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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 413, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a relatively common disease worldwide with a point prevalence of around 5/1000 in the population. The aim of this present work was to assess the demographic, clinical, familial, and environmental factors associated with schizophrenia in Mali. METHODS: This was a prospective descriptive study on a series of 164 patients aged at least 12 years who came for a follow-up consultation at the psychiatry department of the University Hospital Center (CHU) Point G in Mali between February 2019 and January 2020 for schizophrenia spectrum disorder as defined by DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the male sex was predominant (80.5%). The 25-34 age group was more represented with 44.5%. The place of birth for the majority of our patients was the urban area (52.4%), which also represented the place of the first year of life for the majority of our patients (56.1%). We noted that the unemployed and single people accounted for 56.1 and 61% respectively. More than half of our patients 58.5% reported having reached secondary school level. With the exception of education level, there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of demographic parameters. Familial schizophrenia cases accounted for 51.7% versus 49.3% for non-familial cases. The different clinical forms were represented by the paranoid form, followed by the undifferentiated form, and the hebephrenic form with respectively 34, 28 and 17.1%. We noted that almost half (48.8%) of patients were born during the cold season. Cannabis use history was not observed in 68.7% of the patients. The proportions of patients with an out-of-school father or an out-of-school mother were 51.2 and 64.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The onset of schizophrenia in the Malian population has been associated with socio-demographic, clinical, genetic and environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26614, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398016

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a central role in the phase I biotransformation process of a wide range of compounds, including xenobiotics, drugs, hormones and vitamins. It is noteworthy that these enzymes are highly polymorphic and, depending on the genetic makeup, an individual may have impaired enzymatic activity. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants in these genes could facilitate the implementation of pharmacogenetic studies and genetic predisposition to multifactorial diseases. We have established the frequencies of CYP2B6 (rs3745274; rs2279343) and CYP3A4 (rs2740574) alleles and genotypes in 209 healthy Malian subjects using TaqMan drug metabolism genotyping assays for allelic discrimination. Allele frequencies were 37% for CYP2B6 rs3745274; 38% for CYP2B6 rs2279343; and 75% for CYP3A4 rs2740574 respectively. Overall, the frequencies observed in Mali are statistically comparable to those reported across Africa except North Africa. The major haplotypes in CYP2B6 rs3745274 and CYP2B6 rs2279343 were represented by GA (60.24%) followed by TG (35.36%). We noted a strong linkage disequilibrium between CYP2B6 rs3745274 and CYP2B6 rs2279343 with D' = 0.91 and r2 = 0.9. The frequencies of the genotypic combinations were 43.5% (GT/AG), 37.3% (GG/AA) and 11.5% (TT/GG) in the combination of CYP2B6-rs3745274 and CYP2B6-rs2279343; 26.8% (GT/CC), 25.4%, (GT/CT), 17.2% and GG/CT in the combination CYP2B6-rs3745274-CYP3A4-rs2740574; 26.8% (AG/CC), 23.9% (AA/CC), 19.1% (AG/CT), and 11% (AA/CT) in the combination CYP2B6-rs2279343-CYP3A4-rs2740574, respectively. The most common triple genotype was GT/AG/CC with 24.9%, followed by GG/AA/CC with 23.9%, GT/AG/CT with 16.7%, and GG/AA/CT with 10%. Our results provide new insights into the distribution of these pharmacogenetically relevant genes in the Malian population. Moreover, these data will be useful for studies of individual genetic variability to drugs and genetic predisposition to diseases.


Assuntos
Alelos , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética/métodos
3.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 206, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the p.Arg72Pro variant of the P53 gene on the risk of development ofbreast cancer remains variable in populations. However, the use ofstrategies such aspoolingage-matched controls with disease may provide a consistent meta-analysis. Our goal was to perform a meta-analysis in order to assess the association of p.Arg72Pro variant of P53 gene with the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Databases such as PubMed, Genetics Medical Literature, Harvard University Library, Web of Science and Genesis Library were used to search articles. Case-control studies with age-matched on breast cancer havingevaluated the genotype frequencies of the TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism were selected. The fixed and random effects (Mantel-Haenszel) were calculated using pooled odds ratio of 95% CI to determine the risk of disease. Inconsistency was calculated to determine heterogeneity among the studies. The publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot. RESULTS: Twenty-one publications with 7841 cases and 8876 controls were evaluated in this meta-analysis. Overall, our results suggested that TP53 p.Arg72Pro was associated with the risk of breast cancer for the dominant model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P = 0.01) and the additive model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.17, P = 0.03), but not for the recessive model (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97-1.18, P = 0.19). According to the ethnic group analysis, Pro allele was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Caucasians for the dominant model and additive model (P = 0.02), and Africans for the recessive model and additive model (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found a significant association between TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. Individuals carrying at least one Pro allele were more likely to have breast cancer than individuals harboring the Arg allele.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039464, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women after cervical cancer in much of sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to examine the prevalence and sociodemographic-socioeconomic factors associated with breast cancer screening among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: A weighted population-based cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data. We used all available data on breast cancer screening from the DHS for four sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Kenya and Namibia). Breast cancer screening was the outcome of interest for this study. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to identify independent factors associated with breast cancer screening. SETTING: Four countries participating in the DHS from 2010 to 2014 with data on breast cancer screening. PARTICIPANTS: Women of reproductive age 15-49 years (N=39 646). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of breast cancer screening was only 12.9% during the study period, ranging from 5.2% in Ivory Coast to 23.1% in Namibia. Factors associated with breast cancer screening were secondary/higher education with adjusted prevalence ratio (adjusted PR)=2.33 (95% CI: 2.05 to 2.66) compared with no education; older participants, 35-49 years (adjusted PR=1.73, 95% CI : 1.56 to 1.91) compared with younger participants 15-24 years; health insurance coverage (adjusted PR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.47 to 1.68) compared with those with no health insurance and highest socioeconomic status (adjusted PR=1.33, 95% CI : 1.19 to 1.49) compared with lowest socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Despite high breast cancer mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of breast cancer screening is substantially low and varies gradually across countries and in relation to factors such as education, age, health insurance coverage and household wealth index level. These results highlight the need for increased efforts to improve the uptake of breast cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 142, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer, the most common tumor in women in Mali and worldwide has been linked to several risk factors, including genetic factors, such as the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism of TP53. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism in the susceptibility to breast cancer in the Malian population and to perform a meta-analysis to better understand the correlation with data from other populations. METHODS: We analyzed the PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism in blood samples of 60 Malian women with breast cancer and 60 healthy Malian women using PCR. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis of case-control study data from international databases, including Pubmed, Harvard University Library, Genetics Medical Literature Database, Genesis Library and Web of Science. Overall, odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI from fixed and random effects models were determined. Inconsistency was used to assess heterogeneity between studies and publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot. RESULTS: In the studied Malian patients, a significant association of PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism with breast cancer risk was observed in dominant (A1A2 + A2A2 vs. A1A1: OR = 2.26, CI 95% = 1.08-4.73; P = 0.02) and additive (A2 vs. A1: OR = 1.87, CI 95% = 1.05-3.33; P = 0.03) models, but not in the recessive model (P = 0.38). In the meta-analysis, nineteen (19) articles were included with a total of 6018 disease cases and 4456 controls. Except for the dominant model (P = 0.15), an increased risk of breast cancer was detected with the recessive (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.15-1.85; P = 0.002) and additive (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02-1.19; P = 0.01) models. CONCLUSION: The case-control study showed that PIN3 16-bp duplication polymorphism of TP53 is a significant risk factor for breast cancer in Malian women. These findings are supported by data from the meta-analysis carried out on different ethnic groups around the world.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Mali , Modelos Genéticos , Razão de Chances , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7517, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371946

RESUMO

Metabolomic studies have demonstrated the existence of biological signatures in blood of patients with arterial hypertension, but no study has hitherto reported the sexual dimorphism of these signatures. We compared the plasma metabolomic profiles of 28 individuals (13 women and 15 men) with essential arterial hypertension with those of a healthy control group (18 women and 18 men), using targeted metabolomics. Among the 188 metabolites explored, 152 were accurately measured. Supervised OPLS-DA (orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis) showed good predictive performance for hypertension in both sexes (Q2cum = 0.59 in women and 0.60 in men) with low risk of overfitting (p-value-CV ANOVA = 0.004 in women and men). Seventy-five and 65 discriminant metabolites with a VIP (variable importance for the projection) greater than 1 were evidenced in women and men, respectively. Both sexes showed a considerable increase in phosphatidylcholines, a decrease in C16:0 with an increase in C28:1 lysophosphatidylcholines, an increase in sphingomyelins, as well as an increase of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), acetyl-ornithine and hydroxyproline. Twenty-nine metabolites, involved in phospholipidic and cardiac remodeling, arginine/nitric oxide pathway and antihypertensive and insulin resistance mechanisms, discriminated the metabolic sexual dimorphism of hypertension. Our results highlight the importance of sexual dimorphism in arterial hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Metaboloma , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ornitina/sangue , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Análise de Componente Principal , Esfingomielinas
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117525

RESUMO

Introduction: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa due to its high frequency and to the cardiovascular risk that it entails. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of clinical and biological risk factors of hypertension in Bamako (Mali). Methods: We conducted a case-control study, stratified in function of the sex, of 72 participants including 36 patients with hypertension and 36 controls. Twenty-two plasma biochemical parameters have been measured and analyzed using univariate and multivariate tests. Results: Hyperhomocysteinemia was found in 55.6% of women (p = 0.03) and 100% of men (p = 0.007) with hypertension. High NT-proBNP was also found in 16.7% of women (VIP > 1 in multivariate model) and of men with hypertension (p = 0.00006). A good multivariate predictive model (OPLS-DA) was only obtained in women with high blood pressure, with Q2cum = 0.73, attesting severe sexual dimorphism associated with arterial hypertension. This model involved eight parameters whose plasma concentration was modified (homocysteine, NT-proBNP, potassium, urea, blood glucose, sodium, chlorine and total proteins). Conclusion: We registered a significant association between hyperhomocysteinemia and arterial hypertension. Therefore, the assay of homocysteine associated with good management would decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases while improving the quality of life of hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(1): 393-400, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650384

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferase genes, known to be highly polymorphic, are implicated in the process of phase II metabolism of many substrates, including xenobiotics, anticancer and anti-infective drugs. The detoxification activity is linked to individual genetic makeup. Therefore, the identification of alleles and genotypes in these genes within a population may help to better design genetic susceptibility and pharmacogenetic studies. We performed the present study to establish the frequencies of the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 c. 313A > G (rs1695) polymorphisms in 206 individuals of the Malian healthy population. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were genotyped by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, whereas genotypes of GSTP1 were identified by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of GSTM1-null and GSTT1-null genotypes were respectively 24.3 and 41.3%. The observed genotype frequencies for GSTP1 were 25.73% homozygous wild-type AA, 49.03% heterozygous AG and 25.24% homozygous mutant GG. The frequency of GSTP1-A allele was 50.24% versus 49.76% for the GSTP1-G allele. The distribution of these three genes was homogeneous between men and women (p > 0.05). We found no statistical association between the presence of a particular profile of GSTM1 or GSTT1 with the genotypes of GSTP1 (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, we noticed that the majority of the individuals harboring the GSTM1-present or the GSTT1-present harbor also the GSTP1-AG genotype. In addition, the triple genotype GSTM1-present/GSTT1-present/AG was the most frequent with 25.2%. Our findings will facilitate future studies regarding genetic associations of multifactorial diseases and pharmacogenetic, thus opening the way to personalized medicine in our population.


Assuntos
Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Front Genet ; 10: 331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031807

RESUMO

Bioinformatics and data science research have boundless potential across Africa due to its high levels of genetic diversity and disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS, Ebola virus disease, and Lassa fever. This work lays out an incremental approach for reaching underserved countries in bioinformatics and data science research through a progression of capacity building, training, and research efforts. Two global health informatics training programs sponsored by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) were carried out at the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali (USTTB) between 1999 and 2011. Together with capacity building efforts through the West Africa International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMR), this progress laid the groundwork for a bioinformatics and data science training program launched at USTTB as part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative. Prior to the global health informatics training, its trainees published first or second authorship and third or higher authorship manuscripts at rates of 0.40 and 0.10 per year, respectively. Following the training, these rates increased to 0.70 and 1.23 per year, respectively, which was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.001). The bioinformatics and data science training program at USTTB commenced in 2017 focusing on student, faculty, and curriculum tiers of enhancement. The program's sustainable measures included institutional support for core elements, university tuition and fees, resource sharing and coordination with local research projects and companion training programs, increased student and faculty publication rates, and increased research proposal submissions. Challenges reliance of high-speed bandwidth availability on short-term funding, lack of a discounted software portal for basic software applications, protracted application processes for United States visas, lack of industry job positions, and low publication rates in the areas of bioinformatics and data science. Long-term, incremental processes are necessary for engaging historically underserved countries in bioinformatics and data science research. The multi-tiered enhancement approach laid out here provides a platform for generating bioinformatics and data science technicians, teachers, researchers, and program managers. Increased literature on bioinformatics and data science training approaches and progress is needed to provide a framework for establishing benchmarks on the topics.

10.
Evol Appl ; 10(7): 704-717, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717390

RESUMO

In arid environments, the source of the malaria mosquito populations that re-establish soon after first rains remains a puzzle and alternative explanations have been proposed. Using genetic data, we evaluated whether the early rainy season (RS) population of Anopheles coluzzii is descended from the preceding late RS generation at the same locality, consistent with dry season (DS) dormancy (aestivation), or from migrants from distant locations. Distinct predictions derived from these two hypotheses were assessed, based on variation in 738 SNPs in eleven A. coluzzii samples, including seven samples spanning 2 years in a Sahelian village. As predicted by the "local origin under aestivation hypothesis," temporal samples from the late RS and those collected after the first rain of the following RS were clustered together, while larger genetic distances were found among samples spanning the RS. Likewise, multilocus genotype composition of samples from the end of the RS was similar across samples until the following RS, unlike samples that spanned the RS. Consistent with reproductive arrest during the DS, no genetic drift was detected between samples taken over that period, despite encompassing extreme population minima, whereas it was detected between samples spanning the RS. Accordingly, the variance in allele frequency increased with time over the RS, but not over the DS. However, not all the results agreed with aestivation. Large genetic distances separated samples taken a year apart, and during the first year, within-sample genetic diversity declined and increased back during the late RS, suggesting a bottleneck followed by migration. The decline of genetic diversity followed by a mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets was accompanied by a reduced mosquito density and a rise in the mutation conferring resistance to pyrethroids, indicating a bottleneck due to insecticidal selection. Overall, our results support aestivation in A. coluzzii during the DS that is accompanied by long-distance migration in the late RS.

11.
BMC Genet ; 17(1): 126, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women. Several studies have investigated the relationship between the C3435T polymorphism of ABCB1 gene and risk of breast cancer; but the results are conflicting. In the present study, we sought to assess the relationship between the C3435T polymorphism in ABCB1 gene and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of the Moroccan population. METHODS: A case control study was performed on 60 breast cancer patients and 68 healthy women. The ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Furthermore, a meta-analysis including 16 studies with 6094 cases of breast cancer and 8646 controls was performed. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were 50 % for CC, 33.3 % for CT and 16.7 % for TT in patients and 41.2 % for CC, 48.5 % for CT and 10.3 % for TT respectively in the control group. This difference was not statistically significant. The same trend as observed in the allele distribution between patients and controls (P = 0.84). Findings from the meta-analysis showed that the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model (OR = 0.907; 95 % CI = 0.767-1.073; P = 0.25) as well as in the recessive model (OR = 1.181; 95 % CI = 0.973-1.434; P = 0.093) and in the allele contrast model (OR = 1.098; 95 % CI = 0.972-1.240; P = 0.133). However, the stratification of studies on ethnic basis showed that the TT genotype was associated with the risk of breast cancer in Asians (OR = 1.405; 95 % CI = 1.145-1.725; P = 0.001), Caucasians (OR = 1.093; 95 % CI = 1.001-1.194; P = 0.048) and North African (OR = 2.028; 95 % CI = 1.220-3.371; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: We have noted that the implication of C3435T variant on the risk of breast cancer was ethnicity-dependent. However, there is no evidence that ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism could play a role in susceptibility to breast cancer in Morocco. Further studies with a larger sample size, extended to other polymorphisms are needed to understand the influence of ABCB1 genetic variants on the risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Risco
12.
eNeurologicalSci ; 3: 17-20, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430530

RESUMO

Introduction: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) are both motor neuron disorders. SMA results from the deletion of the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene. High or low SMN1 copy number and the absence of SMN2 have been reported as risk factors for the development or severity of SALS. Objective: To investigate the role of SMN gene copy number in the onset and severity of SALS in Malians. Material and Methods: We determined the SMN1 and SMN2 copy number in genomic DNA samples from 391 Malian adult volunteers, 120 Yoruba from Nigeria, 120 Luyha from Kenya and 74 U.S. Caucasians using a Taqman quantitative PCR assay. We evaluated the SALS risk based on the estimated SMA protein level using the Veldink formula (SMN1 copy number + 0.2 ∗ SMN2 copy number). We also characterized the disease natural history in 15 ALS patients at the teaching hospital of Point G, Bamako, Mali. Results: We found that 131 of 391 (33.5%) had an estimated SMN protein expression of ≤ 2.2; 60 out of 391 (15.3%) had an estimated SMN protein expression < 2 and would be at risk of ALS and the disease onset was as early as 16 years old. All 15 patients were male and some were physically handicapped within 1-2 years in the disease course. Conclusion: Because of the short survival time of our patients, family histories and sample DNA for testing were not done. However, our results show that sporadic ALS is of earlier onset and shorter survival time as compared to patients elsewhere. We plan to establish a network of neurologists and researchers for early screening of ALS.

13.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 775, 2015 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have been known to be associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease as well as hypertension. This case-control study was conducted out to measure the association of the polymorphism C677T of MTHFR with the risk of hypertension. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment analysis length was used to identify MTHFR C677T genotypes in patients 101 patients and 102 age and sex matched healthy controls. Odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was used to assess the risk of association. RESULTS: The distribution of demographic and clinical features of patients showed no particular trend (p > 0.05). However, the frequency of homozygous 677T allele was higher in patients with a family history of heart disease (30.4 vs. 9 %, p = 0.031). Interestingly, the mutant 677TT genotype was significantly associated with the susceptibility of hypertension when compared to the wild type 677CC genotype (OR 5.4, CI 1.4-19.8, p = 0.008). In addition, the recessive model 677TT vs. 677CC/CT was found to be associated with the risk of hypertension (OR 5.3, CI 1.5-19.1, p = 0.005). However, the dominant model was not associated with the risk of hypertension in our cohort (OR 1.3, CI 0.7-2.2, p = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, the homozygous mutant for 677TT of MTHFR gene is associated with the risk of hypertension in our population. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the results of this study.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/enzimologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Risco
14.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2015: 248060, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604430

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are multifactorial disorders resulting from environmental and genetic factors. Polymorphisms in MDR1 and GSTs genes might explain individual differences in susceptibility to IBD. We carried out a case-control study to examine the association of MDR1 (C1236T and C3435T), GSTT1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms with the risk of IBD. Subjects were genotyped using PCR-RFLP for MDR1 gene and multiplex PCR for GSTT1 and GSTM1. Meta-analysis was performed to test the association of variant allele carriage with IBD risk. We report that GSTT1 null genotype is significantly associated with the risk of CD (OR: 2.5, CI: 1.2-5, P = 0.013) and UC (OR: 3.5, CI: 1.5-8.5, P = 0.004) and can influence Crohn's disease behavior. The interaction between GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes showed that the combined null genotypes were associated with the risk of UC (OR: 3.1, CI: 1.1-9, P = 0.049). Furthermore, when compared to combined 1236CC/CT genotypes, the 1236TT genotype of MDR1 gene was associated with the risk of UC (OR: 3.7, CI: 1.3-10.7, P = 0.03). Meta-analysis demonstrated significantly higher frequencies of 3435T carriage in IBD patients. Our results show that GSTT1 null and MDR1 polymorphisms could play a role in susceptibility to IBD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Risco
15.
Springerplus ; 4: 210, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25969820

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), as most of cancers results from a complex interaction between genetic or non genetic factors. Exposures to xenobiotics endogenous or exogenous associated with a reduced individual ability in detoxifying activity, constitutes a risk of developing cancer. It is known that polymorphism of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes affects the detoxification of xenobiotics. Thus, we conducted a case-control study in which 92 patients (Mean age ± SD, 40.62 ± 12.7 years) with CML and 93 healthy unrelated controls (Mean age ± SD, 41.38 ± 13.4 years) have participated. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression was used to assess the possible link between GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and CML as well as between combined genotypes and CML. GSTM1 null genotype frequency was slightly higher in patients than control (48.9% vs. 40.9%) but, it was not associated with CML (OR 95% CI, 1.4, 0.78-2.48; p = 0.271). Moreover, GSTT1 null genotype frequency showed a similar trend between patients and control (17.4% vs. 9.7%; OR 95% CI, 1.97, 0.82-4.71; p = 0.13). Surprisingly, GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with the risk of CML in males (OR 95% CI, 5, 1.25-20.1; p = 0.023). The combined GSTM1 present/GSTT1 null genotype was found to have a limited effect against the risk of CML (OR 95% CI, 0.3, 0.08-0.99; p = 0.049). Our findings have shown that GSTT1 null genotype might be a risk factor of CML in males. While, GSTT1 present genotype might be considered as protective against CML. However, further studies with a large sample size are needed to confirm our findings.

16.
Med Oncol ; 31(1): 782, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24293093

RESUMO

In the spite of the impressive results achieved with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, differences in patient's response are observed, which may be explained by interindividual genetic variability. It is known that cytochrome P450 enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of imatinib. The present study aimed to understand the functional impact of CYP2B6 15631G>T polymorphism on the response of imatinib in CML patients and its relation to CML susceptibility. We have genotyped CYP2B6 G15631T in 48 CML patients and 64 controls by PCR-RFLP. CYP2B6 15631G>T was not found to be a risk factor for CML (OR 95 % CI, 1.12, 0.6-2, p > 0.05). Hematologic response loss was higher in patients with 15631GG/TT genotype when compared with 15631GT (36.8 vs. 13.8 %; X (2) = 3.542, p = 0.063). Complete cytogenetic response was higher in 15631GG/GT genotype groups when compared with 15631TT (X (2) = 3.298, p = 0.024). Primary cytogenetic resistance was higher in patients carrying 15631GG/TT genotype when compared with 15631GT carriers (52.6 vs. 17.2 %; X (2) = 6.692, p = 0.010). Furthermore, side effects were more common for patients carrying 15631GG genotypes when compared with GT/TT carriers (36 vs. 13.8 %; X (2) = 8.3, p = 0.004). In light of our results, identification of 15631G>T polymorphism in CML patients might be helpful to predict therapeutic response to imatinib.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alelos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6 , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Farmacogenética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
DNA Cell Biol ; 32(10): 582-8, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23930592

RESUMO

The multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) plays an important role in the transport of a wide range of drugs and elimination of xenobiotics from the body. Identification of polymorphisms and haplotypes in the MDR1 gene might not only help understand pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, but also can help in the prediction of drug responses, toxicity, and side effects, especially, in the era of personalized medicine. We have analyzed the genotypic and haplotypic frequencies of the three most common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene in a sample of 100 unrelated healthy Moroccan subjects by polymerase chain reaction-restrictive fragment length polymorphism. The observed genotype frequencies were 43% for 1236CC, 49% for 1236CT, and 8% for 1236TT in exon 12; 49% for 2677GG, 47% for 2677GT, and 4% for 2677TT in exon 21; 39% for 3435CC, 51% 3435CT for 3435TT, and 10% for 3435TT in exon 26, respectively. We found that all polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the three polymorphisms, the strongest LD in our study has been observed between C1236T and G2677T (D'=0.76; r(2)=0.45). We identified eight haplotypes, the most frequent were 1236C-2677G-3435C (53%), 1236T-2677T-3435T (21%), and 1236C-2677G-3435T (10%), respectively. Our findings might facilitate future studies on pharmacokinetics of P-glycoprotein substrate drugs and interindividual variability to drugs in Moroccan patients.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Exp Biol ; 215(Pt 12): 2013-21, 2012 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22623189

RESUMO

Malaria in Africa is vectored primarily by the Anopheles gambiae complex. Although the mechanisms of population persistence during the dry season are not yet known, targeting dry season mosquitoes could provide opportunities for vector control. In the Sahel, it appears likely that M-form A. gambiae survive by aestivation (entering a dormant state). To assess the role of eco-physiological changes associated with dry season survival, we measured body size, flight activity and metabolic rate of wild-caught mosquitoes throughout 1 year in a Sahelian locality, far from permanent water sources, and at a riparian location adjacent to the Niger River. We found significant seasonal variation in body size at both the Sahelian and riparian sites, although the magnitude of the variation was greater in the Sahel. For flight activity, significant seasonality was only observed in the Sahel, with increased flight activity in the wet season when compared with that just prior to and throughout the dry season. Whole-organism metabolic rate was affected by numerous biotic and abiotic factors, and a significant seasonal component was found at both locations. However, assay temperature accounted completely for seasonality at the riparian location, while significant seasonal variation remained after accounting for all measured variables in the Sahel. Interestingly, we did not find that mean metabolic rate was lowest during the dry season at either location, contrary to our expectation that mosquitoes would conserve energy and increase longevity by reducing metabolism during this time. These results indicate that mosquitoes may use mechanisms besides reduced metabolic rate to enable survival during the Sahelian dry season.


Assuntos
Anopheles/anatomia & histologia , Anopheles/fisiologia , Malária/parasitologia , África , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Tamanho Corporal , Voo Animal , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
19.
J Insect Physiol ; 58(8): 1050-9, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22609421

RESUMO

The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is widespread south of the Sahara including in dry savannahs and semi-arid environments where no surface water exists for several months a year. Adults of the M form of An. gambiae persist through the long dry season, when no surface waters are available, by increasing their maximal survival from 4 weeks to 7 months. Dry season diapause (aestivation) presumably underlies this extended survival. Diapause in adult insects is intrinsically linked to depressed reproduction. To determine if reproduction of the Sahelian M form is depressed during the dry season, we assessed seasonal changes in oviposition, egg batch size, and egg development, as well as insemination rate and blood feeding in wild caught mosquitoes. Results from xeric Sahelian and riparian populations were compared. Oviposition response in the Sahelian M form dropped from 70% during the wet season to 20% during the dry season while the mean egg batch size among those that laid eggs fell from 173 to 101. Correspondingly, the fraction of females that exhibited gonotrophic dissociation increased over the dry season from 5% to 45%, while a similar fraction of the population retained developed eggs despite having access to water. This depression in reproduction the Sahelian M form was not caused by a reduced insemination rate. Seasonal variation in these reproductive parameters of the riparian M form population was less extreme and the duration of reproductive depression was shorter. Blood feeding responses did not change with the season in either population. Depressed reproduction during the dry season in the Sahelian M form of An. gambiae provides additional evidence for aestivation and illuminates the physiological processes involved. The differences between the Sahelian and riparian population suggest an adaptive cline in aestivation phenotypes between populations only 130 km apart.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Oviposição , África do Norte , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano
20.
Malar J ; 10: 151, 2011 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21645385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistence of African anophelines throughout the long dry season (4-8 months) when no surface waters are available remains one of the enduring mysteries of medical entomology. Recent studies demonstrated that aestivation (summer diapause) is one mechanism that allows the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to persist in the Sahel. However, migration from distant localities - where reproduction continues year-round - might also be involved. METHODS: To assess the contribution of aestivating adults to the buildup of populations in the subsequent wet season, two villages subjected to weekly pyrethrum sprays throughout the dry season were compared with two nearby villages, which were only monitored. If aestivating adults are the main source of the subsequent wet-season population, then the subsequent wet-season density in the treated villages will be lower than in the control villages. Moreover, since virtually only M-form An. gambiae are found during the dry season, the reduction should be specific to the M form, whereas no such difference is predicted for S-form An. gambiae or Anopheles arabiensis. On the other hand, if migrants arriving with the first rain are the main source, no differences between treated and control villages are expected across all members of the An. gambiae complex. RESULTS: The wet-season density of the M form in treated villages was 30% lower than that in the control (P < 10-4, permutation test), whereas no significant differences were detected in the S form or An. arabiensis. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that the M form persist in the arid Sahel primarily by aestivation, whereas the S form and An. arabiensis rely on migration from distant locations. Implications for malaria control are discussed.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Clima Desértico , Estações do Ano , África ao Sul do Saara , Migração Animal , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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