Zagreb (Croatia). Body-mass index and waist circumference were objectively measured. Physical fitness included three tests: (1) 1 min sit-ups, (2) standing long jump and (3) a sit-and-reach test. Associations were calculated using linear regression models. Results. Boys had higher body-mass index and waist circumference values, compared to girls (p < 0.001). They also performed better in 1 min sit-ups and the standing long jump tests (p < 0.001), while girls obtained higher values in the sit-and-reach test (p < 0.001). In boys, body-mass index and waist circumference were associated with 1 min sit-ups and the standing long jump. In girls, waist circumference was also associated with 1 min sit-ups and the standing long jump, while body-mass index was only associated with this standing long jump. Conclusions. Our study shows that anthropometric indices have non-linear associations with physical fitness tests in a large sample of Croatian adolescents. Screening for thinness and obesity to predict the level of physical fitness should be of a great interest.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Circunferência da Cintura
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