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1.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 25: 48-56, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed attitudes and perceptions and willingness to accept (WTA) varying incentive structures for completing tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation among patients in Uganda. METHODS: We surveyed 177 adult patients undergoing TB evaluation at 10 health centers between September 2018 and March 2019. We collected household sociodemographic information and assessed attitudes and perceptions of incentives. We surveyed patients regarding their willingness to complete TB diagnostic evaluation in exchange for incentives ranging in value from 500 Ugandan shillings (USh) to 25 000USh (~$0.15-$6.75). We compared associations between WTA and patient characteristics using ordered logistic regression. RESULTS: Participant willingness to return to the health center to complete TB diagnostic evaluation increased proportionally with incentive amount. The median participant accepted between 2000 and 5000 USh. Cash (52%) and transportation vouchers (34%) were the most popular incentive types. Half of respondents preferred unconditional incentives; for a multiday evaluation, 84% preferred conditioning incentive receipt upon returning to the health center. In multivariate models, we found the pairwise difference between the third and lowest income quartile (aOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.20-4.69; P = .01), younger age, and difficulty returning to the health center to be significantly associated with WTA higher incentive thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: In Uganda, incentives such as cash transfers or transportation vouchers are an acceptable intervention for facilitating adherence to TB diagnostic evaluation. Household income is associated with preferred incentive structure and amount, especially for those at the cusp of the poverty threshold who are more likely to prefer unconditional and higher valued incentives. Targeted and context-specific socioeconomic supports for at-risk patients are needed to optimize outcomes.

2.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e6, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of hypertension prevents a significant number of complications and premature deaths. In resource-variable settings, diagnosis may be limited by inadequate access to blood pressure (BP) machines. We sought to understand the availability, functionality and access of BP machines at the points of care within primary care facilities in Tororo district, Uganda. METHODS: This was an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study combining a structured facility checklist and key informant interviews with primary care providers. The checklist was used to collect data on availability and functionality of BP machines within their organisational arrangements. Key informant interviews explored health providers' access to BP machines. RESULTS: The majority of health facilities reported at least one working BP machine. However, Health providers described limited access to machines because they are not located at each point of care. Health providers reported borrowing amongst themselves within their respective units or from other units within the facility. Some health providers purchase and bring their own BP machines to the health facilities or attempted to restore the functionality of broken ones. They are motivated to search the clinic for BP machines for some patients but not others based on their perception of the patient's risk for hypertension. CONCLUSION: Access to BP machines at the point of care was limited. This makes hypertension screening selective based on health providers' perception of the patients' risk for hypertension. Training in proper BP machine use and regular maintenance will minimise frequent breakdowns.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New, sensitive diagnostic tests facilitate identification and investigation of milder forms of tuberculosis (TB) disease. We used community-based TB testing with Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra ("Ultra") to characterize individuals with previously-undiagnosed TB and compare to those from the same community who were diagnosed with TB through routine care. METHODS: We offered community-based sputum Ultra testing to adult residents of a well-defined area (population 34,000 adults) in Kampala, Uganda via door-to-door screening and venue-based testing, then used detailed interview and laboratory testing to characterize TB-positive individuals. We compared these individuals to residents diagnosed with -pulmonary TB at local health facilities and a representative sample of residents without TB ("controls"). RESULTS: Of 12,032 residents with interpretable Ultra results, 113 (940 per 100,000; 95% confidence interval 780-1130 per 100,000) tested positive, including 71 (63%) positive at the lowest ("trace") level. A spectrum of TB disease was observed in terms of chronic cough (93% among health-facility-diagnosed cases, 77% among residents with positive community-based Ultra results at levels above trace, 33% among trace-positive community participants, 18% among TB-negative controls), TB symptom prevalence (99%/87%/60%/38%), and C-reactive protein (75 th percentile 101/28/6/4 mg/L). Community-diagnosed cases were less likely than health-facility-diagnosed cases to have HIV coinfection or previous TB. The specificity of Ultra was 99.4% (99.2-99.5%) relative to a single spot sputum culture. CONCLUSIONS: People with undiagnosed prevalent TB in the community have different characteristics that those diagnosed with pulmonary TB in health facilities. Newer diagnostic tests may identify a group of people with early or very mild disease.

4.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(12): e19270, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital adherence technologies have been widely promoted as a means to improve tuberculosis medication adherence. However, uptake of these technologies has been suboptimal by both patients and health workers. Not surprisingly, studies have not demonstrated significant improvement in treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to optimize a well-known digital adherence technology, 99DOTS, for end user needs in Uganda. We describe the findings of the ideation phase of the human-centered design methodology to adapt 99DOTS according to a set of design principles identified in the previous inspiration phase. METHODS: 99DOTS is a low-cost digital adherence technology wherein tuberculosis medication blister packs are encased within an envelope that reveals toll-free numbers that patients can call to report dosing. We identified 2 key areas for design and testing: (1) the envelope, including the form factor, content, and depiction of the order of pill taking; and (2) the patient call-in experience. We conducted 5 brainstorming sessions with all relevant stakeholders to generate a suite of potential prototype concepts. Senior investigators identified concepts to further develop based on feasibility and consistency with the predetermined design principles. Prototypes were revised with feedback from the entire team. The envelope and call-in experience prototypes were tested and iteratively revised through focus groups with health workers (n=52) and interviews with patients (n=7). We collected and analyzed qualitative feedback to inform each subsequent iteration. RESULTS: The 5 brainstorming sessions produced 127 unique ideas that we clustered into 6 themes: rewards, customization, education, logistics, wording and imagery, and treatment countdown. We developed 16 envelope prototypes, 12 icons, and 28 audio messages for prototype testing. In the final design, we altered the pill packaging envelope by adding a front flap to conceal the pills and reduce potential stigma associated with tuberculosis. The flap was adorned with either a blank calendar or map of Uganda. The inside cover contained a personalized message from a local health worker including contact information, pictorial pill-taking instructions, and a choice of stickers to tailor education to the patient and phase of treatment. Pill-taking order was indicated with colors, chevron arrows, and small mobile phone icons. Last, the call-in experience when patients report dosing was changed to a rotating series of audio messages centered on the themes of prevention, encouragement, and reassurance that tuberculosis is curable. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the use of human-centered design as a promising tool to drive the adaptation of digital adherence technologies to better address the needs and motivations of end users. The next phase of research, known as the implementation phase in the human-centered design methodology, will investigate whether the adapted 99DOTS platform results in higher levels of engagement from patients and health workers, and ultimately improves tuberculosis treatment outcomes.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1855, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, Uganda started only 65% of persons with incident tuberculosis on treatment. Pretreatment loss to follow up is an important contributor to suboptimal treatment coverage. We aimed to describe the patient and health facility-level characteristics associated with pretreatment loss to follow up among patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis at public health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: At ten public health facilities, laboratory register data was used to identify patients aged ≥ 15 years who had a positive Xpert®MTB/RIF test. Initiation on TB treatment was ascertained using the clinical register. Factors associated with not being initiated on TB treatment within two weeks of diagnosis were examined using a multilevel logistic regression model accounting for clustering by health facility. RESULTS: From January to June 2018, 510 patients (61.2% male and 31.5% HIV co-infected) were diagnosed with tuberculosis. One hundred (19.6%) were not initiated on TB treatment within 2 weeks of diagnosis. Not having a phone number recorded in the clinic registers (aOR 7.93, 95%CI 3.93-13.05); being HIV-infected (aOR 1.83; 95% CI: 1.09-3.26) and receiving care from a high volume health facility performing more than 12 Xpert tests per day (aOR 4.37, 95%CI 1.69-11.29) and were significantly associated with pretreatment loss to follow up. CONCLUSION: In public health facilities in Uganda, we found a high rate of pretreatment loss to follow up especially among TBHIV co-infected patients diagnosed at high volume health facilities. Interventions to improve the efficiency of Xpert® MTB/RIF testing, including monitoring of the TB care cascade should be developed and implemented.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When evaluating symptomatic patients for tuberculosis (TB) without access to same-day diagnostic test results, clinicians often make empiric decisions about starting treatment. The number of TB symptoms and/or underweight status could help identify patients at highest risk for a positive result. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of BMI assessment and a count of characteristic TB symptoms for identifying patients at highest risk for TB. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients receiving pulmonary TB diagnoses and a representative sample with negative TB evaluations at four outpatient health facilities in Kampala, Uganda. We asked patients about symptoms of chronic cough, night sweats, chest pain, fever, hemoptysis, or weight loss; measured height and weight; and collected sputum for mycobacterial culture. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy (for culture-positive TB) of two simple scoring systems: (a) number of TB symptoms, and (b) number of TB symptoms plus one or more additional points for underweight status (body mass index [BMI] ≤ 18.5 kg/m2). RESULTS: We included 121 patients with culture-positive TB and 370 patients with negative culture results (44 of whom had been recommended for TB treatment by evaluating clinicians). Of the six symptoms assessed, the median number of symptoms that patients reported was two (interquartile range [IQR]: 1, 3). The median BMI was 20.9 kg/m2 (IQR: 18.6, 24.0), and 118 (24%) patients were underweight. Counting the number of symptoms provided an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (c-statistic) of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.72, 0.81) for identifying culture-positive TB; adding two points for underweight status increased the c-statistic to 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76, 0.85). A cutoff of ≥3 symptoms had sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 74%, whereas a score of ≥4 on the combined score (≥2 symptoms if underweight, ≥4 symptoms if not underweight) gave higher sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 81% respectively. A sensitivity analysis defining TB by Xpert MTB/RIF status produced similar results. CONCLUSION: A count of patients' TB symptoms may be useful in clinical decision-making about TB diagnosis. Consideration of underweight status adds additional diagnostic value.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e039895, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-cost digital adherence technologies (DATs) such as 99DOTS have emerged as an alternative to directly observed therapy (DOT), the current standard for tuberculosis (TB) treatment supervision. However, there are limited data to support DAT scale-up. The 'DOT to DAT' trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and implementation of a 99DOTS-based TB treatment supervision strategy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, with hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation design. The trial will include all adults (estimated N=1890) treated for drug-susceptible pulmonary TB over an 8-month period at 18 TB treatment units in Uganda. Three sites per month will switch from routine care (DOT) to the intervention (99DOTS-based treatment supervision) beginning in month 2, with the order determined randomly. 99DOTS enables patients to be monitored while self-administering TB medicines. Patients receive daily automated short message service (SMS) dosing reminders and confirm dosing by calling toll-free numbers. The primary effectiveness outcome is the proportion of patients completing TB treatment. With 18 clusters randomised into six steps and an average cluster size of 15 patients per month, the study will have 89% power to detect a 10% or greater increase in treatment completion between the routine care and intervention periods. Secondary outcomes include more proximal effectiveness measures as well as quantitative and qualitative assessments of the reach, adoption and implementation of the intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was granted by institutional review boards at Makerere University School of Public Health and the University of California San Francisco. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, presentations at scientific conferences and presentations to key stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PACTR201808609844917.

8.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003420, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In highly resource-limited settings, many clinics lack same-day microbiological testing for active tuberculosis (TB). In these contexts, risk of pretreatment loss to follow-up is high, and a simple, easy-to-use clinical risk score could be useful. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from adults tested for TB with Xpert MTB/RIF across 28 primary health clinics in rural South Africa (between July 2016 and January 2018). We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression to identify characteristics associated with Xpert-confirmed TB and converted coefficients into a simple score. We assessed discrimination using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, calibration using Cox linear logistic regression, and clinical utility using decision curves. We validated the score externally in a population of adults tested for TB across 4 primary health clinics in urban Uganda (between May 2018 and December 2019). Model development was repeated de novo with the Ugandan population to compare clinical scores. The South African and Ugandan cohorts included 701 and 106 individuals who tested positive for TB, respectively, and 686 and 281 randomly selected individuals who tested negative. Compared to the Ugandan cohort, the South African cohort was older (41% versus 19% aged 45 years or older), had similar breakdown of biological sex (48% versus 50% female), and had higher HIV prevalence (45% versus 34%). The final prediction model, scored from 0 to 10, included 6 characteristics: age, sex, HIV (2 points), diabetes, number of classical TB symptoms (cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats; 1 point each), and >14-day symptom duration. Discrimination was moderate in the derivation (c-statistic = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.82) and validation (c-statistic = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.80) populations. A patient with 10% pretest probability of TB would have a posttest probability of 4% with a score of 3/10 versus 43% with a score of 7/10. The de novo Ugandan model contained similar characteristics and performed equally well. Our study may be subject to spectrum bias as we only included a random sample of people without TB from each cohort. This score is only meant to guide management while awaiting microbiological results, not intended as a community-based triage test (i.e., to identify individuals who should receive further testing). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a simple clinical risk score reasonably distinguished individuals with and without TB among those submitting sputum for diagnosis. Subject to prospective validation, this score might be useful in settings with constrained diagnostic resources where concern for pretreatment loss to follow-up is high.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206650

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) mortality estimates derived only from cohorts of patients initiated on TB treatment do not consider outcomes of patients with pretreatment loss to follow-up (LFU). We aimed to assess the effect of pretreatment LFU on TB-associated mortality in the six months following TB diagnosis at public health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: At ten public health facilities, we retrospectively reviewed treatment data for all patients with a positive Xpert®MTB/RIF test result from January to June 2018. Pretreatment LFU was defined as not initiating TB treatment within two weeks of a positive test. We traced patients with pretreatment LFU to ascertain their vital status. We performed Kaplan Meier survival analysis to compare the cumulative incidence of mortality, six months after diagnosis among patients who did and did not experience pretreatment LFU. We also determined the health facility level estimates of TB associated mortality before and after incorporating deaths prior to treatment initiation among patients who experienced pretreatment LFU. RESULTS: Of 510 patients with positive test, 100 (19.6%) experienced pretreatment LFU. Of these, we ascertained the vital status of 49 patients. In the six months following TB diagnosis, mortality was higher among patients who experienced pretreatment LFU 48.1/1000py vs 22.9/1000py. Hazard ratio [HR] 3.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.61-6.30). After incorporating deaths prior to treatment initation among patients who experienced pretreatment LFU, health facility level estimates of TB associated mortality increased from 8.4% (95% CI 6.1%-11.6%) to 10.2% (95% CI 7.7%-13.4%). CONCLUSION: Patients with confirmed TB who experience pretreatment LFU have high mortality within the first six months. Efforts should be made to prioritise linkage to treatment for this group of patients. Deaths that occur prior to treatment initation should be included when reporting TB mortality in order to more accurately reflect the health impact of TB.

10.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 21: 100184, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204851

RESUMO

Background: Variation in healthcare delivery is increasingly recognized as an important metric of healthcare quality. Directly observed therapy (DOT) has been the standard of care for tuberculosis (TB) treatment supervision for decades based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. However, variation in implementation of DOT and associated TB treatment supervision practices remains poorly defined. Methods: We collected individual patient data from TB treatment registers at 18 TB treatment units in Uganda including District Health Centers, District Hospitals, and Regional Referral Hospitals. We also administered a survey and did observations of TB treatment supervision practices by health workers at each site. We describe variation in TB treatment outcomes and TB treatment supervision practices. Results: Of 2767 patients treated for TB across the 18 clinical sites between January 1 and December 31, 2017, 1740 (62.9%) were men, most were of working age (median 35 years, interquartile range [IQR] 27 - 46), 2546 (92.0%) had a new TB diagnosis, and nearly half (45.9%, n = 1283) were HIV positive. The pooled treatment success proportion was 69.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.8 - 71.1) but there was substantial variation across sites (range 42.6 - 87.6%, I-squared 92.7%, p < 0.001). The survey and observation of TB treatment practices revealed that the majority of sites practice community-based DOT (66.7%, n = 12) and request a family member, who receives no additional training or supervision, to serve as a treatment supporter (77.8%, n = 14). At TB medication refill visits, all sites screen for side effects and most assess adherence via self-report (83.3%, n = 15). Only 7 (38.9%) sites followed-up patients who missed appointments using either phone calls (22.2%, n = 4/7) or community health workers (16.7%, n = 3/7). All 18 sites counseled patients at treatment initiation, but none provided additional counseling at refill visits other than addressing poor adherence or missed appointments. Conclusion: There was substantial variation in implementation of DOT, including observation and documentation of daily dosing, training and supervision of treatment supporters, and follow-up for missed clinic visits. Identifying best practices and reducing uncontrolled variation in the delivery of TB treatment is critical to improving treatment outcomes.

12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087439

RESUMO

Setting: National referral hospital in Kampala, UgandaObjective: To determine diagnostic performance of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a triage test for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-seronegative inpatients.Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values to determine the diagnostic performance of a CRP ELISA assay (Eurolyser), in comparison to a reference standard of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) culture on two sputum samples. We constructed receiver operating curves and reported performance in reference to the manufacturer's cutoff and also to a threshold chosen to achieve sensitivity >90%, in accordance with WHO's target-product profile for a triage test.Results: Among 119 HIV-seronegative inpatients, 46 (39%) had culture-positive pulmonary TB. In reference to Mtb culture, CRP had sensitivity of 78% (95% confidence interval (CI) 64-89%) and specificity of 52% (95% CI 40-64%) at the manufacturer's threshold of 10 mg/L. At a threshold of 1.5 mg/L, sensitivity was 91% (95% CI 79-98%), but specificity was only 21% (95% CI 12-32%). Performance did not differ when stratified by illness severity at either threshold.Conclusion: Among HIV-seronegative inpatients, CRP testing performed substantially below targets for a TB triage test. Additional studies among HIV-seronegative individuals in clinics and community settings are needed to assess the utility of CRP for TB screening.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

14.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 65, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a 3-month (12-dose) regimen of weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) was recommended by the World Health Organization for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on common antiretroviral therapy regimens. The best approach to delivering 3HP to PLHIV remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a three-armed randomized trial assessing optimized strategies for delivering 3HP to PLHIV. The trial will be conducted at the Mulago Immune Suppression Syndrome (i.e., HIV/AIDS) clinic in Kampala, Uganda. We plan to recruit 1656 PLHIV, randomized 1:1 to each of the three arms (552 per arm). Using a hybrid type 3 effectiveness-implementation design, this pragmatic trial aims to (1) compare the acceptance and completion of 3HP among PLHIV under three delivery strategies: directly observed therapy (DOT), self-administered therapy (SAT), and informed patient choice of either DOT or SAT (with the assistance of a decision aid); (2) to identify processes and contextual factors that influence the acceptance and completion of 3HP under each delivery strategy; and (3) to estimate the costs and compare the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for delivering 3HP. The three delivery strategies were each optimized to address key barriers to 3HP completion using a theory-informed approach. We hypothesize that high levels of treatment acceptance and completion can be achieved among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa and that offering PLHIV an informed choice between the optimized DOT and SAT delivery strategies will result in greater acceptance and completion of 3HP. The design and planned evaluation of the delivery strategies were guided by the use of implementation science conceptual frameworks. DISCUSSION: 3HP-one of the most promising interventions for TB prevention-will not be scaled up unless it can be delivered in a patient-centered fashion. We highlight shared decision-making as a key element of our trial design and theorize that offering PLHIV an informed choice between optimized delivery strategies will facilitate the highest levels of treatment acceptance and completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03934931 ; Registered 2 May 2019.

15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e19552, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are becoming more common in low-income countries. Existing research often overlooks implementation challenges associated with the design and technology requirements of mHealth interventions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the challenges that we encountered in the implementation of a complex mHealth intervention in Uganda. METHODS: We customized a commercial mobile survey app to facilitate a two-arm household-randomized, controlled trial of home-based tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation. We incorporated digital fingerprinting for patient identification in both study arms and automated SMS messages in the intervention arm only. A local research team systematically documented challenges to implementation in biweekly site visit reports, project management reports, and minutes from biweekly conference calls. We then classified these challenges using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). RESULTS: We identified challenges in three principal CFIR domains: (1) intervention characteristics, (2) inner setting, and (3) characteristics of implementers. The adaptability of the app to the local setting was limited by software and hardware requirements. The complexity and logistics of implementing the intervention further hindered its adaptability. Study staff reported that community health workers (CHWs) were enthusiastic regarding the use of technology to enhance TB contact investigation during training and the initial phase of implementation. After experiencing technological failures, their trust in the technology declined along with their use of it. Finally, complex data structures impeded the development and execution of a data management plan that would allow for articulation of goals and provide timely feedback to study staff, CHWs, and participants. CONCLUSIONS: mHealth technologies have the potential to make delivery of public health interventions more direct and efficient, but we found that a lack of adaptability, excessive complexity, loss of trust among end users, and a lack of effective feedback systems can undermine implementation, especially in low-resource settings where digital services have not yet proliferated. Implementers should anticipate and strive to avoid these barriers by investing in and adapting to local human and material resources, prioritizing feedback from end users, and optimizing data management and quality assurance procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-African Clinical Trials Registration PACTR201509000877140; https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=877.

17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 73, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine tuberculosis (TB) notifications are geographically heterogeneous, but their utility in predicting the location of undiagnosed TB cases is unclear. We aimed to identify small-scale geographic areas with high TB notification rates based on routinely collected data and to evaluate whether these areas have a correspondingly high rate of undiagnosed prevalent TB. METHODS: We used routinely collected data to identify geographic areas with high TB notification rates and evaluated the extent to which these areas correlated with the location of undiagnosed cases during a subsequent community-wide active case finding intervention in Kampala, Uganda. We first enrolled all adults who lived within 35 contiguous zones and were diagnosed through routine care at four local TB Diagnosis and Treatment Units. We calculated average monthly TB notification rates in each zone and defined geographic areas of "high risk" as zones that constituted the 20% of the population with highest notification rates. We compared the observed proportion of TB notifications among residents of these high-risk zones to the expected proportion, using simulated estimates based on population size and random variation alone. We then evaluated the extent to which these high-risk zones identified areas with high burdens of undiagnosed TB during a subsequent community-based active case finding campaign using a chi-square test. RESULTS: We enrolled 45 adults diagnosed with TB through routine practices and who lived within the study area (estimated population of 49 527). Eighteen zones reported no TB cases in the 9-month period; among the remaining zones, monthly TB notification rates ranged from 3.9 to 39.4 per 100 000 population. The five zones with the highest notification rates constituted 62% (95% CI: 47-75%) of TB cases and 22% of the population-significantly higher than would be expected if population size and random chance were the only determinants of zone-to-zone variation (48%, 95% simulation interval: 40-59%). These five high-risk zones accounted for 42% (95% CI: 34-51%) of the 128 cases detected during the subsequent community-based case finding intervention, which was significantly higher than the 22% expected by chance (P < 0.001) but lower than the 62% of cases notified from those zones during the pre-intervention period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial heterogeneity in routine TB notification rates at the zone level. Using facility-based TB notification rates to prioritize high-yield areas for active case finding could double the yield of such case-finding interventions.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Demográfica , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Administração de Caso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise Espacial , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100408, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577610

RESUMO

Background: Civil war in Northern Uganda resulted in widespread atrocities, human rights violations, and death, and caused millions to flee to internally displaced persons camps. War-related traumas combined with difficulties accessing HIV prevention and health services has led to extreme HIV-related vulnerability among conflict-affected people who survived the war. Objectives were to (1) determine HIV incidence among conflict-affected people in Northern Uganda and (2) identify vulnerabilities associated with HIV infection. Methods: The Cango Lyec (Healing the Elephant) Project is a prospective cohort involving conflict-affected populations in three districts in Northern Uganda. In 2011, eight randomly selected communities were mapped, and a census was conducted. Consenting participants aged 13-49 years were followed over three rounds of follow-up. Longitudinal data collected included war-related experiences, sexual vulnerabilities, and sociodemographics. Blood samples were tested for HIV-1 at baseline and each 12-month follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models determined factors associated with HIV incidence. Findings: Overall, 1920 baseline HIV-negative participants with at least one follow-up contributed 3877 person-years (py) for analysis. Thirty-nine (23 female, 16 male) participants contracted HIV during follow-up. Age- and gender-standardised HIV incidence rate was 10•2 per 1000py (95%CI: 7•2-14•0). Stratified by sex, the age-adjusted HIV incidence was 11•0 per 1000py (95%CI: 6•9-16•6) among women and 9•4 per 1000py (95%CI: 5•3-15•3) among men. Adjusting for confounders, factors associated with risk of HIV included: having been abducted (HR: 3•70; 95%CI: 1•87-7•34), experiencing ≥12 war-related traumatic events (HR: 2•91 95%CI: 1•28-6•60), suicide ideation (HR: 2•83; 95%CI: 1•00-8•03), having ≥2 sexual partners (HR: 4•68; 95%CI: 1•36-16•05), inconsistent condom use (HR: 6•75; 95%CI: 2•49-18•29), and self-reported genital ulcers (HR: 4•39; 95%CI: 2•04-9•45). Interpretation: Conflict-affected participants who had experienced abduction and multiple traumas during the war were at greater risk of HIV infection. Trauma-informed HIV prevention and treatment services, and culturally-safe mental health initiatives, are urgent for Northern Uganda.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 406, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Challenges accessing nearby health facilities may be a barrier to initiating and completing tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We aimed to evaluate whether distance from residence to health facility chosen for treatment is associated with TB treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients initiating TB treatment at six health facilities in Kampala from 2014 to 2016. We investigated associations between distance to treating facility and unfavorable TB treatment outcomes (death, loss to follow up, or treatment failure) using multivariable Poisson regression. RESULTS: Unfavorable treatment outcomes occurred in 20% (339/1691) of TB patients. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) for unfavorable treatment outcomes (compared to treatment success) was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70, 1.07) for patients living ≥2 km from the facility compared to those living closer. When we separately compared each type of unfavorable treatment outcome to favorable outcomes, those living ≥2 km from the facility had increased risk of death (aRR 1.42 [95%CI 0.99, 2.03]) but decreased risk for loss to follow-up (aRR 0.57 [95%CI 0.41, 0.78]) than those living within 2 km. CONCLUSIONS: Distance from home residence to TB treatment facility is associated with increased risk of death but decreased risk of loss to follow up. Those who seek care further from home may have advanced disease, but once enrolled may be more likely to remain in treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 24, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) remain common in high-burden countries. To improve case detection, substantial investments have been made to scale-up Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), a cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test that can detect TB within 2 hours, as a replacement for sputum smear microscopy. However, the optimal strategy for implementation of Xpert testing remains unclear. METHODS: The Xpert Performance Evaluation for Linkage to Tuberculosis Care (XPEL-TB) trial uses an ultra-pragmatic, hybrid type II effectiveness-implementation design to assess the effectiveness and implementation of a streamlined strategy for delivery of Xpert testing in real-world settings. Twenty health centers with TB microscopy units were selected to participate in the trial, with ten health centers randomized to the intervention strategy (onsite molecular testing using GeneXpert Edge, process redesign to facilitate same-day TB diagnosis and treatment, and performance feedback) or routine care (onsite sputum smear microscopy plus referral of sputum samples to Xpert testing sites). The primary outcome is the number of patients with microbiologically confirmed TB who were initiated on treatment within 14 days of presentation to the health center, which reflects successful completion of the TB diagnostic evaluation process. Secondary outcomes include health outcomes (6-month vital status), as well as measures of the reach, adoption, and implementation of the intervention strategy. DISCUSSION: The design elements and implementation approach for the XPEL-TB trial were intentionally selected to minimize disruptions to routine care procedures, with the goal of limiting their influence on key primary and secondary outcomes. Trial findings may result in increased support and funding for rapid, onsite molecular testing as the standard-of-care for all patients being evaluated for TB. TRIAL REGISTRATION: US National Institutes of Health's ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03044158. Registered 06 February 2017. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR201610001763265. Registered 03 September 2016.

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