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1.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353324

RESUMO

BackgroundFew studies examining the impact for women of employment status on health have considered domestic duties and responsibilities as well as household socioeconomic conditions. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have explored the influence of work-family conflict on the association between employment status and health. This research aimed to investigate the cross-sectional associations between employment status (regular employee, non-regular employee, or self-employed) with self-rated health among Japanese middle-aged working women.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from 21,450 working women aged 40-59 years enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT Study) in 2011-2016. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for poor self-rated health ('poor' or 'not very good') by employment status. The sub-group analyses by household income and marital status as well as mediation analysis for work-family conflict were also conducted.ResultsAdjusted ORs for the poor self-rated health of non-regular employees and self-employed workers were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83-0.98) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), respectively, compared with regular employees. The identified association of non-regular employment was explained by work-family conflict. Subgroup analysis indicated no statistically significant modifying effects by household income and marital status.ConclusionAmong middle-aged working Japanese women, employment status was associated with self-rated health; non-regular employees and self-employed workers were less likely to report poor self-rated health, compared with regular employees. Lowered OR of poor self-rated health among non-regular employees may be explained by their reduced work-family conflict.

2.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle and life-environment factors have undergone drastic changes in Japan over the last few decades. Further, many molecular epidemiologic studies have reported that genetic, epigenetic and other biomarker information may be useful in predicting individual disease risk. METHODS: Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) was launched in 2011 to identify risk factors for lifestyle-related disease, elucidate factors which extend healthy life expectancy, and contribute toward personalized healthcare based on our more than 20 years' experience with the JPHC Study. Between 2011 and 2016, a baseline survey was conducted at 16 municipalities in 7 prefectures across the country. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all registered residents aged 40-74 which mainly asked about lifestyle factors, such as socio-demographic situation, personal medical history, smoking, alcohol and dietary habits. We obtained informed consent from each participant to participate in this long follow-up study of at least 20 years, including consent to the potential use of their residence registry, medical records, medical fee receipts, care insurance etc., and to the provision of biospecimens (blood and urine), including genomic analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: As of December 31, 2016, we have established a population-based cohort of 115,385 persons (Response rate 44.1%), among whom 55,278 (47.9% of participants) have provided blood and urine samples. The participation rate was slightly higher among females and in the older age group. In conclusion, we have established a large-scale population-based cohort for next-generation epidemiological study in Japan.

3.
Ocul Surf ; 17(2): 278-284, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685439

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether social support and social trust are associated with DED. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) were used. Subjects are 96,227 Japanese men and women aged 40 to 74. Data from respondents included information on DED, social support and social trust. DED was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed DED or severe symptoms. Social support was measured by emotional support and tangible support. Social trust was measured by level of general trust in others. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association of social determinants for DED. RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of social support and social trust were less likely to have severe symptoms of DED and clinically diagnosed DED (P for trend < 0.001 in both cases). Those with the highest levels of social support and social trust were least likely to have DED (odds ratios [OR] = 0.64 [0.61-0.67], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63 [0.60-0.67] for severe symptoms of DED; OR = 0.88 [0.83-0.93] and 0.85 [0.80-0.91] for clinically diagnosed DED). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support and social trust were associated with a lower prevalence of DED.

4.
Am J Hypertens ; 31(10): 1120-1126, 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although blood pressure (BP) is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, it is not fully understood how autonomic activity affects BP at home in the general population. METHODS: Subjects were enrolled from 2009 to 2012 and included 1,888 men and women aged 30-79 years. We measured casual BP in the morning during health checkups and asked participants to monitor BP at home twice in the morning and evening for 1 week. The mean of the two measurements of mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated. Five-minute recordings of the pulse wave from a fingertip sensor were used to determine the following indices of heart rate variability (HRV): standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD), high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and LF/HF. RESULTS: Sex- and age-adjusted means of casual MAP, and morning and evening MAP at home were significantly different among quartiles of SDNN, RMSSD, and HF. When further adjusted for smoking, alcohol drinking, medication for hypertension, diabetes, sleeping hours, snoring, and mental health status, the associations were somewhat attenuated. Inverse relationships were found between the means of morning home MAP, and RMSSD (P = 0.02) and HF (P = 0.051) after adjustment for confounders. The association between MAP and RMSSD, or MAP and HF was evident in individuals <65 years old. CONCLUSION: Low HF and RMSSD, which reflect impaired parasympathetic nervous system activity, were associated with increased home MAP in the morning rather than in the evening.

5.
Circ J ; 81(10): 1447-1453, 2017 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but it is not known how this association is influenced by the autonomic nervous system, which controls insulin secretion.Methods and Results:The subjects were 2,016 individuals aged 30-79 years enrolled between 2009 and 2012. MetS was determined using the harmonized MetS definition, which includes waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose. The homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Gutt's insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated based on fasting and 2 h-post-load glucose and insulin concentrations in a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. The 5-min heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated using time-domain indices of standard deviations of NN intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD). Power spectral analysis yielded frequency-domain measures for HRV: high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power and LF/HF. Multivariable adjusted logistic models showed that the highest quartiles for SDNN, RMSSD, LF, and HF vs. the lowest quartiles had a significant association with MetS. RMSSD, HF, and LF/HF remained significantly associated with MetS after adjustment for HOMA-IR (or ISI). Additive interactions between the levels of high LF/HF and high HOMA-IR (or low ISI) were significantly positive. CONCLUSIONS: Sympathovagal imbalance as evidenced by low HF and high LF/HF modified the association of insulin resistance or low insulin sensitivity with MetS.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Atherosclerosis ; 244: 79-85, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lower heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with the inflammation that is linked with the progression of atherosclerosis. We examined this association, taking insulin sensitivity into consideration, as it is related to both HRV and inflammation. METHODS: Subjects were 1728 individuals ages 30-79 years who did not smoke between 2009 and 2012. C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were assessed as markers of inflammation. The homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Gutt's insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated based on fasting and 2h-post-load glucose and insulin concentrations in a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain HRV indices of standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were calculated. Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power and LF/HF. RESULTS: Sex and age-adjusted logistic models presented quartiles of SDNN, RMSSD, LF, and HF significantly associated with the highest quartile of CRP or WBC. After adjustment for body mass index and ISI, the associations were attenuated for WBC; however, even after further adjustment for several variables, SDNN, RMSSD, LF, and HF remained significantly associated with elevated CRP concentrations. When results were stratified by weight, the associations appeared more evident among non-overweight individuals. CONCLUSION: Lowered HRV, primarily due to parasympathetic dysfunction, was associated with elevated inflammation, independent of weight, insulin sensitivity, and other related factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Inflamação/sangue , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
7.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 62(9): 537-47, 2015.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26608043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examined psychological and social activity factors related to poor self-rated health (SRH) in community-dwelling elderly people. METHODS: The general health of 7,413 elderly individuals aged 65 years and over in Toon City, Ehime Prefecture, Japan was surveyed. We followed 4,372 participants, over a five-year period, after excluding those who were aged 85 years and over, had a disability, had moved away, or had died. The data from 3,358 respondents (response rate: 76.8%) were analyzed. We divided the patients into two groups based on their SRH responses: healthy, including those who answered "excellent" or "good," and unhealthy, including those who answered "not good" or "poor." We examined changes in SRH for both groups between the first survey and the survey conducted after five years. Among the healthy subjects at the first survey, we analyzed the relationship between SRH, after five years, and psycho-social activity factors using a logistic regression analysis. These factors included physical and social competence, life satisfaction, and tendency towards dementia and/or depression. RESULTS: SRH of both men and women significantly declined over five years. The percentage of men and women, who maintained SRH as healthy, after the 5-year follow-up period, was approximately 60% in those aged 65-74 years and 40% in those aged 75-84 years. In those aged 65-74 years, the odds ratio (OR) for a SRH of unhealthy (after five years), associated with Life Satisfaction Index-K (LSI-K) scores (at the first survey), was significantly lower at 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.93) for men and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.87) for women. The OR of tendency toward depression was significantly higher at 1.68 (95% CI: 1.11-2.56) for women only. In those aged 75-84 years, the OR for a SRH of unhealthy (after five years), associated with LSI-K scores (at the first survey), was significantly lower at 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77-1.00) for men and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99) for women. The OR for higher Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology scores was significantly lower at 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70-0.91) for men and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80-0.97) for women. CONCLUSION: This study shows that it is necessary to increase life satisfaction for preventing a decline in SRH in community-dwelling elderly. It also shows that preventing depression in elderly women under the age of 75 years and maintaining physical and social competence in both elderly men and women aged 75-84 years are important for maintaining the SRH status.


Assuntos
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais/psicologia , Idoso/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Autoimagem , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal
8.
J Epidemiol ; 25(9): 583-91, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26277879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. METHODS: Between 2009-2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30-79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Gutt's insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD). Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and the LF:HF ratio. RESULTS: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41-3.10). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Japão , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
9.
Hypertens Res ; 37(8): 779-84, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24646646

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with blood pressure levels; however, very few studies have correlated HRV to lifestyle in the general population. We investigated 1418 men and 2040 women aged 40-74 years and measured the HRV indices in the time and frequency domains using a 5-min R-R interval recording. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to estimate the association between HRV and blood pressure levels after adjustment for major confounders. HRV indices were not associated with systolic blood pressure levels in men, whereas in women, one-s.d. (1-s.d.) increment of s.d. of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) was associated with a 1.21-mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure after adjusting for several confounders (P<0.05). In addition, a 1-s.d. increment of SDNN corresponded with 1.00 and 1.10 mm Hg reductions in diastolic blood pressure in men and women, respectively (P<0.05). When stratified by the use or nonuse of antihypertensive medication, these inverse associations were more evident in the nonuser group. Furthermore, among men not using antihypertensive medication, reduced HRV was associated with increased systolic blood pressure levels in nondrinkers. The data suggest that HRV reflects diastolic blood pressure better than systolic blood pressure levels for both sexes and that alcohol intake strongly affects systolic blood pressure levels in men, which may have weakened the association with HRV.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
10.
J Rural Med ; 9(2): 51-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25648986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the total energy intake of Japanese people has decreased, the percentage of obese people has increased. This suggests that the timing of meals is related to obesity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the timing of meals and obesity, based on analyses of physical measurements, serum biochemical markers, nutrient intake, and lifestyle factors in the context of Chrononutrition. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data derived from 766 residents of Toon City (286 males and 480 females) aged 30 to 79 years who underwent detailed medical examinations between 2011 and 2013. These medical examinations included. (1) physical measurements (waist circumference, blood pressure, etc.); (2) serum biochemical markers (total cholesterol, etc.); (3) a detailed questionnaire concerning lifestyle factors such as family structure and daily habits (22 issues), exercise and eating habits (28 issues), alcohol intake and smoking habits; (4) a food frequency questionnaire based on food groups (FFQg); and (5) a questionnaire concerning the times at which meals and snacks are consumed. RESULTS: The values for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were higher for participants who ate dinner less than three hours before bedtime (<3-h group) than those who ate more than three hours before bedtime (>3-h group). The Chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference in eating habits, e.g., eating snacks, eating snacks at night, having dinner after 8 p.m., and having dinner after 9 p.m., between the <3-h group and the >3-h group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that skipping breakfast significantly influenced both waist circumference (ß = 5.271) and BMI (ß = 1.440) and that eating dinner <3-h before going to bed only influenced BMI (ß = 0.581). CONCLUSION: Skipping breakfast had a greater influence on both waist circumference and BMI than eating dinner <3-h before going to bed.

11.
Atherosclerosis ; 229(1): 222-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23676254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of adiponectin levels with cardiovascular disease (CVD) may vary by age and health condition. It is unknown whether adiponectin predicts CVD events among individuals with high blood glucose levels. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among 15,566 men and women aged 40-85 years from four communities, who were free of CVD at baseline. During 192,181 person-years of follow-up, 117 individuals subsequently developed coronary heart disease or ischemic stroke and had high plasma glucose concentrations (fasting/nonfasting ≥ 5.6/7.2 mmol/L or treated) at baseline. Controls were randomly selected at a 2:1 ratio and matched for sex, age, blood glucose, year of survey, fasting conditions, and community (n = 234). Baseline total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and their ratio were examined for total subjects and the association with CVD was compared between ages of 40-69 and 70-85 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for matched variables and traditional risk factors, total and HMW adiponectin and their ratio were not associated with overall risk of CVD. However, significant interactions of the associations between the age groups were found. The highest quartile for HMW adiponectin and HMW/total adiponectin ratio decreased risk of CVD compared with the lowest quartile among middle-aged individuals (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.33 [95%CI, 0.13-0.83] and 0.47 [0.22-0.98], respectively), while this association was not seen among the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: High HMW adiponectin levels may decrease the risk of CVD in middle-aged adults with high blood glucose.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Adiponectina/química , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peso Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Rural Med ; 8(2): 198-204, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25648866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate regional differences in the standard mortality ratio (SMR) and risk factors (including dietary habits) for stroke across the three regions of Ehime Prefecture - Toyo (east), Chuyo (central), and Nanyo (south). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We obtained medical records derived from 956,979 medical examinations carried out at JA Ehime Kouseiren Medical Examination Centers between April 1994 and March 2006. We analyzed data from 132,090 subjects (Toyo - 47,654, Chuyo - 38,435, Nanyo - 46,001) who underwent their first medical examination during this period. To analyze differences between the three regions, we first calculated the SMR for stroke based on data from the Basic Residential Registers and Health Statistics Bureau. Secondly, we calculated significant differences in body mass index, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), and total cholesterol (T-CHO). Thirdly, we used the Chi-square test to calculate significant differences in the percentage of subjects who consumed the following foods on a daily basis: rice, bread, eggs, fish, meat, vegetables, dairy products, and fruit juice. RESULTS: Despite the fact that regional differences in the SMR for stroke have been decreasing, in both men and women in Nanyo, the mean values for SBP and DBP were significantly higher and the mean value for T-CHO was significantly lower than in Toyo and Chuyo. In Nanyo, the percentage of subjects who consumed rice and fish (men and women), meat (men), and juice (women) on a daily basis was higher than in Toyo and Chuyo. CONCLUSION: In Nanyo, higher SMR for stroke may be related to high SBP and DBP and low T-CHO. As background to these results, it is also thought that regional differences in dietary habits may have an influence.

13.
J Rural Med ; 8(1): 161-70, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25649461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this study was to classify men aged 40-74 yrs with metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to daily rice intake, and the second was to investigate physical measurements, physiological examinations, blood biochemical assays, intake of food other than rice and lifestyle and environmental factors in the study group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6095 men aged 40-74 yrs who had undergone full medical examinations. The men were classified into 3 age groups: (1) 40-49 yrs, (2) 50-59 yrs, and (3) 60-74 yrs. The men were classified further into 3 groups according to daily rice intake: group 1 (≤300 g), group 2 (300-450 g), and group 3 (≥450 g). The relationship between daily rice intake and the following factors was analyzed in the three age brackets: (1) physical measurements including waist circumference, (2) physiological measurements, (3) serum biochemical indices, (4) whether or not the person was taking medication for hypertension, diabetes mellitus or serum lipid abnormalities, (5) lifestyle, and (6) consumption of foods other than rice. RESULTS: Daily rice intake was related strongly to the occurrence of MetS in all three age brackets. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed (1) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.461 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 40-49 yrs and (2) a significant increase in the odds ratio for MetS (1.501 times) for group 3 compared with group 1 in men aged 50-59 yrs. However, there was no significant difference in the odds ratio for MetS among rice intake groups in the 60-74 age bracket. CONCLUSION: In men aged 40-59 yrs, daily rice intake strongly influenced the incidence of MetS, whereas in men aged 60-74 yrs, there was no relationship between daily rice intake and MetS.

14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 18(4): 313-22, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23224725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the osteo-sono assessment index (OSI) in junior high school students (boys, girls who had reached menarche, and girls who had not). METHODS: A total of 9,743 students (4,974 boys and 4,769 girls) in Ehime Prefecture participated in this study. We measured body mass index (BMI) and calcaneal bone mass using OSI. In parallel, participants answered a questionnaire relating to age, sex, menarche, exercise habits, milk intake, and history of bone fractures during the preceding year. To determine the factors influencing OSI, we calculated an individual standardized partial regression coefficient (ß) using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. RESULTS: For boys, MLR showed that BMI (ß = 0.300), age (ß = 0.260), current exercise habits (ß = 0.106), and milk intake per day in primary school (ß = 0.085) statistically significantly influenced OSI. For girls who had reached menarche, BMI (ß = 0.302), current exercise habits (ß = 0.237), age (ß = 0.140), and bone fracture during the preceding year (ß = 0.036) influenced OSI. For girls who had not reached menarche, current exercise habits (ß = 0.242), BMI (ß = 0.135), and age (ß = 0.085) influenced OSI. CONCLUSIONS: There were differences between the factors related to OSI among boys, girls who had reached menarche, and girls who had not. BMI, exercise habits, and age were the common factors related to OSI. Particularly for girls, exercise habits had a great influence on OSI.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calcâneo/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Menarca , Leite/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 51(8): 2161-7, 2003 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12670150

RESUMO

On the basis of our recent findings that the germination of intact wheat grains with glumes (husks) belonging to dormant varieties was restrained as compared with that of dehusked grains, we have explored the identities of germination inhibitors in the glumes, resulting in the characterization of dihydroactinidiolide (1) and some aromatic compounds. A related natural product, tetrahydroactinidiolide (2), showed similar activity. The present study has demonstrated that the sensitivity in inhibition response of germination of the grains to 1 and 2 declined during after-ripening, in parallel with changes in germinability; the sprouting of after-ripened seeds on a whole spike was preventable by exogenous application of 2 in laboratory conditions, and germination of after-ripened grains was delayed by more than two weeks by the action of 1 or 2. The term "pseudodormancy" is proposed for the phenomenon of delay of germination caused by the inhibitor. After accumulation of additional evidence on inhibition response of actinidiolide-type natural products, structurally related to inhibitor 1, a mechanism concerning germination inhibition by 1 or 2 is proposed on the basis of the concept of nonbonding interaction with the inhibitors at an active site of an acceptor.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/química
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 50(22): 6307-12, 2002 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12381108

RESUMO

On the basis of our findings that the germination of intact wheat seeds (with husks) belonging to dormancy varieties was restrained as compared with that of the dehusked seeds (grains), the germination inhibitors in the husks were explored. The water-soluble extracts from the husks were separated by the aid of inhibition assay experiments, resulting in the characterization of 2-phenylethyl alcohol 1, 4-vinylphenol 2 and its 2-methoxy derivative 3, and dihydroactinidiolide 4, all of which showed clear inhibition of germination at 500 ppm in aqueous solution. The related compounds 1-phenylethyl alcohol 5 and tetrahydroactinidiolide 6 were as active as 1 and 4, while no noticeable difference in activity was detected among both enantiomers and the DL-form of compounds 4-6. Clear synergistic relations were observed between 4 and 1 and also 4 and 3. Since the present inhibitors have been isolated from various kinds of seed plants, they may be responsible for the general germination inhibition in the seed plants.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Crescimento/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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