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2.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 7(5): 598-604, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184770

RESUMO

Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT) are very rare tumors considered as solid variants of calcifying epithelial odontogenic cysts (CEOC). They are locally invasive neoplasms and their main characteristic features are ameloblastoma like odontogenic epithelial proliferation, an aberrant keratinization in the form of ghost cells and dysplastic dentin. DGCT occur as two forms intraosseous (central) and extra osseous (peripheral), of which more aggressive intraosseous variety requires careful monitoring and aggressive local resection to prevent recurrence. This paper discusses a case of a 14-year-old male patient with a complaint of swelling in his right mandibular premolar molar region since 4 months and missing permanent right mandibular canine and first premolar was also observed. The lesion was diagnosed with radiological, cytological and histopathological investigations which revealed it to be rarest entity.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(2): e000167, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206488

RESUMO

Timely, affordable access to screened blood is essential to the provision of safe surgical care and depends on three key aspects: adequate volume of blood supply, safe protocols for blood donation and transfusion, and appropriate regulation to ensure safe, equitable and sustainable distribution. Many low-income and middle-income countries experience a deficit in these categories, particularly in rural areas. We draw on the experience of rural surgical practitioners in India and summarise the existing literature to evaluate India's blood banking system and discuss its major barriers to the safe and equitable provision of blood. Many low-income and middle-income countries struggle with accruing a sufficient voluntary, unpaid blood donation base to meet the need. Efforts to increase blood supply through mandatory family replacement donations can lead to dangerous delays in care provision. Additionally, prohibition of unbanked, directed blood transfusion restricts the options of health practitioners, particularly in rural areas. Blood safety is also a significant concern, and efforts must be taken to decrease the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections and inform and treat donors who test positive. Lastly, blood banking systems need a centralised governing body to ensure fair prices for blood, promote comprehensive transfusion reporting and increase system-wide transparency and accountability.

4.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 1(4): 237-242, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348617

RESUMO

Rural physicians have been practising the technique of emergency bleeding and transfusion called Unbanked Directed (to a specific recipient) Blood Transfusion (UDBT), which has been declared illegal, to meet the need for blood in rural and inaccessible areas. As a result, a crisis has emerged in the availability of blood. Is UDBT a second rate technology for the poor and the disadvantaged? And should we not rather advocate for rapid scaling up of the establishment of blood banks in all areas? We examine the ethical issues related to blood availability in the rural areas. We argue that a regulated and licensed UDBT passes muster on the ethical principles of beneficence, lack of maleficence, justice and Swaraj. Using this issue as a case in point, we further examine the idea of what constitutes appropriate or acceptable technology. While affirming that any technology has to pass muster on a litmus test of acceptability, we discuss the difference between "ideal" and "acceptable" (but less than ideal) technology. We argue there is a dynamic push and pull between the urge to regulate and restrict the use of skills by all versus the need to communitise technology. Regulated use of UDBT will allow blood to be available where it is needed most in the foreseeable future in India.


Assuntos
Beneficência , Bancos de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue/legislação & jurisprudência , Emergências , Obrigações Morais , Serviços de Saúde Rural/ética , Justiça Social , Tecnologia Biomédica , Regulamentação Governamental , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Índia , Licenciamento , Características de Residência , Serviços de Saúde Rural/legislação & jurisprudência , População Rural
5.
Indian J Surg ; 77(3): 217-21, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246705

RESUMO

Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome is a rare condition occasionally encountered in men with normal phenotype but with presence of Müllerian duct structures. In India, owing to neglect and lack of facilities, we encounter this condition in adult males. We encountered on the same day in the operation theatre two phenotypic males aged 40 years and 10 months who had inguinal hernia on one side along with contralateral undescended testis. Both patients intraoperatively had uterus with fallopian tubes and underwent subtotal hysterectomy with preservation of vas. Repair of inguinal hernia with fixation of the testis in the scrotum was done. Though rare, every surgeon operating upon inguinal hernia or undescended testes or cryptorchidism needs to know about the presence of the uterus in a phenotypic male patient at any age. High degree of suspicion and awareness is needed to diagnose this condition. Early treatment is needed to maintain fertility and to prevent the occurrence of malignancy in remnant müllerian structures.

6.
Indian J Med Res ; 141(5): 663-72, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26139787

RESUMO

Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública , Características de Residência , População Rural , Escarro/microbiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e77979, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24205052

RESUMO

Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m(2)and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m(2)and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMI<17.0 kg/m(2)). Fifty two percent of the patients (57% of men and 48% of women) had stunting indicating chronic under-nutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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