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1.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 47(2): 295-297, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381967

RESUMO

We assessed the therapeutic effect of curative resection in patients with multiple relapses of colorectal cancer using the time to surgical failure(TSF)as an index. We included 24 patients who experienced recurrence after curative resection of primary colorectal cancer at our department between 1993 and 2015. Curative resection for multiple relapses was possible in these patients. The sites of recurrence included the liver, lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes, localized, and brain in 9, 8, 3, 3, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. The relapse occurred in 2 organs in 2 patients. The TSF after curative resection of recurrent lesions was 25.6 months, with a 5-year TSF-free rate of 40.2%. The clinicopathological factors associated with poor prognosis were age B65 years at the time of recurrence, absence of distal metastasis at primary onset, and only 2 curative resections for relapses. However, there was no difference in prognosis because of the number of twice recurrent lesions. Therefore, curative resection should be proactively performed as long as feasible in colorectal cancer patients with multiple lesions or multiple relapses.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 405, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma have been unsatisfactory. We established new anatomical resectability classification for patients with localized perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and performed neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by curative-intent surgery based on its resectability classification and lymph node status to improve prognosis. This study aimed to clarify the long-term outcomes and validation of our strategy. METHODS: Between September 2010 and August 2018, 72 consecutive patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma were classified into three groups: Resectable (R = 29), Borderline resectable (BR = 23), and Locally advanced (LA = 20), based on the two factors of tumor vascular and biliary extension. R with clinically lymph node metastasis, BR, and LA patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy using gemcitabine plus S-1. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients (65.3%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy: R in 8, BR in 21, and 18 in LA, respectively. Fifty-nine patients (68.1%) underwent curative-intent surgery: R in 26, BR in 17, and LA in 6. Five-year disease-specific survival was 31.5% (median survival time: 33.0 months): 50.3% (not reached) in R, 30.0% (31.4 months) in BR, and 16.5% (22.5 months) in LA, which were relatively stratified. Among 49 patients with resection, disease-specific survival was 43.8% (57.0 months): 57.6% (not reached) in R, 41.0% (52.4 months) in BR, and 0% (49.4 months) in LA, which were significantly good prognosis compared to 23 patients without resection (17.2 months). Multivariate analysis identified preoperative high carcinoembryonic antigen levels (more than 8.5 ng/ml) and pT4 as independent poor prognostic factor of patients with resection. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on resectability classification and lymph node status was feasible, and was considered efficacious in selected patients.

3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 291, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hip pain caused by femoral proximal fractures or acute hip arthritis requires imaging for accurate diagnosis. Although pocket-sized ultrasound (PsUS) offers several advantages over other imaging modalities, there is limited information regarding its use in diagnosing femoral proximal fractures or acute hip arthritis. Thus, we aimed to validate the diagnostic accuracy of PsUS for both disorders. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, outpatients with acute hip pain were diagnosed according to a fixed procedure of the PsUS probe handling. We verified the diagnostic accuracy of PsUS findings (cortical discontinuity and joint fluid retention) and compared it with that of radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Our study included 52 outpatients (mean age, 78.0 years; female, 88.5%). Of 26 patients diagnosed with femoral proximal fractures, 14 had femoral neck fractures and 12 had femoral trochanteric fractures. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying cortical discontinuity in femoral proximal fractures were 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. The sensitivity for identifying either cortical discontinuity or joint fluid retention in femoral proximal fractures or acute hip arthritis was 0.97. CONCLUSIONS: Negative PsUS findings of cortical discontinuity and joint fluid retention in the hip are useful for ruling out femoral proximal fractures and acute hip arthritis. PsUS and radiography have comparable diagnostic accuracies, and PsUS could aid in the initial assessment of acute hip pain among the elderly in primary care settings.

4.
Bone ; 137: 115404, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360897

RESUMO

Although associations among obesity, adipocytokines, and bone mineral density have been reported, the influence of adipocytokines on osteoporotic fractures remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of the adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin on the risk of incident vertebral and long-bone fractures in postmenopausal women. Clinical data were obtained from the retrospective Nagano Cohort Study of outpatients followed at a single primary care institute in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, between 1993 and 2018. The primary outcome was the occurrence of incident vertebral or long-bone fractures. In total, 1167 Japanese postmenopausal women (mean age: 65.9 years) completed the follow-up and the average observation period was 7.2 years. The subjects were divided into 4 groups (quartile 1 to 4) based respective leptin and adiponectin values. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significantly lower incident long-bone fracture rate in the higher quartiles of serum leptin levels (p = 0.002). A significantly higher and more rapid occurrence of incident vertebral fractures, but not long-bone fractures, was found in the highest adiponectin quartile (p < 0.001). A Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for confounders including age, body weight, and either leptin or adiponectin revealed lower leptin levels and higher adiponectin levels as significant independent risk factors for incident long-bone fractures (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.96; p = 0.03) and vertebral fractures (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.37; p = 0.02), respectively. Therefore, serum leptin and adiponectin may be independent risk factors for osteoporotic fractures affecting different bone types and sites. Determining patient adipocytokine levels may help predict the occurrence of specific osteoporotic fractures, thereby enabling optimal treatment for osteoporosis and improving quality of life.

5.
Surg Case Rep ; 6(1): 89, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal annular pancreas (PAP) is a rare pancreatic anomaly in which the uncinate process wraps annularly around the portal vein and fuses to the body of the pancreas. PAP is highly relevant to the development of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) in pancreatic surgery. Here, we describe our experience and surgical technique of laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy using Warshaw's procedure for patients with the PAP. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old woman with PAP was referred to our hospital for a suspicious mucinous cystic neoplasms 1.5 cm in diameter in the pancreatic tail. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy using Warshaw's procedure was performed. Mobilization of the pancreatic tail was first performed, and then, the splenic artery was cut. After dividing the pancreatic tail from the splenic hilum, the ventral pancreatic parenchyma was divided using a stapler. After cutting the splenic vein, complete mobilization of the pancreatic body and tail enabled easy division of the PAP. Finally, the PAP was also divided using the stapler. Although grade B POPF occurred, she was discharged on the 9th postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons should understand the anatomical characteristics of PAP and be aware of the possibility of POPF.

6.
Intern Med ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238719

RESUMO

VZV encephalitis in the absence of vasculopathy may rarely occur in association with herpes zoster. We herein report the case of a 67-year-old woman with non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma undergoing chemotherapy who presented with an acute alteration in consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple and nonspecific lesions of hyperintensity with mild edema in the cortex and subcortex. She was treated with intravenous acyclovir. However, two days after admission, the patient died and was diagnosed with VZV encephalitis. This case highlights the risk of VZV reactivation with severe neurological complications in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) acutely enhance post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS), which has been suggested to be important for muscle repair and recovery. However, the ability of LEAAs to concurrently enhance MyoPS and muscle damage recovery in free-living humans has not been studied. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, twenty recreationally active males consuming a controlled diet (1.2 g/kg/d of protein) were supplemented thrice daily with 4 g of LEAAs (containing 1.6 g leucine) or isocaloric placebo for four days following an acute bout of lower-body resistance exercise (RE). MyoPS at rest and integrated over 96 h of recovery was measured by D2O. Isometric and isokinetic torque, muscle soreness, Z-band streaming, muscle heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and 72, plasma creatine kinase (CK), and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured over 96 h post-RE to assess various direct and indirect markers of muscle damage. RESULTS: Integrated MyoPS increased ~72% over 96 h after RE (p < 0.05), with no differences between groups (p = 0.98). Isometric, isokinetic, and total peak torque decreased ~21% by 48 h after RE (p < 0.05), whereas total peak torque was ~10% greater overall during recovery in LEAAs compared to placebo (p < 0.05). There were moderate to large effects for peak torque in favour of LEAAs. Muscle soreness increased during recovery with no statistical differences between groups but small to moderate effects in favour of LEAAs that correlated with changes in peak torque. Plasma CK, plasma IL-6, and muscle HSP25 increased after RE (p < 0.05) but were not significantly different between groups (p ≥ 0.13). Consistent with a trend toward attenuated Z-band streaming in LEAAs (p = 0.07), muscle HSP72 expression was lower (p < 0.05) during recovery in LEAAs compared with placebo. There were no correlations between MyoPS and any measures of muscle damage (p ≥ 0.37). CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data suggest that LEAAs moderately attenuated muscle damage without concomitant increases in integrated MyoPS in the days following an acute bout of resistance exercise in free-living recreationally active men.

8.
Bone ; 136: 115349, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247068

RESUMO

Congenital radioulnar synostosis (RUS) is a rare skeletal disorder that is characterized by fusion of the radius and ulna. As the etiology of RUS is largely unknown, its treatment options are currently limited. A de novo missense mutation in the zinc finger matrin-type 2 (ZMAT2) gene was newly identified in a 5-year-old boy with RUS using whole-exome sequencing. Herein, we sought to further explore the function of zmat2 in zebrafish. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed site-specific expression of zzmat2 in the pectoral fins (equivalent to human upper limbs) and craniofacial regions, while immunohistochemistry showed the expression of zZmat2 in the pectoral fins and heart region. Gene knockdown produced defects in the pectoral fins and dorso-ventral patterning. zzmat2 knockdown also caused embryo dorsalization, a phenotype consistent with reduced/insufficient bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. These abnormalities were partially rescued by zbmp2b RNA overexpression and fully rescued by simultaneous overexpression of wild-type zzmat2. Importantly, the overexpression of mutant zzmat2 corresponding to the newly-identified mutation did not fully rescue the dorso-ventral patterning defects. The above findings indicate that ZMAT2 regulates skeletal development via the BMP signaling pathway, and its mutation may lead to a loss or reduction in biological activity. Thus, the newly identified ZMAT2 mutation potentially plays a causal role in RUS through deregulation of BMP signaling.

9.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 9, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251292

RESUMO

This prospective observational study, conducted at a community clinic in Japan during the influenza season, from December 2017 to April 2018 aimed to investigate the accuracy of factors used for influenza self-diagnosis. Data were collected from pre-examination checklists issued to patients with suspected influenza and electronic medical records. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed using a rapid influenza diagnostic test as the reference standard, and 2 × 2 contingency tables were analysed at each cut-off point. We analysed data from 290 patients (72.8% males, median age: 38 years, interquartile range: 26-50 years). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for patients who were aware of other patients presumed to have influenza within close proximity was 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.82). The AUCs for patients with a history of influenza, unvaccinated status, cough, or nasal discharge were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.60-0.75), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.73), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.59-0.75), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.62-0.78), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio at a 90% cut-off point was 19.5% (95% CI: 13.5-26.6%), 94.1% (95% CI: 88.7-97.4%) and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.57-6.98). The sensitivity, specificity and negative likelihood ratio at a 10% cut-off point was 95.5% (95% CI: 90.9-98.2%), 9.6% (95% CI: 5.2-15.8%) and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.20-1.16). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the AUC increased significantly from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.70-0.83) to 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86) when self-diagnosis-related information was added to basic clinical information. We identified factors that improve the accuracy and validity of influenza self-diagnosis. Appropriate self-diagnosis could contribute to the containment efforts during influenza epidemics and reduce its social and economic burden.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 209, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor budding (TB) is used as an indicator of poor prognosis in various cancers. However, studies on TB in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are still limited. We examined the significance of TB in resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma with or without neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients who underwent surgical resection at our institution for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma from 2004 to 2017, (36 with neoadjuvant therapy), were enrolled in this study. TB was defined as an isolated cancer cell or clusters (< 5 cells) at the invasive front and the number of TB was counted using a 20 times objective lens. Patients were classified into two groups according to TB counts: low TB (TB < 5) and high TB (TB ≥5). RESULTS: In this 78 patient cohort, high TB was significantly associated with advanced tumor status (pT4: 50.0% vs 22.2%, p = 0.007, pN1/2: 70.8% vs 39.6%, p = 0.011, M1: 20.8% vs 1.9%) and higher histological grade (G3: 25.0% vs 5.7%, p = 0.014). Disease specific survival (DSS) in high TB was significantly inferior compared to that in low TB group (3-y DSS 14.5% vs 67.7%, p < 0.001). Interestingly, DSS in high TB showed similar to survival in unresected patients. In addition, high TB was also associated with advanced tumor status and poor prognosis in patients with neoadjuvant therapy. Multivariate analysis identified high TB as an independent poor prognostic factors for DSS (HR: 5.206, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that high TB was strongly associated with advanced tumor status and poor prognosis in resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients. High TB can be a novel poor prognostic factor in resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma regardless of neoadjuvant therapy.

11.
J Orthop Sci ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The locomotive syndrome risk test was developed to quantify the decrease in mobility among adults, which could eventually lead to disability. The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the locomotive syndrome risk test for adults and investigate the influence of age and sex. METHODS: We analyzed 8681 independent community dwellers (3607 men, 5074 women). Data pertaining to locomotive syndrome risk test (the two-step test, the stand-up test, and the 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale [GLFS-25]) scores were collected from seven administrative areas of Japan. RESULTS: The reference values of the three test scores were generated and all three test scores gradually decreased among young-to-middle-aged individuals and rapidly decreased in individuals aged over 60 years. The stand-up test score began decreasing significantly from the age of 30 years. The trajectories of decrease in the two-step test score with age was slightly different between men and women especially among the middle-aged individuals. The two physical test scores were more sensitive to aging than the self-reported test score. CONCLUSION: The reference values generated in this study could be employed to determine whether an individual has mobility comparable to independent community dwellers of the same age and sex.

12.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151406

RESUMO

We report the pathological findings of hourglass-like fascicular constriction (HLFC) under optical and electron microscopy. A 24-year-old man with spontaneous posterior interosseous nerve palsy was treated by interfascicular neurolysis at 29 weeks after onset. One fascicle in the radial nerve presented severe HLFC with torsion at 5 cm proximal to the elbow. Functional recovery was achieved by resection of the enlarged fascicle including HLFC and sural nerve grafting. Proximal to the HLFC, the endoneurium was filled with clusters of regenerating nerve fibers. At the level of the HLFC, a complete loss of myelinated nerve fibers and vascular occlusion of endo- and perineurial vessels were found. Few regenerating nerve fibers were observed. Distal to the HLFC, severe endoneurial edema, a complete loss of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers, and bands of Büngner were noted. These electron microscopic findings demonstrated a detailed pathology of the nerve around the HLFC.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093357

RESUMO

Prostate cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remain major health challenges in men. In this study, the inhibitory effects of a hexane insoluble fraction from a purple rice ethanolic extract (PRE-HIF) on prostate carcinogenesis and CRPC were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. In the Transgenic Rat for Adenocarcinoma of Prostate (TRAP) model, 1% PRE-HIF mixed diet-fed rats showed a significantly higher percentage of low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and obvious reduction in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral lobes of the prostate. Additionally, 1% PRE-HIF supplied diet significantly suppressed the tumor growth in a rat CRPC xenograft model of PCai1 cells. In LNCaP and PCai1 cells, PRE-HIF treatment suppressed cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, androgen receptor (AR), cyclin D1, cdk4, and fatty acid synthase expression were down-regulated while attenuation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and AMP-activated protein kinase α activation occurred in PRE-HIF treated prostate cancer cells, rat prostate tissues, and CRPC tumors. Due to consistent results with PRE-HIF in PCai1 cells, cyanidin-3-glucoside was characterized as the active compound. Altogether, we surmise that PRE-HIF blocks the development of prostate cancer and CRPC through the inhibition of cell proliferation and metabolic pathways.

14.
Oncogene ; 39(16): 3322-3335, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071397

RESUMO

The ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on X chromosome (UTX) is a major histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase and the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins are the H3K4 methyltransferases. UTX is one of the major components of MLL3- and MLL4-containing (MlLL3/4) complexes and likely has functions within the complexes. Although UTX is frequently mutated in various types of cancer and is thought to play a crucial role as a tumor suppressor, the importance of UTX interaction with MLL3/4 complexes in cancer formation is poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the ability of cancer-derived UTX mutant proteins to interact with ASH2L, which is a common core component of all the MLL complexes, and MLL3/4-specific components PTIP and PA1, and found that several single-amino acid substitution mutations in the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) affect UTX interaction with these components. Interaction-compromised mutants G137V and D336G and a TPR-deleted mutant Δ80-397 were preferentially localized to the cytoplasm, suggesting that UTX is retained in the nucleus by MLL3/4 complexes through their interaction with the TPR. Intriguingly, WT UTX suppressed colony formation in soft agar, whereas G137V failed. This suggests that interaction of UTX with MLL3/4 complex plays a crucial role in their tumor suppressor function. Preferential cytoplasmic localization was also observed for endogenous proteins of G137V and another mutant G137VΔ138 in HCT116 created by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Interestingly, expression levels of these mutants were low and MG312 stabilized both endogenous as well as exogenous G137V proteins. These results reveal a novel mechanism of UTX regulation and reinforce the importance of UTX interaction with MLL3/4 complexes in cancer formation.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092099

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that colorectal serrated lesions, which include sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), are precursors of colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis, particularly in TSAs, remain largely uncharacterized. To clarify their molecular and clinicopathological characteristics, we performed mutation and methylation analyses of cancer-associated genes in 78 serrated lesions, including TSAs, SSAs and microvesicular hyperplastic polyps. Target exon sequence analysis was performed with 39 genes, including genes known to be frequently mutated in colorectal cancers and/or serrated lesions. We also used bisulfite pyrosequencing to assess the methylation status of various cancer-associated genes and marker genes of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). The prevalence of mutations in genes associated with Wnt signaling was significantly higher in TSAs than SSAs (65% vs. 28%, p < 0.01). Among those, RNF43 mutations were observed in 38% of TSAs and 17% of SSAs. In immunohistochemical studies of 39 serrated lesions, the prevalence of abnormal nuclear ß-catenin accumulation was significantly higher in TSAs (57%) than SSAs (8%) (P = 0.01). SMOC1 methylation was detected in 54% of TSAs but in no SSAs (p < 0.01). Additionally, SMOC1 methylation was more prevalent among TSAs with KRAS mutation (82%) than with BRAF mutation (38%, p = 0.03). Lesions with CIMP-high or RNF43 mutations were detected only in TSAs with BRAF mutation, suggesting two distinct carcinogenic pathways in TSAs. Mutations in genes associated with Wnt signaling play a greater role in the carcinogenesis of TSAs than SSAs.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2068-2077, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927958

RESUMO

A credit value of virus inactivation has been assigned to the disinfection step in international and domestic guidelines for wastewater reclamation and reuse. To fulfill the credit value for water disinfection, water engineers need to apply an appropriate disinfection strength, expressed as a CT value (mg × min/L), which is a product of disinfectant concentration and contact time, against enteric viruses in wastewater. In the present study, we extracted published experimental data on enteric virus inactivation using free chlorine and monochloramine and applied the Tobit analysis and simple linear regression analysis to calculate the range of CT values (mg × min/L) needed for 4-log10 inactivation. Data were selected from peer-reviewed papers containing kinetics data of virus infectivity and chlorine residual in water. Coxsackie B virus and echovirus require higher CT values (lower susceptibility) for 4-log10 inactivation than adenovirus and a human norovirus surrogate (murine norovirus) with free chlorine. On the other hand, adenovirus has lower susceptibility to monochloramine compared to murine norovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus. The factors that influence the required CT value are virus type, pH, water temperature, and water matrix. This systematic review demonstrates that enteroviruses and adenovirus are appropriate representative enteric viruses to evaluate water disinfection using free chlorine and monochloramine, respectively.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Enterovirus , Vírus , Animais , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Humanos , Camundongos , Água
17.
Cancer Sci ; 111(4): 1165-1179, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994822

RESUMO

Luteolin is a natural flavonoid with strong anti-oxidative properties that is reported to have an anti-cancer effect in several malignancies other than bladder cancer. In this study, we describe the effect of luteolin on a human bladder cancer cell line, T24, in the context of the regulation of p21, thioredoxin-1 (TRX1) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Luteolin inhibited cell survival and induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest, p21 upregulation and downregulation of phospho(p)-S6, which is downstream of mTOR signaling. Luteolin also upregulated TRX1 and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production. In a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model using the rat bladder cancer cell line, BC31, tumor volumes were significantly decreased in mice orally administered luteolin compared to control. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that increased p21 and decreased p-S6 expression were induced in the luteolin treatment group. Moreover, in another in vivo N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced rat bladder cancer model, the oral administration of luteolin led to a trend of decreased bladder tumor dimension and significantly decreased the Ki67-labeling index and p-S6 expression. Furthermore, the major findings on the metabolism of luteolin suggest that both plasma and urine luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide concentrations are strongly associated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and mTOR signaling. Moreover, a significant decrease in the squamous differentiation of bladder cancer is attributed to plasma luteolin-3'-glucuronide concentration. In conclusion, luteolin, and in particular its metabolized product, may represent another natural product-derived therapeutic agent that acts against bladder cancer by upregulating p21 and inhibiting mTOR signaling.


Assuntos
Luteolina/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Butilidroxibutilnitrosamina/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Luteolina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 25, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many types of therapies for cancer. In these days, immunotherapies, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors, are focused on. Though many types of immune checkpoint inhibitors are there, the difference of effect and its mechanism are unclear. Some reports suggest the response rate of anti-PD-1 antibody is superior to that of anti-PD-L1 antibody and could potentially produce different mechanisms of action. On the other hand, Treg also express PD-1; however, their relationship remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we used osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro and osteosarcoma mouse model in vivo. In vitro, we analyzed the effect of IFNγ for expression of PD-L1 on the surface of cell lines by flowcytometry. In vivo, murine osteosarcoma cell line LM8 was subcutaneously transplanted into the dorsum of mice. Mouse anti-PD-1 antibody was intraperitoneally administered. we analysed the effect for survival of anti-PD-1 antibody and proportion of T cells in the tumour by flowcytometry. RESULTS: We discovered that IFNγ increased PD-L1 expression on the surface of osteosarcoma cell lines. In assessing the relationship between anti-PD-1 antibody and Treg, we discovered the administration of anti-PD-1 antibody suppresses increases in tumour volume and prolongs overall survival time. In the tumour microenvironment, we found that the administration of anti-PD-1 antibody decreased Treg within the tumour and increased tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Here we clarify for the first time an additional mechanism of anti-tumour effect-as exerted by anti-PD-1 antibody decreasing Treg- we anticipate that our findings will lead to the development of new methods for cancer treatment.

19.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 38(3): 357-362, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fragility fractures can cause delayed wound healing after tooth extraction, which contributes to an increased risk of osteomyelitis of the jaw. We evaluated whether a history of fragility fracture was associated with increased risk of delayed wound healing after tooth extraction in older adults in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 5352 people aged 50-89 years in the 2014 basic resident registry of the town of Obuse, the present study included 376 subjects (190 men and 186 women) who completed a structured questionnaire and measurement of the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the bilateral femoral neck. Delayed wound healing after tooth extraction was self-reported. Fragility fractures were confirmed via examination of hospital medical records. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and gender were used to evaluate association of clinical variables with delayed would healing after tooth extractions. Odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all possible associated variables for the presence of delayed wound healing were calculated. RESULTS: Subjects with a history of fragility fractures had a significantly higher risk of delayed wound healing compared with those without previous fragility fractures (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.11-6.46, p = 0.028). This association still remained after adjusted for all other variables (OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.10-6.60, p = 0.030). Delayed wound healing was not significantly associated with the BMD of the femoral neck. CONCLUSIONS: History of fragility fracture may be associated with increased risk of delayed wound healing after tooth extraction in Japanese men and women aged 50-89 years.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1158, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980701

RESUMO

We are reporting a new type of compact magneto-optic sensor constructed from terahertz-wave spintronic emitter and electro-optic detector. The corresponding terahertz polarization output of the emitter and the detection phase-sensitivity of the detector depend on the vector of the external magnetic field. The emitter/detector pair consists of two small and thin wafers sandwiched together and capped with a thin gold mirror. As a result, the use of bulky terahertz steering/collection optics was completely eliminated in our magneto-optic imager. With such simple on-chip generation/detection scheme for terahertz time-domain setup in reflection-type geometry, we were able to record the raster-scanned image contrast of a permanent magnet in the proximity of the sensor surface. The contrast strongly varies with the magnet orientation and its position with respect to the sensor. The imager spatial resolution depends on chip optical quality for tight femtosecond-laser pump/probe cross-focusing at detector/mirror interface and terahertz generation/detection efficiency. In this respect, the chip robustness to the pump/probe fluences is also an important factor to consider.

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