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Biology (Basel) ; 12(3)2023 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36979086


Climate change causes organisms, including species that act as parasite reservoirs and vectors, to shift their distribution to higher altitudes, affecting wildlife infestation patterns. We studied how ectoparasite distributions varied with altitude using two rodent species, Montemys delectorum and Rhabdomys dilectus, at different elevations (1500-3500 m). The ectoparasites infesting the two rodent species were influenced by the host sex, species, and temperature. We expected host density to predict parasite infestation patterns, because hosts in higher densities should have more parasites due to increased contact between individuals. However, temperature, not host density, affected ectoparasite distribution. Since temperatures decrease with elevation, parasite prevalences and abundances were lower at higher elevations, highlighting that the cold conditions at higher elevations limit reproduction and development-this shows that higher elevation zones are ideal for conservation. The rodents and ectoparasite species described in this study have been reported as vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary importance, necessitating precautions. Moreover, Mount Meru is a refuge for a number of endemic and threatened species on the IUCN Red List. Thus, the parasitic infection can also be an additional risk to these critical species as well as biodiversity in general. Therefore, our study lays the groundwork for future wildlife disease surveillance and biodiversity conservation management actions. The study found a previously uncharacterized mite species in the Mesostigmata group that was previously known to be a parasite of honeybees. Further investigations may shed light into the role of this mite species on Mount Meru.

BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 87, 2018 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386067


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococci isolated from duck faeces in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. RESULTS: Escherichia coli and Enterococcus isolation rates from ducks faeces were 91 and 100% respectively. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance of E. coli and Enterococcus was 70.3 and 42%, respectively. E. coli resistant to four antibiotics were 28 (30.8%) and showed high resistance to ampicillin (81.3), tetracycline (75.8) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxine (62.3). Multiple antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus were more than 65%. High resistance rates shown by Enterococcus were observed in rifampin (62%), ampicillin (62%) and tetracycline (42%). Almost all farmers (92.3%) left their ducks to scavenge for food around their houses. Antibiotics used in animal treatments were oxytetracyclines, sulfonamides, penicillin dihydrostreptomycin while in humans were tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Patos , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 90, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422075


BACKGROUND: Parasite evolution is hypothesized to select for levels of parasite virulence that maximise transmission success. When host population densities fluctuate, low levels of virulence with limited impact on the host are expected, as this should increase the likelihood of surviving periods of low host density. We examined the effects of Morogoro arenavirus on the survival and recapture probability of multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis) using a seven-year capture-mark-recapture time series. Mastomys natalensis is the natural host of Morogoro virus and is known for its strong seasonal density fluctuations. RESULTS: Antibody presence was negatively correlated with survival probability (effect size: 5-8% per month depending on season) but positively with recapture probability (effect size: 8%). CONCLUSIONS: The small negative correlation between host survival probability and antibody presence suggests that either the virus has a negative effect on host condition, or that hosts with lower survival probability are more likely to obtain Morogoro virus infection, for example due to particular behavioural or immunological traits. The latter hypothesis is supported by the positive correlation between antibody status and recapture probability which suggests that risky behaviour might increase the probability of becoming infected.

Infecções por Arenaviridae/veterinária , Arenavirus/isolamento & purificação , Murinae , Doenças dos Roedores/mortalidade , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Arenaviridae/mortalidade , Arenavirus/imunologia , Comportamento Animal , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Análise de Sobrevida
Microb Drug Resist ; 24(3): 260-268, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759321


This study provides an estimate of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal indicator bacteria from humans (n = 97) and food animals (n = 388) in Tanzania. More than 70% of all fecal samples contained tetracycline (TE), sulfamethoxazole (STX), and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant coliforms, while cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms were observed in 40% of all samples. The average Log10 colony forming units/g of CTX-resistant coliforms in samples from humans were 2.20. Of 390 Escherichia coli tested, 66.4% were resistant to TE, 54.9% to STX, 54.9% to streptomycin, and 36.4% to CTX. Isolates were commonly (65.1%) multiresistant. All CTX-resistant isolates contained blaCTX-M gene type. AMP- and vancomycin-resistant enterococci were rare, and the average concentrations in positive samples were low (log10 0.9 and 0.4, respectively). A low-to-moderate resistance (2.1-15%) was detected in 240 enterococci isolates to the drugs tested, except for rifampicin resistance (75.2% of isolates). The average number of sulII gene copies varied between Log10 5.37 and 5.68 with no significant difference between sample source, while cattle had significantly higher number of tetW genes than humans. These findings, based on randomly obtained samples, will be instrumental in designing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) intervention strategies for Tanzania.

Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Enterococcus/classificação , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia