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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients with localized adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) subjected to open vs laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study. PATIENTS: This retrospective study included 46 patients with the ACC ENSAT stage I-stage III of whom 23 underwent open surgery (OA group), whereas 23 were subjected to laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA group). The main outcomes analysed in the study were differences between the OA and LA groups in recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Patients in OA group had larger tumours (120 [70-250] mm vs 75 [26-110] mm; P < .001), higher Ki-67 index (16 [1-65] % vs 10 [1-25] %; P = .04) and higher disease stage (P = .01) compared with the patients in the LA group. The median duration of follow-up for patients underwent OA and LA was 51 (12-174) and 53 (5-127) months, respectively. Eight patients (5 OA and 3 LA) experienced recurrent disease, whereas six patients (3 OA and 3 LA) died during follow-up. No differences in RFS and OS were found between patients who underwent open or laparoscopic surgery. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that in patients with localized ACC and without invasion of extra-adrenal tissues, LA is a plausible treatment option in terms of RFS and OS. However, our results are limited to referral centres with large experience in the management of patients with ACC and may not necessarily apply to nonspecialized centres.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736877

RESUMO

Objective: Primary aldosteronism is a major cause of secondary hypertension. Its two principal forms are bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) whose differentiation is clinically pivotal. There is a major clinical need for a reliable and easily accessible diagnostic biomarker for case identification and subtyping. Circulating microRNAs were shown to be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic markers. Our aim was to determine and compare the circulating microRNA expression profiles of adenoma and hyperplasia plasma samples, and to evaluate their applicability as minimally invasive markers. Methods: One hundred and twenty-three samples from primary aldosteronism patients were included. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 30 EDTA-anticoagulated plasma samples (discovery cohort). Significantly differently expressed miRNAs were validated by real-time reverse transcription-qPCR in an independent validation cohort (93 samples). Results: We have found relative overexpression of miR-30e-5p, miR-30d-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-7-5p in hyperplasia compared to adenoma by next-generation sequencing. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed significant overexpression of hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-30d-5p, and hsa-miR-7-5p in hyperplasia samples. Regarding the microRNA expressional variations, adenoma is more heterogeneous at the miRNA level compared to hyperplasia. Conclusion: Three microRNAs were significantly overexpressed in hyperplasia samples compared to adenoma samples, but their sensitivity and specificity values are not good enough for introduction to clinical practice.

6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 461-472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480014

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/mortalidade , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/etiologia , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise/etiologia , Doenças da Hipófise/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of the early postoperative basal cortisol level in assessing the postoperative hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function after pituitary tumor surgery. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study that enrolled 83 patients operated for pituitary adenoma or other sellar lesions at the University Hospital Center Zagreb between December 2013 and April 2017 (44 nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, 28 somatotropinomas, 5 craniopharyngiomas, 2 prolactinomas resistant to medical therapy and 4 other lesions - Rathke's cleft cyst, arachnoid cyst, chondroma and gangliocytoma). Exclusion criteria were Cushing's disease, chronic therapy with glucocorticoids prior to surgery and preoperative adrenal insufficiency. Early postoperative basal cortisol levels (measured on the second postoperative day) and the Synacthen stimulation test (performed 3 months after the surgery with the peak cortisol level of>500 nmol/L considered as a normal response) were analyzed to assess HPA axis function during follow-up. RESULTS: ROC analysis showed a cut-off of the basal cortisol level of ≥300 nmol/L measured on the second postoperative day to predict normal postoperative HPA axis function with the sensitivity of 92.31%, specificity of 87.14% and positive predictive value of 57.14%. CONCLUSION: The basal cortisol level on the second postoperative day is a valuable tool to predict integrity of the HPA axis after pituitary tumor surgery. Our data suggest that the cortisol level of ≥300 nmol/L accurately predicts adrenal sufficiency and that in these patients glucocorticoid therapy can be withdrawn.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(2): 312-318, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383267

RESUMO

Background: Up to 7% of all adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are pheochromocytomas (PCCs). In the evaluation of AI, it is generally recommended that PCC be excluded by measurement of plasma-free or 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines. However, recent studies suggest that biochemical exclusion of PCC not be performed for lesions with CT characteristics of an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA). Aim: To determine the proportion of PCCs with ACA-like attenuation or contrast washout on CT. Methods: For this multicenter retrospective study, two central investigators independently analyzed the CT reports of 533 patients with 548 histologically confirmed PCCs. Data on tumor size, unenhanced Hounsfield units (HU), absolute percentage washout (APW), and relative percentage washout (RPW) were collected in addition to clinical parameters. Results: Among the 376 PCCs for which unenhanced attenuation data were available, 374 had an attenuation of >10 HU (99.5%). In the two exceptions (0.5%), unenhanced attenuation was exactly 10 HU, which lies just within the range of ≤10 HU that would suggest a diagnosis of ACA. Of 76 PCCs with unenhanced HU > 10 and available washout data, 22 (28.9%) had a high APW and/or RPW, suggestive of ACA. Conclusion: Based on the lack of PCCs with an unenhanced attenuation of <10 HU and the low proportion (0.5%) of PCCs with an attenuation of 10 HU, it seems reasonable to abstain from biochemical testing for PCC in AIs with an unenhanced attenuation of ≤10 HU. The assessment of contrast washout, however, is unreliable for ruling out PCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 178(4): 399-409, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29440375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery is the definitive treatment of Cushing's syndrome (CS) but medications may also be used as a first-line therapy. Whether preoperative medical treatment (PMT) affects postoperative outcome remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: (1) Evaluate how frequently PMT is given to CS patients across Europe; (2) examine differences in preoperative characteristics of patients who receive PMT and those who undergo primary surgery and (3) determine if PMT influences postoperative outcome in pituitary-dependent CS (PIT-CS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1143 CS patients entered into the ERCUSYN database from 57 centers in 26 countries. Sixty-nine percent had PIT-CS, 25% adrenal-dependent CS (ADR-CS), 5% CS from an ectopic source (ECT-CS) and 1% were classified as having CS from other causes (OTH-CS). RESULTS: Twenty per cent of patients took PMT. ECT-CS and PIT-CS were more likely to receive PMT compared to ADR-CS (P < 0.001). Most commonly used drugs were ketoconazole (62%), metyrapone (16%) and a combination of both (12%). Median (interquartile range) duration of PMT was 109 (98) days. PIT-CS patients treated with PMT had more severe clinical features at diagnosis and poorer quality of life compared to those undergoing primary surgery (SX) (P < 0.05). Within 7 days of surgery, PIT-CS patients treated with PMT were more likely to have normal cortisol (P < 0.01) and a lower remission rate (P < 0.01). Within 6 months of surgery, no differences in morbidity or remission rates were observed between SX and PMT groups. CONCLUSIONS: PMT may confound the interpretation of immediate postoperative outcome. Follow-up is recommended to definitely evaluate surgical results.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Cushing/cirurgia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome de Cushing/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Endócrinas Paraneoplásicas , Hipófise/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Período Pós-Operatório , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Endocr Res ; 42(4): 318-324, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for hypopituitarism after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for pituitary adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the pituitary function of 90 patients who underwent GKRS for pituitary adenoma at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb between 2003 and 2014. Twenty seven of them met the inclusion criteria and the others were excluded from the study due to pituitary insufficiency which was present before GKRS. Eighteen patients had non-functioning and 9 patients had secretory adenomas. Median patients' age was 56 years (24-82). GKRS was performed using the Leksell gamma knife Model C. The median prescription radiation dose was 20 Gy (15-25) and the median tumor volume size was 3.4 cm3 (0.06-16.81). New onset hypopituitarism was defined as a new deficit of one of the three hormonal axes (corticotroph, thyreotroph, or gonadotroph) ≥3 months following GKRS. SPSS was used for statistical analysis, with the significance level at P<0.05. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 72 months (range 6-144), 30% of patients developed new hypopituitarism after GKRS. This corresponds to incidence of one new case of hypopituitarism per 15 patient-years. Age, gender, tumor function, tumor volume, suprasellar extension, prescription dose of radiation, as well as dose-volume to the pituitary gland, stalk and hypothalamus were not predictive factors for the development of hypopituitarism. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of patients with pituitary tumors who underwent GKRS, 30% developed new hypopituitarism during the follow-up period.


Assuntos
Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/efeitos adversos , Hipófise/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/radioterapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Croácia/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/epidemiologia , Hipopituitarismo/fisiopatologia , Hipopituitarismo/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Hipófise/metabolismo , Hipófise/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 176(5): 613-624, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate which tests are performed to diagnose hypercortisolism in patients included in the European Registry on Cushing's syndrome (ERCUSYN), and to examine if their use differs from the current guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on the diagnostic tests performed in 1341 patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) who have been entered into the ERCUSYN database between January 1, 2000 and January 31, 2016 from 57 centers in 26 European countries. Sixty-seven percent had pituitary-dependent CS (PIT-CS), 24% had adrenal-dependent CS (ADR-CS), 6% had CS from an ectopic source (ECT-CS) and 3% were classified as having CS from other causes (OTH-CS). RESULTS: Of the first-line tests, urinary free cortisol (UFC) test was performed in 78% of patients, overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in 60% and late-night salivary cortisol (LSaC) in 25%. Use of LSaC increased in the last five years as compared with previous years (P < 0.01). Use of HDDST was slightly more frequent in the last 5 years as compared with previous years (P < 0.05). Of the additional tests, late-night serum cortisol (LSeC) was measured in 62% and 48-h 2 mg/day low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) in 33% of cases. ACTH was performed in 78% of patients. LSeC and overnight 1 mg DST supported the diagnosis of both PIT-CS and ADR-CS more frequently than UFC (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Use of diagnostic tests for CS varies across Europe and partly differs from the currently available guidelines. It would seem pertinent that a European consensus be established to determine the best diagnostic approach to CS, taking into account specific inter-country differences with regard to the availability of diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Sistema de Registros , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
12.
Case Rep Endocrinol ; 2017: 2419590, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28357143

RESUMO

Background and Importance. In the last eight years temozolomide (TMZ) has been used as the last-line treatment modality for aggressive pituitary tumors to be applied after the failure of surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. The objective was to achieve a rapid control of tumor growth and hormone normalization with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in a patient with very aggressive ACTH pituitary adenoma. Clinical Presentation. We describe a patient with an aggressive ACTH-producing adenoma treated with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy. The patient suffered from an aggressive ACTH adenoma resistant to surgical and medical treatment. After two months of concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy, cortisol normalization and significant tumor shrinkage were observed. After 22 months of follow-up, there is still no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion. Concurrent treatment with temozolomide and irradiation appears to be highly effective in the achievement of the tumor volume control as well as in the control of ACTH secretion in aggressive ACTH adenoma.

13.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162437, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649075

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) may experience detrimental consequences due to a minimal cortisol excess sustained by adrenal adenoma. SNPs of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) modulate individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids and may interfere with the clinical presentation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of N363S, ER22/23EK and BclI SNPs in patients with AI with the general population and to evaluate whether these SNPs are linked to consequences of cortisol excess. SETTING: Multicentric, retrospective analysis of patients referred from 2010 to 2014 to 4 centers (Orbassano, Milano, Messina [Italy] and Zagreb [Croatia]). PATIENTS: 411 patients with AI; 153 males and 258 females and 186 from blood donors. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: All patients and controls were genotyped for BclI, N363S and ER22/23EK and SNPs frequency was associated with clinical and hormonal features. RESULTS: SNP frequency was: SNP frequency was: N363S 5.4% (MAF 0.027), BclI 54.7% (MAF 0.328), ER22/23EK 4.4% (MAF 0.022), without any significant difference between patients and controls. N363S was more frequent in hypertensive patients (p = 0.03) and was associated with hypertension (p = 0.015) in patients with suppressed cortisol after the 1-mg DST. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that SNPs of the glucocorticoid receptor gene do not play a pathogenetic role for AI. The impact of any single SNP on the phenotypic expression of minimal cortisol excess is limited and their analysis does not provide additional data that may be exploited for patient management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(9): 3526-38, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389594

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) are among the most frequent human neoplasias. Genetic alterations affecting the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway are common in cortisol-producing ACAs, whereas activating mutations in the gene encoding ß-catenin (CTNNB1) have been reported in a subset of both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. However, the molecular pathogenesis of most ACAs is still largely unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to define the genetic landscape of sporadic unilateral ACAs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Next-generation whole-exome sequencing was performed on fresh-frozen tumor samples and corresponding normal tissue samples. PATIENTS: Ninety-nine patients with ACAs (74 cortisol-producing and 25 endocrine inactive) negative for p.Leu206Arg PRKACA mutation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Identification of known and/or new genetic alterations potentially involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis and autonomous hormone secretion, genotype-phenotype correlation. RESULTS: A total of 706 somatic protein-altering mutations were detected in 88 of 99 tumors (median, six per tumor). We identified several mutations in genes of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, including three novel mutations in PRKACA, associated with female sex and Cushing's syndrome. We also found genetic alterations in different genes involved in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, associated with larger tumors and endocrine inactivity, and notably, in many genes of the Ca(2+)-signaling pathway. Finally, by comparison of our genetic data with those available in the literature, we describe a comprehensive genetic landscape of unilateral ACAs. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the largest sequencing effort on ACAs to date. We thereby identified somatic alterations affecting known and novel pathways potentially involved in adrenal tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Adenoma Adrenocortical/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Endocrine ; 51(3): 517-23, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215278

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to review therapeutic outcomes and comorbidities of patients with Cushing's disease (CD) in a single center. We conducted a retrospective study of 33 patients with CD undergoing transsphenoidal surgery from January 2007 to February 2014 (27 females and 6 males, median age 38 years, range 18-71 years). The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome was established on the basis of the patient's history, characteristic clinical features, and laboratory data including an elevated 24-h urinary free cortisol level, lack of serum cortisol suppression after dexamethasone suppression tests and an elevated midnight cortisol level. In 28/33 patients, the tumor was visualized on MR of the sellar region, while in 5 it was diagnosed using an inferior petrosal sinus sampling. Out of the 33 patients, 10 had macroadenoma and the remaining 23 had microadenoma. Twenty-one patients (63.6%) had hypertension, 17 (51.5%) dyslipidemia, and 7 (21.2%) had type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. The median follow-up period was 28 months. Remission after transsphenoidal surgery was achieved in 78.8% of patients, while 7 patients failed to achieve disease remission. Those patients were treated with second-line treatment modalities (second operation, radiotherapy, bilateral adrenalectomy, and/or ketoconazole). One patient rejected all the treatment modalities after surgery. Cumulative remission after all the treatment modalities was achieved in 87.9% patients. Patients with Cushing's disease should be managed in centers with much experience due to high patient load. In our Center, the remission of the disease has been achieved in 78.8% of the patients following transsphenoidal surgery. Multimodal treatment which included radiotherapy and medical treatment led to biochemical remission of the disease in 87.9% of patients.


Assuntos
Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/urina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/complicações , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sela Túrcica/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 98(1): 67-75, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26453360

RESUMO

Risk factors for increased mortality in hip fracture patients include older age, male sex, fracture type, bone mineral density, and pre-existing co-morbidities. The role of biochemical and other anthropometric parameters on hip fracture mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for one-year mortality in patients with hip fractures. A total of 236 consecutive patients (59 males) with hip fractures were followed over a one-year period. Patient age, gender, type of fracture, type of treatment, time from admission to surgery, type of anesthesia, body mass index, and electrocardiograms were recorded. Complete blood counts, serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, d-dimers, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, and beta-isomerised C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (ß-CTX) were measured at admission and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the association of these parameters with survival. One-year mortality rate was 28.4%. Age was independently associated with mortality (HR 1.117, 95% CI 1.062-1.174, P < 0.001). In a multivariable model, mortality was increased in patients with higher ß-CTX (HR 4.63 95% CI 1.87-11.45, P = 0.001) and lower eGFR (HR 0.972, 95% CI 0.956-0.987, P < 0.001). Patients younger than 84 years, with eGFR < 55.4 ml/min had ten times higher mortality rates (3.2 vs. 24.5%, HR 9.73, 95% CI 2.06-45.93) as well as those with ß-CTX > 0.276 g/L (3.5 vs. 25.7%, HR 9.5, 95% CI 2.11-42.76). Advanced age, high ß-CTX levels, and impaired renal function are independent risk factors of mortality in patients with hip fractures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 173(2): 275-82, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26024670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current guidelines for the management of adrenal incidentaloma advise hormonal and radiological follow-up of patients for 2-5 years after the initial diagnosis. However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentaloma are non-functional benign cortical adenomas that require no treatment, so the routine application of the current strategies often results in a number of unnecessary biochemical and radiological investigations. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical course of patients with adrenal incidentaloma and to provide a critical review of the current management strategy of the disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed in the Croatian Referral Center for adrenal gland disorders. The study included 319 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentaloma, 174 of which were followed for at least 24 months. RESULTS: The vast majority of patients were diagnosed with benign adrenal masses, whereas in about 5% of them adrenal tumor corresponded to adrenal carcinoma or metastasis. Tumor density was found to be superior to tumor size in distinguishing benign adrenal masses from malignant tumors and pheochromocytomas. During the follow-up, no patient demonstrated a clinically significant increase in tumor size. In addition, no changes, either in metanephrines and normetanephrines or in the activity of renin-aldosterone axis, were observed during the follow-up. Six patients developed subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) whereas eight patients with SCS showed biochemical remission during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that the risk of an adrenal mass initially diagnosed as benign and non-functional becoming malignant or hormonally active is extremely low. Therefore, the clinical management of those patients should be tailored on an individual basis in order to avoid unnecessary procedures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 169(1): 59-64, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23636447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stress is implicated as a risk factor for numerous illnesses in humans, putatively in part mediated by biological responses to stress, such as elevated cortisol concentrations. The theory of genetic homoeostasis suggests that individual heterozygosity facilitates compensation for environmental stresses. We hypothesized that heterozygosity ameliorates the biological response to a given level of perceived stress, reflected in lower plasma cortisol concentrations. DESIGN: We examined the role of heterozygosity in the association between perceived psychological stress and morning cortisol concentrations in 854 individuals from the isolated island of Vis, Croatia. METHODS: Cortisol concentrations were measured in morning plasma samples. A total of 1184 autosomal microsatellite markers were genotyped and individual multi-locus heterozygosity (MLH) was calculated as the proportion of heterozygous markers. The General Health Questionnaire with 30 items (GHQ-30) was used to assess the degree of psychological distress. RESULTS: MEAN MLH WAS 34.850.45% (RANGE: 31.97-36.22%). Psychological distress (GHQ Likert score >31) was more prevalent in women (37 vs 18% in men, P<0.0001), in less educated people (ß=-0.35 per year in school, P<0.001) and in lower socio-economic classes (ß=-3.59, P<0.0001). Cortisol concentrations were positively associated with psychological distress (ß=2.20, P=0.01). In a regression model adjusted for age, BMI, education and GHQ-30 score, MLH was independently and inversely associated with morning plasma cortisol concentrations (P=0.005). CONCLUSION: More heterozygous individuals, as measured by microsatellite markers, had lower morning plasma cortisol concentrations for a given level of perceived psychological stress. This may be important, as higher cortisol concentrations may increase the allostatic load and be associated with a higher risk of stress-related illness.


Assuntos
Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ritmo Circadiano , Croácia , DNA/sangue , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Escolaridade , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 78(1): 102-6, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22724622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypercoagulability is a commonly described complication in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of surgical remission from CS on serum levels of coagulation and fibrinolytic markers. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with active CS (16 women, 2 men; age: 38.6 ± 13.7 years) were enrolled in the study. We measured serum levels of coagulation and fibrinolytic markers during active CS and 6 months after remission. The control group comprised 18 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. RESULTS: Six months after remission from CS, patients had lower levels of factors II (P < 0.001), V (P = 0.02), XI (P = 0.04) and XII (P < 0.001), protein C (P < 0.001), protein S (P = 0.002), antithrombin (P = 0.03), antithrombin Ag (P = 0.008), plasminogen (P = 0.03) and C1 inhibitor (P = 0.001), and aPTT was longer than at enrollment (P = 0.001). Levels of PAI-1 and factors VII, VIII and IX tended to normalize, but there were no significant differences in these parameters before and after surgery, nor were differences found in haemostatic and fibrinolytic markers between the patients in remission and control individuals, except for factor XII (P = 0.02) and protein C (P = 0.004), which were lower among patients in remission. CONCLUSION: Six months after remission from CS, patients' risk of thromboembolism is comparable to that of healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/metabolismo , Trombofilia/metabolismo , Adulto , Síndrome de Cushing/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Tromboembolia/metabolismo , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Trombofilia/fisiopatologia
20.
Lijec Vjesn ; 134(3-4): 65-8, 2012.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22768678

RESUMO

The working group of the Croatian Society of Endocrinology met in September 2011 to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in patients with acromegaly. The group comprised 9 pituitary specialists including endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, and medical biochemistry specialist. After a critical analysis of published scientific papers the group has developed guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/terapia , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Humanos
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