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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28165, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess sleep problems (prevalence and predictors) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after the most intensive phase of therapy (induction). METHODS: Patients (≥2 years) treated according to the Dutch ALL-11 protocol were included. Sleep was measured using parent-reports and self-reports (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire; CSHQ) and actigraphy. Parental sleep (Medical Outcome Study Sleep Scale) and distress and parenting problems (Distress Thermometer for Parents) were assessed with questionnaires. Z-scores were calculated for total CSHQ scores using age-appropriate scores of healthy Dutch children. The prevalence of sleep problems (defined as a Z-score > 1) in patients with ALL was compared to healthy children (chi-square tests). Actigraphic sleep estimates were collected in healthy Dutch children (n = 86, 2-18 years) for comparison with patients (linear regression). Determinants of parent-reported child sleep (total CSHQ Z-score) were identified with regression models. RESULTS: Responses were collected for 124 patients (response rate 67%), comprising 123 parent-reports, 34 self-reports, and 69 actigraphy assessments. Parents reported sleep problems in 38.0% of the patients compared to 15.2% in healthy children (P < .001). Patients reported fewer sleep problems themselves: 12.1% compared to 15.8% in healthy children (P = .33). Total time in bed (B (95% CI): 22.89 (9.55-36.22)) and total sleep time (B (95% CI):16.30 (1.40-31.19)), as derived from actigraphy, were significantly longer in patients. More parent-reported child sleep problems were predicted by parenting problems, more parental sleep problems, bedroom sharing, and child's sleep medication use (explained variance: 27.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic monitoring of child and parental sleep and implementation of effective interventions may be a gateway to improve quality of survival in pediatric ALL.

2.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(1): 58-69, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare, but highly aggressive. These entities are of embryonal origin occurring in the central nervous system (CNS) of young children. Molecularly these tumors are driven by a single hallmark mutation, resulting in inactivation of SMARCB1 or SMARCA4. Additionally, activation of the MAPK signaling axis and preclinical antitumor efficacy of its inhibition have been described in AT/RT. METHODS: We established and validated a patient-derived neurosphere culture and xenograft model of sonic hedgehog (SHH) subtype AT/RT, at diagnosis and relapse from the same patient. We set out to study the vascular phenotype of these tumors to evaluate the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in AT/RT. We also used the model to study combined mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for AT/RT. RESULTS: We found MELK to be highly overexpressed in both patient samples of AT/RT and our primary cultures and xenografts. We identified a potent antitumor efficacy of the MELK inhibitor OTSSP167, as well as strong synergy with the MEK inhibitor trametinib, against primary AT/RT neurospheres. Additionally, vascular phenotyping of AT/RT patient material and xenografts revealed significant BBB aberrancies in these tumors. Finally, we show in vivo efficacy of the non-BBB penetrable drugs OTSSP167 and trametinib in AT/RT xenografts, demonstrating the therapeutic implications of the observed BBB deficiencies and validating MEK/MELK inhibition as a potential treatment. CONCLUSION: Altogether, we developed a combination treatment strategy for AT/RT based on MEK/MELK inhibition and identify therapeutically exploitable BBB deficiencies in these tumors.

3.
Qual Life Res ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are commonly used in pediatric oncology. However, it is not known if caregivers' reports differ. This study therefore aims to compare paternal and maternal proxy reports, and explore determinants of couple disagreement (sociodemographic and medical characteristics, and parental QoL and distress). METHODS: Both parents completed the PedsQL generic (child's HRQoL), Short Form-12 (own QoL) and Distress Thermometer for Parents. To assess agreement in child HRQoL, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. Differences between fathers/mothers were assessed with paired t tests. Systematic disagreement patterns were visualized with Bland-Altman plots. Characteristics of parental couples with a mean proxy difference in the highest quartile (highest proxy score minus lowest proxy score) were explored with multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Parents of 120 children with cancer (87% post-treatment, mean age 11.0 ± 5.7 years) participated. No significant differences were found between paternal and maternal proxy scores, and agreement was good on all scales (ICCs 0.65-0.83). Bland-Altman plots revealed no systematic disagreement patterns, but there was a wide range in magnitude of the differences, and differences went in both directions. Couples with a mean proxy difference (irrespective of which direction) in the highest quartile (± 20 points) were more likely to have a child in active treatment, with retinoblastoma or relapsed disease, and to diverge in their own QoL. CONCLUSIONS: If proxy reports of only one parent are available, clinicians may reasonably assume that paternal and maternal reports are interchangeable. However, if in doubt, respondent's sex is not of major importance, but clinicians should be aware of patient's and family's characteristics.

4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28099, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the current more effective treatment regimens for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), research on early death (ED), treatment-related mortality (TRM), and toxicity becomes increasingly important. The aim of this study was to give an overview of the frequency, clinical features, and risk factors associated with ED and TRM in first complete remission (CR1) during the last three consecutive treatment protocols of the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) between 1998 and 2014. METHODS: Incidence and risk factors associated with ED and TRM in CR1 were retrospectively studied in 245 patients treated according to the Dutch ANLL-97/AML-12 (n = 118), AML-15 (n = 60), or DB AML-01 (n = 67) protocols. RESULTS: The incidence of ED was, respectively, 5.1%, 6.7%, and 3.0% excluding deaths before treatment (P = NS), and 7.4%, 11.1%, and 4.4% including deaths before the onset of treatment. Severe underweight at initial diagnosis was significantly associated with more frequent ED. When relapse was included as a competing risk, cumulative incidence of death in CR1 were 5.9%, 5.0%, and 4.6% for ANLL97, AML15, and DB01, respectively (P = NS). The most important cause of TRM included infectious and SCT-related complications. CONCLUSION: We report relatively stable rates of ED and TRM in CR1 in the latest completed DCOG protocols for newly diagnosed AML patients. The most important causes of TRM were SCT- or infection-related, warranting further evaluation and awareness.

5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28087, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774234

RESUMO

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), limited resources, suboptimal risk stratification, and disproportionate patient-to-infrastructure ratio result in low survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A high incidence of relapse, inherent to the biology, renders management arduous. The challenge of treating AML in LMICs is of balancing the intensity of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, which appears necessary for cure, with available supportive care, which influences treatment-related mortality. The recommendations outlined in this paper are based on published evidence and expert opinion. The principle of this adapted protocol is to tailor treatment to available resources, reduce preventable toxic death, and direct limited resources toward those children who are most likely to be cured.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 81-92, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) are the leading cause of cancer-related death during childhood. Due to their diffuse growth characteristics, chemoresistance and location behind the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the prognosis of pHGG has barely improved in the past decades. As such, there is a dire need for new therapies that circumvent those difficulties. Since aberrant expression of DNA damage-response associated Fanconi anemia proteins play a central role in the onset and therapy resistance of many cancers, we here investigated if FANCD2 depletion could sensitize pHGG to additional DNA damage. METHODS: We determined the capacity of celastrol, a BBB-penetrable compound that degrades FANCD2, to sensitize glioma cells to the archetypical DNA-crosslinking agent carboplatin in vitro in seven patient-derived pHGG models. In addition, we tested this drug combination in vivo in a patient-derived orthotopic pHGG xenograft model. Underlying mechanisms to drug response were investigated using mRNA expression profiling, western blotting, immunofluorescence, FANCD2 knockdown and DNA fiber assays. FINDINGS: FANCD2 is overexpressed in HGGs and depletion of FANCD2 by celastrol synergises with carboplatin to induce cytotoxicity. Combination therapy prolongs survival of pHGG-bearing mice over monotherapy and control groups in vivo (P<0.05). In addition, our results suggest that celastrol treatment stalls ongoing replication forks, causing sensitivity to DNA-crosslinking in FANCD2-dependent glioma cells. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that depletion of FANCD2 acts as a chemo-sensitizing strategy in pHGG. Combination therapy using celastrol and carboplatin might serve as a clinically relevant strategy for the treatment of pHGG. FUNDING: This study was funded by a grant from the Children Cancer-Free Foundation (KIKA, project 210). The disclosed funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

7.
Cancer Med ; 8(15): 6634-6643, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and leukemia-related factors in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. We investigated associations between pretherapeutic BMI, cytogenetic abnormalities, and outcome in a large multinational cohort of children with AML. METHODS: We included patients, age 2-17 years, diagnosed with de novo AML from the five Nordic countries (2004-2016), Hong Kong (2007-2016), the Netherlands and Belgium (2010-2016), and Canada and USA (1995-2012). BMI standard deviations score for age and sex was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization. Cumulative incidence functions, Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox regression, and logistic regression were used to investigate associations. RESULTS: In total, 867 patients were included. The median age was 10 years (range 2-17 years). At diagnosis, 32 (4%) were underweight, 632 (73%) were healthy weight, 127 (15%) were overweight, and 76 (9%) were obese. There was no difference in relapse risk, treatment-related mortality or overall mortality across BMI groups. The frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16) increased with increasing BMI. For obese patients, the sex, age, and country adjusted odds ratio of having t(8;21) or inv(16) were 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.8), respectively, compared to healthy weight patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not confirm previous reports of associations between overweight and increased treatment-related or overall mortality in children. Obesity was associated with a higher frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16). AML cytogenetics appear to differ by BMI status.

8.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 177-184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare clinically, neuro-radiologically, and molecularly defined malignancy of the brainstem with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months. Our aim is to evaluate the current tendency for its treatment in Europe in order to develop (inter)national consensus guidelines. METHODS: Healthcare professionals specialized in DIPG were asked to fill in an online survey with questions regarding usual treatment strategies at diagnosis and at disease progression in their countries and/or their centers, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four healthcare professionals responded to the survey, of which 87.8% were pediatric oncologists. Only 13.5% of the respondents biopsy all of their patients, 41.9% biopsy their patients infrequently. More than half of the respondents (54.1%) treated their patients with radiotherapy only at diagnosis, whereas 44.6% preferred radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. When the disease progresses, treatment strategies became even more diverse, and the tendency for no treatment increased from 1.4% at diagnosis to 77.0% after second progression. 36.5% of the healthcare professionals treat children younger than 3 years differently than older children at diagnosis. This percentage decreased, when the disease progresses. Most of the participants (51.4%) included less than 25% of their patients in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrates a large heterogeneity of treatment regimens, especially at disease progression. We emphasize the need for international consensus guidelines for the treatment of DIPG, possible by more collaborative clinical trials.

9.
Support Care Cancer ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an evidence-based decision aid for parents of children with cancer and to help guide them in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for cancer care. METHODS: This study had a mixed research design. The needs of parents were investigated by survey and focus group. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the effectiveness of CAM using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Clinical experts were interviewed and a decision aid on CAM treatment for pain was developed. RESULTS: Parents emphasized the importance of reliable information on CAM, focusing primarily on communication and a broad spectrum of complaints related to cancer treatment. The decision aid on CAM for pain included five modalities based on 11 randomized control trials (RCTs): hypnotherapy, mind-body techniques, massage, healing touch, and music therapy. Meta-analysis could be performed on hypnotherapy, which significantly reduced cancer-related procedural pain compared with standard care (MD, - 1.37; 95% CI, - 1.60, - 1.15; P < 0.00001) and attention control (MD, - 1.13; 95% CI, - 1.34, - 0.94; P < 0.00001), and massage, demonstrating no effect on pain compared with standard care (MD, - 0.77; 95% CI, - 1.82, 0.28; P = 0.15). Research evidence and supplementary information from clinical practice and patient were incorporated in a website-based decision aid. CONCLUSIONS: An evidence-based decision aid was developed to support parents of children with cancer in making decisions about CAM for pain management. Next steps will be to expand the website to include additional childhood cancer-related complaints and to evaluate its use in practice.

10.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 10(1): 1639312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448065

RESUMO

Background: Parents of children with cancer are at risk for sleep problems. If these problems persist, an important perpetuating factor might be ongoing parental distress. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sleep problems and the concurrence with distress in parents of children treated for cancer, and to identify predictors of this symptom clustering. Method: Parents completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale and Distress Thermometer for Parents (DT-P). Clinically relevant sleep problems were defined as a score >1SD above the norm and clinical distress as a thermometer score above the established cut-off of 4. Four parent categories were constructed: neither sleep problems nor distress; no distress but sleep problems; no sleep problems but distress; both sleep problems and distress. Predictive determinants (sociodemographic, medical, psychosocial) for each category were assessed with multilevel multinomial logistic regression. Results: Parents (202 mothers and 150 fathers) of 231 children with different cancers participated. Mean time since diagnosis was 3.3 ± 1.4 years (90% off-treatment). The prevalence of sleep problems was 37%. Fifty percent of parents reported neither sleep problems nor distress, 9% had only sleep problems, 13% only distress, and 28% reported both. Compared to parents without sleep problems or distress, parents who reported both were more likely to report parenting problems (OR 4.4, [2.2-9.1]), chronic illness (OR 2.8, [1.2-6.5]), insufficient social support (OR 3.7, [1.5-9.1]), pre-existent sleep problems (OR 6.2, [2.0-18.6]) and be female (OR 1.8, [1.1-4.2]). Conclusions: Sleep problems are common in parents of children treated for cancer, and occur mostly in the presence of clinical distress. Future research must show which interventions are most effective in this group: mainly targeted at sleep improvement or with prominent roles for stress management or trauma processing.

11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(12): e27949, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436372

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most distressing side effects of childhood cancer treatment. Physical activity can decrease fatigue and has positive effects on other health outcomes. Most research on physical activity pertains to adults, and the few studies that focus on children have limited follow-up time. This study evaluates cancer-related fatigue in children and its association with physical activity over a one-year time period. METHODS: Sixty-eight children with cancer (7-18 years) were recruited during or within the first year after treatment. Physical activity (Actical activity monitor) and cancer-related fatigue (Pediatric Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL-MFS), self- and parent- reports) were assessed at baseline, 4 months, and 12 months. PedsQL-MFS scores were compared with Dutch norms. Longitudinal association of cancer-related fatigue with physical activity was evaluated (No. NTR 1531). RESULTS: Generally, PedsQL-MFS scores were worse than norms at baseline and 4 months, and recovered by 12 months except for the parent-proxy scores in adolescents. Younger children (≤12 years) self-reported comparable or better scores than norms. Physical activity generally improved over time, but patients mostly remained sedentary. During follow-up, increased physical activity was associated with less cancer-related fatigue. CONCLUSION: Cancer-related fatigue in children improves over time, and increased physical activity is associated with less cancer-related fatigue. Given the sedentary lifestyle of this population, the positive effect of physical activity on cancer-related fatigue, and the many other health benefits of an active lifestyle, it is important to stimulate physical activity in childhood cancer patients and survivors.

12.
Drug Resist Updat ; 44: 15-25, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202081

RESUMO

Diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) are rapidly fatal tumors of the midbrain in children, characterized by a diffuse growing pattern and high levels of intrinsic resistance to therapy. The location of these tumors, residing behind the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the limited knowledge about the biology of these tumors, has hindered the development of effective treatment strategies. However, the introduction of diagnostic biopsies and the implementation of autopsy protocols in several large centers world-wide has allowed for a detailed characterization of these rare tumors. This has resulted in the identification of novel therapeutic targets, as well as major advances in understanding the biology of DMG in relation to therapy resistance. We here provide an overview of the cellular pathways and tumor-specific aberrations that have been targeted in preclinical DMG research, and discuss the advantages and limitations of these therapeutic strategies in relation to therapy resistance and BBB-penetration. Therewith, we aim to provide researchers with a framework for successful preclinical therapy development.

13.
Br J Haematol ; 186(3): 397-399, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020655
14.
Leuk Res ; 79: 45-51, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849662

RESUMO

Chemoresistance is an important factor in the treatment failure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One underlying mechanism of chemoresistance involves (over)expression of ATP-dependent drug efflux transporters such as multidrug resistance protein 1-5 (MRP1-5) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which can extrude the important antileukemia drug methotrexate (MTX). Survival of childhood ALL critically depends on the leukemic blasts' capacity for intracellular retention of MTX and MTX-polyglutamates. This pilot study assessed whether expression of MRP1, MRP4, MRP5 and BCRP (real-time PCR) in primary childhood ALL blasts (n = 23) correlated with ex vivo resistance to MTX (assayed by in situ thymidylate synthase inhibition assay (TSIA)), ex vivo accumulation of (radioactive) MTX polyglutamates, and patient survival. Results show that high MRP4 expression is correlated with ex vivo MTX resistance assayed by TSIA (P = 0.01). Moreover, elevated MRP4 and BCRP expression correlated with lower accumulation of MTX-PGs (P = 0.004 and P = 0.03, respectively). Combined high expression of BCRP and MRP4 even further impacted reduced MTX-PG accumulation (P = 0.02). Overall survival was lower (P logrank = 0.04) in children with ALL cells which featured a relatively high expression of both BCRP and MRP4 transporters. These results underscore the impact of high drug efflux transporter expression, notably MRP4 and BCRP, in diminished MTX response in childhood ALL.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Metotrexato/análogos & derivados , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metotrexato/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Ácido Poliglutâmico/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(6): e27701, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supportive-care use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains controversial due to a theoretical increased risk of relapse and limited impact on neutropenic complications. We describe the use of G-CSF in patients treated according to NOPHO-AML 2004 and DB AML-01 and investigated associations with relapse. PROCEDURE: Patients diagnosed with de novo AML completing the first week of therapy and not treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the first complete remission were included (n = 367). Information on G-CSF treatment after each course (yes/no) was registered prospectively in the study database and detailed information was gathered retrospectively from each center. Descriptive statistics were used to describe G-CSF use and Cox regression to assess the association between G-CSF and risk of relapse. RESULTS: G-CSF as supportive care was given to 128 (35%) patients after 268 (39%) courses, with a large variation between centers (0-93%). The use decreased with time-the country-adjusted odds ratio was 0.8/diagnostic year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-0.9). The median daily dose was 5 µg/kg (range 3-12 µg/kg) and the median cumulative dose was 75 µg/kg (range 7-1460 µg/kg). Filgrastim was used in 82% of G-CSF administrations and infection was the indication in 44% of G-CSF administrations. G-CSF was associated with increased risk of relapse-the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.2). CONCLUSIONS: G-CSF as supportive care was used in a third of patients, and use decreased with time. Our results indicate that the use of G-CSF may be associated with an increased risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27458, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Erwinia asparaginase is used as a second-line formulation after a neutralizing hypersensitivity reaction to the first-line formulation of asparaginase. Here, we have performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of Erwinia asparaginase treatment. METHODS: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology ALL-10 or ALL-11 protocol were included and initially treated with PEGasparaginase in the intensification phase. The total treatment costs of this treatment phase, quality of life (QoL), and life years saved (LYS) were studied for two scenarios: (a) patients were switched to Erwinia asparaginase treatment after a hypersensitivity reaction, or (b) asparaginase would have been permanently stopped. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were included. There was no difference in QoL between patients with and without a hypersensitivity reaction. The mean costs of the intensification phase per patient were $40,925 if PEGasparaginase could be continued, $175,632 if patients had to switch to Erwinia asparaginase, and $21,190 if asparaginase would have been permanently stopped. An extrapolation of the literature suggests that the 5-year event-free survival would be 10.3% lower without intensive asparaginase treatment if asparaginase is stopped after a reaction. Thus, the costs per LYS were $1892 for scenario 1 and $872 for scenario 2. CONCLUSIONS: Switching to Erwinia asparaginase increases the costs per LYS by $1020, which is modest in view of the total costs. Moreover, when asparaginase treatment can be completed by switching to Erwinia asparaginase, relapses-and consequential costs-will be avoided. Therefore, from a cost perspective, we recommend a switch to Erwinia asparaginase to complete asparaginase treatment.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/economia , Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Erwinia/enzimologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
17.
EBioMedicine ; 39: 215-225, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic options for diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) are limited to surgery and locoregional chemotherapy. Despite improvements in survival rates, patients eventually succumb to disease progression. We investigated splicing deregulation both as molecular prognostic factor and potential novel target in DMPM, while we tested modulators of SF3b complex for antitumor activity. METHODS: Tissue-microarrays of 64 DMPM specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical assessment of SF3B1 expression and correlation to clinical outcome. Two primary cell cultures were used for gene expression profiling and in vitro screening of SF3b modulators. Drug-induced splicing alterations affecting downstream cellular pathways were detected through RNA sequencing. Ultimately, we established bioluminescent orthotopic mouse models to test the efficacy of splicing modulation in vivo. RESULTS: Spliceosomal genes are differentially upregulated in DMPM cells compared to normal tissues and high expression of SF3B1 correlated with poor clinical outcome in univariate and multivariate analysis. SF3b modulators (Pladienolide-B, E7107, Meayamycin-B) showed potent cytotoxic activity in vitro with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. Differential splicing analysis of Pladienolide-B-treated cells revealed abundant alterations of transcripts involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and other oncogenic pathways. This was validated by RT-PCR and functional assays. E7107 demonstrated remarkable in vivo antitumor efficacy, with significant improvement of survival rates compared to vehicle-treated controls. CONCLUSIONS: SF3B1 emerged as a novel potential prognostic factor in DMPM. Splicing modulators markedly impair cancer cell viability, resulting also in potent antitumor activity in vivo. Our data designate splicing as a promising therapeutic target in DMPM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Processamento de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Epóxi/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Piranos/farmacologia , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1289, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical fitness and psychosocial function is often reduced in children during or shortly after cancer treatment. This study evaluates the effect of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, body composition, psychosocial function and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). In addition, intervention mediators, applicability and adherence were examined. METHODS: This multicenter randomized controlled trial included 68 children with cancer [mean age 13.2 (SD: 3.1) years; 54% male] during treatment or within 12-months post-treatment. The 12-week intervention consisted of 24 individual physical exercise sessions supervised by a physiotherapist, and 6 psychosocial training sessions for children and 2 for parents. Physical fitness and psychosocial function were assessed at baseline, directly post-intervention and at 12 months' post-baseline. Generalized estimating equations were used to simultaneously assess intervention effects at short and long-term. Additionally, we evaluated within-group differences over time. Potential physical and psychosocial mediators in the intervention effect on HrQoL were examined using the product-of-coefficient test. Applicability and adherence were assessed by trainer-report. RESULTS: This study was able to compare 26 children who received the study intervention, with 33 children who received usual care. No significant differences in the effects of the intervention were found on physical fitness and psychosocial function at short-term. At 12-months follow-up, significantly larger improvements in lower body muscle strength (ß = 56.5 Newton; 95% CI: 8.5; 104.5) were found in the intervention group when compared to the control group. Within-group changes showed significant improvements over time in HrQoL and bone density in both groups. Intervention effects on HrQoL were not significantly mediated by physical fitness and psychological function. Intervention applicability was satisfactory with an average session attendance of 67% and 22% dropout (mainly due to disease recurrence). CONCLUSIONS: This 12-week physical exercise and psychosocial training intervention for children with cancer was applicable and showed satisfactory adherence. We found no significant between-group differences in effect, except for a significant improvement in lower body muscle strength at long-term in the intervention group compared to the control group. Yet, both the intervention and the control group showed improvements in bone mineral density and HrQoL over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Registry ( NTR1531 ). Registered 12 November 2008.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(22): 5645-5657, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061363

RESUMO

Purpose: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brain tumor, for which no effective therapeutic options currently exist. We here determined the potential of inhibition of the maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) for the treatment of DIPG.Experimental Design: We evaluated the antitumor efficacy of the small-molecule MELK inhibitor OTSSP167 in vitro in patient-derived DIPG cultures, and identified the mechanism of action of MELK inhibition in DIPG by RNA sequencing of treated cells. In addition, we determined the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of OTSSP167 and evaluated its translational potential by treating mice bearing patient-derived DIPG xenografts.Results: This study shows that MELK is highly expressed in DIPG cells, both in patient samples and in relevant in vitro and in vivo models, and that treatment with OTSSP167 strongly decreases proliferation of patient-derived DIPG cultures. Inhibition of MELK in DIPG cells functions through reducing inhibitory phosphorylation of PPARγ, resulting in an increase in nuclear translocation and consequent transcriptional activity. Brain pharmacokinetic analyses show that OTSSP167 is a strong substrate for both MDR1 and BCRP, limiting its BBB penetration. Nonetheless, treatment of Mdr1a/b;Bcrp1 knockout mice carrying patient-derived DIPG xenografts with OTSSP167 decreased tumor growth, induced remissions, and resulted in improved survival.Conclusions: We show a strong preclinical effect of the kinase inhibitor OTSSP167 in the treatment of DIPG and identify the MELK-PPARγ signaling axis as a putative therapeutic target in this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5645-57. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Br J Haematol ; 183(1): 87-95, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074239

RESUMO

Prevention of infections is of obvious relevance in paediatric patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, recommendations are often non-specific and supported by low-quality evidence, resulting in divergent infection preventive regimens. Using a web-based survey, we investigated the infection prophylaxis guidelines of 22 paediatric AML study groups affiliated to the international Berlin-Frankfürt-Münster study group. In order to evaluate differences in daily practice among hospitals, representatives (n = 27) from the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology-Dutch-Belgium-Hong Kong - AML study group participated in a slightly modified survey. Seven study groups (32%) advise gram-negative antibiotic prophylaxis, mainly with fluoroquinolones (n = 6). Gram-positive prophylaxis is prescribed by eight groups (36%). Over 60% of the study groups prescribe food and social restrictions, but the specific topics and strictness differ widely. According to the hospital-based survey, sites roughly comply with common study group guidelines. However, the use of any gram-negative antibiotic prophylaxis, the specific prophylactic antifungal agent and the strictness of the food and social restrictions differ substantially between the hospitals. Despite a long history of close collaboration, many differences are still present between the affiliated groups. The results of this survey provide an appropriate baseline measure to study the emergence and impact of future guidelines on infection prophylaxis in paediatric AML.


Assuntos
Controle de Infecções/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Masculino , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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