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1.
Biomacromolecules ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924444

RESUMO

For the simultaneous delivery of antisense oligonucleotides and their effector enzymes into cells, nanosized vesicular polyion complexes (PICs) were fabricated from oppositely charged polyion pairs of oligonucleotides and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-b-polypeptides. First, the polyion component structures were carefully designed to facilitate a multimolecular (or secondary) association of unit PICs for noncovalent (or chemical cross-linking-free) stabilization of vesicular PICs. Chemically modified, single-stranded oligonucleotides (SSOs) dramatically stabilized the multimolecular associates under physiological conditions, compared to control SSOs without chemical modifications and duplex oligonucleotides. In addition, a high degree of guanidino groups in the polypeptide segment was also crucial for the high stability of multimolecular associates. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed the stabilized multimolecular associates to have a 100 nm sized vesicular architecture with a narrow size distribution. The loading number of SSOs per nanovesicle was determined to be ∼2500 using fluorescence correlation spectroscopic analyses with fluorescently labeled SSOs. Furthermore, the nanovesicle stably encapsulated ribonuclease H (RNase H) as an effector enzyme at ∼10 per nanovesicle through simple vortex-mixing with preformed nanovesicles. Ultimately, the RNase H-encapsulated nanovesicle efficiently delivered SSOs with RNase H into cultured cancer cells, thereby eliciting the significantly higher gene knockdown compared with empty nanovesicles (without RNase H) or a mixture of nanovesicles with RNase H without encapsulation. These results demonstrate the great potential of noncovalently stabilized nanovesicles for the codelivery of two varying bio-macromolecule payloads for ensuring their cooperative biological activity.

2.
Biomaterials ; 261: 120332, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877764

RESUMO

RNA nanotechnology has promise for developing mRNA carriers with enhanced physicochemical and functional properties. However, the potential synergy for mRNA delivery of RNA nanotechnology in cooperation with established carrier systems remains unknown. This study proposes a combinational system of RNA nanotechnology and mRNA polyplexes, by focusing on mRNA steric structure inside the polyplexes. Firstly, several mRNA strands are bundled through hybridization with RNA oligonucleotide crosslinkers to obtain tight mRNA structure, and then the bundled mRNA is mixed with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-polycation block copolymers to prepare PEG-coated polyplex micelles (PMs). mRNA bundling results in highly condensed mRNA packaging inside PM core with dense PEG chains on the surface, thereby, improving PM stability against polyion exchange reaction and ribonuclease (RNase) attack. Importantly, such stabilization effects are attributed to bundled structure of mRNA rather than the increase in total mRNA amount encapsulated in the PMs, as encapsulation of long mRNA strands without bundling fails to improve PM stability. Consequently, PMs loading bundled mRNA exhibit enhanced stability in mouse blood circulation, and induce efficient protein expression in cultured cells and mouse brain.

3.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 10127-10140, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806051

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is resistant to immune checkpoint inhibition due to its low mutation rate, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-deficient immunosuppressive microenvironment, and high fraction of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Nanomedicines fostering immunoactivating intratumoral signals could reverse GBM resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for promoting curative responses. Here, we applied pH-sensitive epirubicin-loaded micellar nanomedicines, which are under clinical evaluation, to synergize the efficacy of anti-PD1antibodies (aPD1) against PTEN-positive and PTEN-negative orthotopic GBM, the latter with a large subpopulation of CSCs. The combination of epirubicin-loaded micelles (Epi/m) with aPD1 overcame GBM resistance to ICIs by transforming cold GBM into hot tumors with high infiltration of antitumor immune cells through the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD), elimination of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MSDCs), and reduction of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells. Thus, Epi/m plus aPD1 eradicated both PTEN-positive and PTEN-negative orthotopic GBM and provided long-term immune memory effects. Our results indicate the high translatable potential of Epi/m plus aPD1 for the treatment of GBM.

4.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(7): 670-671, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632228
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19141-19150, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703811

RESUMO

Current strategies to direct therapy-loaded nanoparticles to the brain rely on functionalizing nanoparticles with ligands which bind target proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, such strategies have significant brain-specificity limitations, as target proteins are not exclusively expressed at the brain microvasculature. Therefore, novel strategies which exploit alternative characteristics of the BBB are required to overcome nonspecific nanoparticle targeting to the periphery, thereby increasing drug efficacy and reducing detrimental peripheral side effects. Here, we present a simple, yet counterintuitive, brain-targeting strategy which exploits the higher impermeability of the BBB to selectively label the brain endothelium. This is achieved by harnessing the lower endocytic rate of brain endothelial cells (a key feature of the high BBB impermeability) to promote selective retention of free, unconjugated protein-binding ligands on the surface of brain endothelial cells compared to peripheral endothelial cells. Nanoparticles capable of efficiently binding to the displayed ligands (i.e., labeled endothelium) are consequently targeted specifically to the brain microvasculature with minimal "off-target" accumulation in peripheral organs. This approach therefore revolutionizes brain-targeting strategies by implementing a two-step targeting method which exploits the physiology of the BBB to generate the required brain specificity for nanoparticle delivery, paving the way to overcome targeting limitations and achieve clinical translation of neurological therapies. In addition, this work demonstrates that protein targets for brain delivery may be identified based not on differential tissue expression, but on differential endocytic rates between the brain and periphery.

6.
Sci Adv ; 6(26): eabb8133, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637625

RESUMO

A major critical issue in systemically administered nanomedicines is nonspecific clearance by the liver sinusoidal endothelium, causing a substantial decrease in the delivery efficiency of nanomedicines into the target tissues. Here, we addressed this issue by in situ stealth coating of liver sinusoids using linear or two-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated oligo(l-lysine) (OligoLys). PEG-OligoLys selectively attached to liver sinusoids for PEG coating, leaving the endothelium of other tissues uncoated and, thus, accessible to the nanomedicines. Furthermore, OligoLys having a two-armed PEG configuration was ultimately cleared from sinusoidal walls to the bile, while OligoLys with linear PEG persisted in the sinusoidal walls, possibly causing prolonged disturbance of liver physiological functions. Such transient and selective stealth coating of liver sinusoids by two-arm-PEG-OligoLys was effective in preventing the sinusoidal clearance of nonviral and viral gene vectors, representatives of synthetic and nature-derived nanomedicines, respectively, thereby boosting their gene transfection efficiency in the target tissues.

7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(16): e2000538, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583633

RESUMO

Messenger RNA (mRNA) shows high therapeutic potential, though effective delivery systems are still needed for boosting its application. Nanocarriers loading mRNA via polyion complexation with block catiomers into core-shell micellar structures are promising systems for enhancing mRNA delivery. Engineering the interaction between mRNA and catiomers through polymer design can promote the development of mRNA-loaded micelles (mRNA/m) with increased delivery efficiency. Particularly, the polycation chain rigidity may critically affect the mRNA-catiomer interplay to yield potent nanocarriers, yet its effect remains unknown. Herein, the influence of polycation stiffness on the performance of mRNA/m by developing block complementary catiomers having polycation segments with different flexibility, that is, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(glycidylbutylamine) (PEG-PGBA) and PEG-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLL) is studied. PEG-PGBA allows more than 50-fold stronger binding to mRNA than the relatively more rigid PEG-PLL, resulting in mRNA/m with enhanced protection against enzymatic attack and polyanions. mRNA/m from PEG-PGBA significantly enhances mRNA in vivo bioavailability and increased protein translation, indicating the importance of controlling polycation flexibility for forming stable polyion complexes with mRNA toward improved delivery.

8.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2440-2450, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437068

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer compared with luminal or epidermal growth factor receptor 2 subtypes, thus effective therapeutic options for TNBC are yet to be developed. Nowadays, oncogenic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are applied to cancer management as a new class of therapeutic targets. We previously showed that thymopoietin antisense transcript 1 (TMPO-AS1) is a proliferation-associated lncRNA that contributes to hormone-dependent breast cancer progression by stabilizing estrogen receptor-α mRNA. We here showed that TMPO-AS1 is abundantly expressed in basal-like breast cancer subtype based on the transcriptomic data in The Cancer Genome Atlas as well as in TNBC cell lines and patient-derived cells. Small interfering RNA-based loss-of-function analyses showed that TMPO-AS1 knockdown substantially represses the proliferation and migration of TNBC cells. Expression microarray analysis showed that TMPO-AS1 alters gene signatures related to transforming growth factor-ß signaling in addition to proliferative E2F signaling pathways. TMPO-AS1-targeted siRNA treatment through engineered drug delivery systems using cancer-targeted polyion complex micelle or nanoball technology significantly impaired the in vivo growth of primary and metastatic TNBC xenograft tumors. Our findings suggest that TMPO-AS1 plays a key role in TNBC pathophysiology and could be a potential therapeutic target for TNBC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 6729-6742, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431145

RESUMO

Delivering therapeutic antibodies into the brain across the blood-brain barrier at a therapeutic level is a promising while challenging approach in the treatment of neurological disorders. Here, we present a polymeric nanomicelle (PM) system capable of delivering therapeutically effective levels of 3D6 antibody fragments (3D6-Fab) into the brain parenchyma for inhibiting Aß aggregation. PM assembly was achieved by charge-converting 3D6-Fab through pH-sensitive citraconylation to allow complexation with reductive-sensitive cationic polymers. Brain targeting was achieved by functionalizing the PM surface with glucose molecules to allow interaction with recycling glucose transporter (Glut)-1 proteins. Consequently, 41-fold enhanced 3D6-Fab accumulation in the brain was achieved by using the PM system compared to free 3D6-Fab. Furthermore, therapeutic benefits were obtained by successfully inhibiting Aß1-42 aggregation in Alzheimer's disease mice systemically treated with 3D6-Fab-loaded glucosylated PM. Hence, this nanocarrier system represents a promising method for effectively delivering functional antibody agents into the brain and treating neurological diseases.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(32): 13526-13530, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383236

RESUMO

Synthetic polymer vesicles spur novel strategies for producing intelligent nanodevices with precise and specific functions. Engineering vesicular nanodevices with tunable permeability by a general platform without involving trade-offs between structural integrity, flexibility, and functionality remains challenging. Herein, we present a general strategy to construct responsive nanoreactors based on polyion complex vesicles by integrating stimuli-responsive linkers into a crosslinking membrane network. The formulated ROS-responsive nanoreactor with self-boosting catalytic glucose oxidation could protect glucose oxidase (GOD) to achieve cytocidal function by oxidative stress induction and glucose starvation, which is ascribed to stimuli-responsive vesicle expansion without fracture and size-selective cargo release behavior. The GOD-loaded therapeutic nanoreactor induced an immunostimulatory form of cell death by pyroptosis, which has the great potential to prime anti-tumor immune responses.

11.
Mol Pharm ; 17(6): 1835-1847, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315193

RESUMO

Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of the family of statins have been suggested as therapeutic options in various tumors. Atorvastatin is a statin with the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier; however, the concentrations necessary for a cytotoxic effect against cancer cells exceed the concentrations achievable via oral administration, which made the development of a novel atorvastatin formulation necessary. We characterized the drug loading and basic physicochemical characteristics of micellar atorvastatin formulations and tested their cytotoxicity against a panel of different glioblastoma cell lines. In addition, activity against tumor spheroids formed from mouse glioma and mouse cancer stem cells, respectively, was evaluated. Our results show good activity of atorvastatin against all tested cell lines. Interestingly, in the three-dimensional (3D) models, growth inhibition was more pronounced for the micellar formulation compared to free atorvastatin. Finally, atorvastatin penetration across a blood-brain barrier model obtained from human induced-pluripotent stem cells was evaluated. Our results suggest that the presented micelles may enable much higher serum concentrations than possible by oral administration; however, if transport across the blood-brain barrier is sufficient to reach the therapeutic atorvastatin concentration for the treatment of glioblastoma via intravenous administration remains unclear.

12.
J Control Release ; 321: 132-144, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032656

RESUMO

Tumor resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is an inexorable clinical event. The manipulation of adaptive changes in cancer cells while inhibiting the signaling pathways could be an effective strategy for overcoming TKI resistance toward reducing tumor relapse and prolonging survival. Here, we tested this approach by using polymeric nanomedicines delivering the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STS) to treat renal cell carcinoma (RCC) resistant to the multi-targeted TKI sunitinib. STS blocked the activity of TKI-resistant protein kinases and strongly inhibited adaptive dynamics in RCC cells promoted by MDR1 and GLUT1 to overcome sunitinib resistance. Co-delivery of STS and epirubicin directed to eliminate fast-proliferating cancer cells through the same nanomedicine platform enabled safe and potent in vivo efficacy in mouse models of RCC, overcoming sunitinib resistance and suppressing the development of metastasis. These results indicate our approach as a promising strategy for effectively managing TKI resistance.

13.
Theranostics ; 10(4): 1910-1922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042344

RESUMO

Tumor normalization strategies aim to improve tumor blood vessel functionality (i.e., perfusion) by reducing the hyper-permeability of tumor vessels or restoring compressed vessels. Despite progress in strategies to normalize the tumor microenvironment (TME), their combinatorial antitumor effects with nanomedicine and immunotherapy remain unexplored. Methods: Here, we re-purposed the TGF-ß inhibitor tranilast, an approved anti-fibrotic and antihistamine drug, and combined it with Doxil nanomedicine to normalize the TME, increase perfusion and oxygenation, and enhance anti-tumor immunity. Specifically, we employed two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) mouse models to primarily evaluate the therapeutic and normalization effects of tranilast combined with doxorubicin and Doxil. We demonstrated the optimized normalization effects of tranilast combined with Doxil and extended our analysis to investigate the effect of TME normalization to the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Results: Combination of tranilast with Doxil caused a pronounced reduction in extracellular matrix components and an increase in the intratumoral vessel diameter and pericyte coverage, indicators of TME normalization. These modifications resulted in a significant increase in tumor perfusion and oxygenation and enhanced treatment efficacy as indicated by the notable reduction in tumor size. Tranilast further normalized the immune TME by restoring the infiltration of T cells and increasing the fraction of T cells that migrate away from immunosuppressive cancer-associated fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found that combining tranilast with Doxil nanomedicine, significantly improved immunostimulatory M1 macrophage content in the tumorigenic tissue and improved the efficacy of the immune checkpoint blocking antibodies anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4. Conclusion: Combinatorial treatment of tranilast with Doxil optimizes TME normalization, improves immunostimulation and enhances the efficacy of immunotherapy.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(21): 8173-8180, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995252

RESUMO

Current antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) therapies for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders are performed through invasive administration, thereby placing a major burden on patients. To alleviate this burden, we herein report systemic ASO delivery to the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier using glycemic control as an external trigger. Glucose-coated polymeric nanocarriers, which can be bound by glucose transporter-1 expressed on the brain capillary endothelial cells, are designed for stable encapsulation of ASOs, with a particle size of about 45 nm and an adequate glucose-ligand density. The optimized nanocarrier efficiently accumulates in the brain tissue 1 h after intravenous administration and exhibits significant knockdown of a target long non-coding RNA in various brain regions, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that the glucose-modified polymeric nanocarriers enable noninvasive ASO administration to the brain for the treatment of CNS disorders.

15.
Adv Mater ; 32(13): e1902604, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353770

RESUMO

Development of drug-delivery systems that selectively target neoplastic cells has been a major goal of nanomedicine. One major strategy for achieving this milestone is to install ligands on the surface of nanocarriers to enhance delivery to target tissues, as well as to enhance internalization of nanocarriers by target cells, which improves accuracy, efficacy, and ultimately enhances patient outcomes. Herein, recent advances regarding the development of ligand-installed nanocarriers are introduced and the effect of their design on biological performance is discussed. Besides academic achievements, progress on ligand-installed nanocarriers in clinical trials is presented, along with the challenges faced by these formulations. Lastly, the future perspectives of ligand-installed nanocarriers are discussed, with particular emphasis on their potential for emerging precision therapies.

16.
Macromol Biosci ; 20(1): e1900161, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310454

RESUMO

Protein drugs have great potential as targeted therapies, yet their application suffers from several drawbacks, such as instability, short half-life, and adverse immune responses. Thus, protein delivery approaches based on stimuli-responsive nanocarriers can provide effective strategies for selectively enhancing the availability and activation of proteins in targeted tissues. Herein, polymeric micelles with the ability of encapsulating proteins are developed via concurrent ion complexation and pH-cleavable covalent bonding between proteins and block copolymers directed to pH-triggered release of the protein payload. Carboxydimethylmaleic anhydride (CDM) is selected as the pH-sensitive moiety, since the CDMamide bond is stable at physiological pH (pH 7.4), while it cleaves at pH 6.5, that is, the pathophysiological pH of tumors and inflammatory tissues. By using poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine) block copolymers having 45% CDM addition, different proteins with various sizes and isoelectric points are loaded successfully. By using myoglobin-loaded micelles (myo/m) as a model, the stability of the micelles in physiological conditions and the dissociation and release of functional myoglobin at pH 6.5 are successfully confirmed. Moreover, myo/m shows extended half-life in blood compared to free myoglobin and micelles assembled solely by polyion complex, indicating the potential of this system for in vivo delivery of proteins.

17.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(11): 1866-1875, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807688

RESUMO

Rapid and transient expression of in vitro transcribed mRNA (IVT mRNA) in target cells is a current major challenge in genome engineering therapy. To improve mRNA delivery efficiency, a series of amphiphilic polyaspartamide derivatives were synthesized to contain various hydrophobic moieties with cationic diethylenetriamine (DET) moieties in the side chain and systematically compared as mRNA delivery vehicles (or mRNA-loaded polyplexes). The obtained results demonstrated that the side chain structures of polyaspartamide derivatives were critical for the mRNA delivery efficiency of polyplexes. Interestingly, when the mRNA delivery efficiencies (or the luciferase expression levels in cultured cells) were plotted against an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) as an indicator of hydrophobicity, a log P threshold was clearly observed to obtain high levels of mRNA expression. Indeed, 3.5 orders of magnitude difference in the expression level is observed between -2.45 and -2.31 in log P. This threshold of log P for the mRNA transfection efficiency apparently correlated with those for the polyplex stability and cellular uptake efficiency. Among the polyaspartamide derivatives with log P > -2.31, a polyaspartamide derivative with 11 residues of 2-cyclohexylethyl (CHE) moieties and 15 residues of DET moieties in the side chains elicited the highest mRNA expression in cultured cells. The optimized polyplex further accomplished highly efficient, rapid, and transient IVT mRNA expression in mouse brain after intracerebroventricular and intrathecal injection. Ultimately, the polyplex allowed for the highly efficient target gene deletion via the expression of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 nuclease-coding IVT mRNA in the ependymal layer of ventricles in a reporter mouse model. These results demonstrate the utility of log P driven polymer design for in vivo IVT mRNA delivery.

18.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 12732-12742, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647640

RESUMO

Despite the rigidity of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), its packaging is used to construct nonviral gene carriers due to its availability and the importance of its double-helix to elicit transcription. However, there is an increasing demand for more compact-sized carriers to facilitate tissue penetration, which may be easily fulfilled by using the more flexible single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as an alternative template. Inspired by the adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a prime example of a transcriptionally active ssDNA system, we considered a methodology that can capture unpaired ssDNA within the polyplex micelle system (PM), an assembly of DNA and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine) (PEG-PLys). A micellar assembly retaining unpaired ssDNA was prepared by unpairing linearized pDNA with heat and performing polyion complexation on site with PEG-PLys. The PM thus formed had a compact and spherical shape, which was distinguishable from the rod-shaped PM formed from dsDNA, and still retained its ability to activate gene expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that its capacity to encapsulate DNA was much higher than AAV, thereby potentially allowing the delivery of a larger variety of protein-encoding DNA. These features permit the ssDNA-loaded PM to easily penetrate the size-restricting stromal barrier after systemic application. Further, they can elicit gene expression in tumor cell nests of an intractable pancreatic cancer mouse model to achieve antitumor effects through suicide gene therapy. Thus, single-stranded DNA-packaged PM is appealing as a potential gene vector to tackle intractable diseases, particularly those with target delivery issues due to size-restriction barriers.

19.
Biomaterials ; 224: 119491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546096

RESUMO

Increasing attention has been paid to the diseases of central nervous system (CNS). The penetration efficiency of most CNS drugs into the brain parenchyma is rather limited due to the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, BBB crossing for drug delivery to CNS remains a significant challenge in the development of neurological therapeutics. Because of the advantageous properties (e.g., relatively high drug loading content, controllable drug release, excellent passive and active targeting, good stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity), nanomaterials with BBB-crossability have been widely developed for the treatment of CNS diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding of the physiological structure of BBB, and provides various nanomaterial-based BBB-crossing strategies for brain delivery of theranostic agents, including intranasal delivery, temporary disruption of BBB, local delivery, cell penetrating peptide (CPP) mediated BBB-crossing, receptor mediated BBB-crossing, shuttle peptide mediated BBB-crossing, and cells mediated BBB-crossing. Clinicians, biologists, material scientists and chemists are expected to be interested in this review.

20.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 17: 465-476, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344657

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that can cause impaired motor function or full paralysis. In the days to weeks following the initial mechanical injury to the spinal cord, inflammation and apoptosis can cause additional damage to the injured tissues. This secondary injury impairs recovery. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a secreted protein that has been shown to improve a variety of neurological conditions, including SCI, by promoting neuron survival and synaptic plasticity. This study treated a mouse model of contusion SCI using a single dose of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA nanomicelles prepared with polyethylene glycol polyamino acid block copolymer directly injected into the injured tissue. BDNF levels in the injured spinal cord tissue were approximately doubled by mRNA treatment. Motor function was monitored using the Basso Mouse Scale and Noldus CatWalk Automated Gait Analysis System for 6 weeks post-injury. BDNF-treated mice showed improved motor function recovery, demonstrating the feasibility of mRNA delivery to treat SCI.

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