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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(9): 1436-1442, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104751

RESUMO

Survival rates of large trees determine forest biomass dynamics. Survival rates of small trees have been linked to mechanisms that maintain biodiversity across tropical forests. How species survival rates change with size offers insight into the links between biodiversity and ecosystem function across tropical forests. We tested patterns of size-dependent tree survival across the tropics using data from 1,781 species and over 2 million individuals to assess whether tropical forests can be characterized by size-dependent life-history survival strategies. We found that species were classifiable into four 'survival modes' that explain life-history variation that shapes carbon cycling and the relative abundance within forests. Frequently collected functional traits, such as wood density, leaf mass per area and seed mass, were not generally predictive of the survival modes of species. Mean annual temperature and cumulative water deficit predicted the proportion of biomass of survival modes, indicating important links between evolutionary strategies, climate and carbon cycling. The application of survival modes in demographic simulations predicted biomass change across forest sites. Our results reveal globally identifiable size-dependent survival strategies that differ across diverse systems in a consistent way. The abundance of survival modes and interaction with climate ultimately determine forest structure, carbon storage in biomass and future forest trajectories.


Assuntos
Árvores , Clima Tropical , Biomassa , Carbono , Folhas de Planta , Sementes , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(21): 5480-5485, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724857

RESUMO

Understanding variation in leaf functional traits-including rates of photosynthesis and respiration and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus-is a fundamental challenge in plant ecophysiology. When expressed per unit leaf area, these traits typically increase with leaf mass per area (LMA) within species but are roughly independent of LMA across the global flora. LMA is determined by mass components with different biological functions, including photosynthetic mass that largely determines metabolic rates and contains most nitrogen and phosphorus, and structural mass that affects toughness and leaf lifespan (LL). A possible explanation for the contrasting trait relationships is that most LMA variation within species is associated with variation in photosynthetic mass, whereas most LMA variation across the global flora is associated with variation in structural mass. This hypothesis leads to the predictions that (i) gas exchange rates and nutrient concentrations per unit leaf area should increase strongly with LMA across species assemblages with low LL variance but should increase weakly with LMA across species assemblages with high LL variance and that (ii) controlling for LL variation should increase the strength of the above LMA relationships. We present analyses of intra- and interspecific trait variation from three tropical forest sites and interspecific analyses within functional groups in a global dataset that are consistent with the above predictions. Our analysis suggests that the qualitatively different trait relationships exhibited by different leaf assemblages can be understood by considering the degree to which photosynthetic and structural mass components contribute to LMA variation in a given assemblage.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(9): 181168, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839691

RESUMO

The relationship between ß-diversity and latitude still remains to be a core question in ecology because of the lack of consensus between studies. One hypothesis for the lack of consensus between studies is that spatial scale changes the relationship between latitude and ß-diversity. Here, we test this hypothesis using tree data from 15 large-scale forest plots (greater than or equal to 15 ha, diameter at breast height ≥ 1 cm) across a latitudinal gradient (3-30o) in the Asia-Pacific region. We found that the observed ß-diversity decreased with increasing latitude when sampling local tree communities at small spatial scale (grain size ≤0.1 ha), but the observed ß-diversity did not change with latitude when sampling at large spatial scales (greater than or equal to 0.25 ha). Differences in latitudinal ß-diversity gradients across spatial scales were caused by pooled species richness (γ-diversity), which influenced observed ß-diversity values at small spatial scales, but not at large spatial scales. Therefore, spatial scale changes the relationship between ß-diversity, γ-diversity and latitude, and improving sample representativeness avoids the γ-dependence of ß-diversity.

4.
Ecology ; 98(9): 2273-2280, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722127

RESUMO

Multiple anthropogenic drivers affect every natural community, and there is broad interest in using functional traits to understand and predict the consequences for future biodiversity. There is, however, no consensus regarding the choice of analytical methods. We contrast species- and community-level analyses of change in the functional composition for four traits related to drought tolerance using three decades of repeat censuses of trees in the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Community trait distributions shifted significantly through time, which may indicate a shift toward more drought tolerant species. However, at the species level, changes in abundance were unrelated to trait values. To reconcile these seemingly contrasting results, we evaluated species-specific contributions to the directional shifts observed at the community level. Abundance changes of just one to six of 312 species were responsible for the community-level shifts observed for each trait. Our results demonstrate that directional changes in community-level functional composition can result from idiosyncratic change in a few species rather than widespread community-wide changes associated with functional traits. Future analyses of directional change in natural communities should combine community-, species-, and possibly individual-level analyses to uncover relationships with function that can improve understanding and enable prediction.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Colorado , Ilhas , Panamá , Árvores , Clima Tropical
5.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144585, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689684

RESUMO

Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness.


Assuntos
Alpinia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Ecol Lett ; 18(12): 1406-19, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415616

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that accounting for intraspecific trait variation (ITV) may better address major questions in community ecology. However, a general picture of the relative extent of ITV compared to interspecific trait variation in plant communities is still missing. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relative extent of ITV within and among plant communities worldwide, using a data set encompassing 629 communities (plots) and 36 functional traits. Overall, ITV accounted for 25% of the total trait variation within communities and 32% of the total trait variation among communities on average. The relative extent of ITV tended to be greater for whole-plant (e.g. plant height) vs. organ-level traits and for leaf chemical (e.g. leaf N and P concentration) vs. leaf morphological (e.g. leaf area and thickness) traits. The relative amount of ITV decreased with increasing species richness and spatial extent, but did not vary with plant growth form or climate. These results highlight global patterns in the relative importance of ITV in plant communities, providing practical guidelines for when researchers should include ITV in trait-based community and ecosystem studies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fenótipo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Ecology ; 94(12): 2873-85, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24597232

RESUMO

Numerous studies have revealed the existence of nonrandom trait distribution patterns as a sign of environmental filtering and/or biotic interactions in a community assembly process. A number of metrics with various algorithms have been used to detect these patterns without any clear guidelines. Although some studies have compared their statistical powers, the differences in performance among the metrics under the conditions close to actual studies are not clear. Therefore, the performances of five metrics of convergence and 16 metrics of divergence under alternative conditions were comparatively analyzed using a suite of simulated communities. We focused particularly on the robustness of the performances to conditions that are often uncertain and uncontrollable in actual studies; e.g., atypical trait distribution patterns stemming from the operation of multiple assembly mechanisms, a scaling of trait-function relationships, and a sufficiency of analyzed traits. Most tested metrics, for either convergence or divergence, had sufficient statistical power to distinguish nonrandom trait distribution patterns without uncertainty. However, the performances of the metrics were considerably influenced by both atypical trait distribution patterns and other uncertainties. Influences from these uncertainties varied among the metrics of different algorithms and their performances were often complementary. Therefore, under the uncertainties of an assembly process, the selection of appropriate metrics and the combined use of complementary metrics are critically important to reliably distinguish nonrandom patterns in a trait distribution. We provide a tentative list of recommended metrics for future studies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Incerteza
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