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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 342, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the impact of dietary compositions and patterns on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) morbidity in Japanese men. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 281 individuals who underwent comprehensive medical examinations during health screening. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and factor analysis was performed to detect dietary patterns. NAFLD was diagnosed by the presence of fatty liver on abdominal ultrasonography in nondrinkers (< 30 g/day), and patients were categorized into control (n = 192) and NAFLD groups (n = 89). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the NAFLD group consumed fewer mushrooms. Three dietary patterns were identified, namely, a healthy pattern, a western pattern, and a snack pattern. The score of healthy pattern was negatively correlated with the risk of NAFLD. Compared with the lowest tertile of the healthy pattern, the middle tertile was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD after adjusting for age, physical activity, and smoking (odds ratio: 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.91). After further adjustments for body mass index, the middle tertile was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: A healthy dietary pattern comprising frequent intake of seaweeds, vegetables, mushrooms, pulses, and potatoes and starches was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD in Japanese men. In our opinion, this healthy pattern closely resembles the Japanese Washoku diet, indicating that adherence to Washoku may help prevent NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 236: 113797, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218098

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) are the most important globally available class of chemical insecticides since the introduction of synthetic pyrethroids. The adverse effects of NEOs for early development have been reported via in vivo and epidemiological studies. Therefore, prenatal NEOs exposure is highly concerning. This study aimed to determine the level of NEOs exposure during daily life among pregnant women in Japan, as well as the sources of exposure. Spot urine samples were collected during the first, second, and third trimesters from 109 pregnant women who delivered their infants at obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Kumamoto city, Japan, between 2014 and 2016. Additional data were obtained from medical records and self-administered questionnaires. thiamethoxam and clothianidin (CLO) were detected in most participants (83.4% and 80.9%, respectively), and at higher concentrations than those in other areas of Japan. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a statistical significant association of pulses in CLO (1.01 [1.00-1.02]). In conclusion, pregnant women in Japan appear to be exposed to NEOs in their daily lives, and pulses intake may be a source of NEOs exposure. These findings may further the assessment of human NEOs exposure risk.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776430

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to reveal the association between airflow limitation (AL) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to smoking status in Japan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2809 subjects, who underwent a comprehensive health examination with pulmonary function tests and carotid ultrasonographic measurement. AL was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity of <0.7. The subjects were divided into the following four groups: never smokers without AL, never smokers with AL, former/current smokers without AL, and former/current smokers with AL. Mean IMT, the maximum measurable IMT value in the left and right common carotid arteries (IMT-C max), and mean IMT-C max were measured by carotid ultrasonography. The carotid wall thickness as defined as follows: IMT ≥ 1.1 mm (IMT1.1), IMT-C max ≥ 1.2 mm (IMTc1.2), and IMT-C max > 1.5 mm (IMTc1.5), based on each measured region. The association between AL and the carotid wall thickness according to smoking status was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean carotid IMT and mean IMT-C max were significantly higher in never smokers with AL and former/current smokers with or without AL than in never smokers without AL. In logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, physical activity, and alcohol consumption, the risk of carotid wall thickness (IMT1.1 [odds ratio {OR}: 1.55; 95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.07-2.24]; IMTc1.2 [OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.03-2.24]; IMTc1.5 [OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.15-3.46]) were significantly higher in former/current smokers with AL than in never smokers without AL. Conclusion: The present results suggest that greater IMT and risk of carotid wall thickness were associated with AL and smoking experience.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Ultrassonografia
6.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 65(3): 331-337, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598802

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between uncorrected visual acuity and non-cycloplegic refractive value among 3-year-old children in a vision screening program in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The participants were 1746 Japanese children screened from April 2009 to July 2018, and ranged in age from 36 to 47 months. Visual acuity and handheld refractive values were collected from the clinical records of 3-year-old children in a vision screening program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between 0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and > 0.3 logMAR. Correlation analysis was also performed for the presence of myopic shift. RESULTS: Among the 1746 children (aged [mean ± standard deviation], 37.6 ± 1.6 months; percentage of boys, 50.4%), representing 3492 eyes, 116 eyes (3.3%) had > 0.3 logMAR. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for 1.75-2.00 diopter (D) spherical power (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-5.64; P = 0.026) and 1.25-1.50 D cylindrical power (OR, 5.66; 95% CI 1.58-20.40; P < 0.01) were increased in eyes with > 0.3 logMAR. There was no myopic shift for 10 years (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: It is important to set a threshold that comprises the characteristics of the autorefractor used in screening, and to ensure that, to help prevent amblyopia a thorough eye examination in ophthalmic institutions will be conducted taking into account population-based refractive values.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Erros de Refração , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais
7.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148926

RESUMO

Immunity, which denotes the protection of multicellular organisms against various bacterial and viral infections, is an essential protective mechanism for living organisms. Allergy is a reaction to a foreign substance existing in the environment that is basically not a component of the self. Additionally, autoimmune diseases are associated with the dysfunction in the recognition of self and non-self, and are pathological conditions caused by immune cells attacking their own tissues and cells. In this paper, we outline the current status of immunity with respect to the environment from the epidemiological perspective with regard to the following: (1) evolution and immunity, (2) allergy, (3) autoantibodies, (4) autoimmune diseases, (5) relationships of immunity with the environment, allergy, autoantibodies, and autoimmune diseases, and (6) celiac disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Evolução Biológica , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(7): e348-e354, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted an analysis using the Quick Environmental Exposure Sensitivity Inventory to examine the correlation between multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and personality traits by using temperament and character inventory, and environmental exposures. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 667 employees working at an IT manufacturing plant in Japan. Variables including chemically sensitive population (CSP), personality, and environmental chemical exposure were individually evaluated using U-test, chi-squared test, and correlation analyses. We also did covariance structure analysis to build a structural equation model. RESULTS: There was little direct impact of temperament on the CSP, while there was a significant impact of character on the CSP. Women were more likely to exhibit symptoms of CSP. CONCLUSION: MCS is correlated with personality, impacted more by character acquired later in life than innate temperament. There were sex differences in the incidence of MCS.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/etiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Personalidade , Adulto , Caráter , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
J Anesth ; 34(5): 712-718, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577911

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the association between smoking and perioperative complications of laparoscopic abdominal surgery and whether these complications were reduced with ≥ 4 weeks of preoperative smoking cessation. METHODS: A total of 555 patients who underwent gastric and colorectal cancer surgeries under general anesthesia were divided into the following groups retrospectively: 290 individuals without smoking history (NS group), 144 previous smokers (stopped smoking more than 8 weeks before surgery, PS group), and 121 current smokers (CS group) divided to two groups according to preoperative smoking cessation for < 4 (CS1, n = 76) and 4-8 weeks (CS2, n = 45). RESULTS: When compared with the NS group, postoperative hospitalization duration was significantly longer in the CS1 group (p < 0.01), whereas differences between the CS2 or PS groups and NS group were not significant. The total number of postoperative complications was higher in all groups of smoking than in NS group, independent on preoperative smoking cessation; however, suture failure was significantly more frequent only in CS1 group. Although pack-years did not significantly affect complication rates in smokers, duration of smoking cessation time in PS group was a negative predictor of postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Providing more than 4 weeks of smoking cessation before gastrointestinal surgery can reduce the duration of hospitalization and rate of suture failure.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
10.
Cytokine ; 130: 155051, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151964

RESUMO

This study aimed to reveal a new dimension of allergy profiles in the general population by using machine learning to explore complex relationships among various cytokines/chemokines and allergic diseases (asthma and atopic dermatitis; AD). We examined the symptoms related to asthma and AD and the plasma levels of 72 cytokines/chemokines obtained from a general population of 161 children at 6 years of age who participated in a pilot birth cohort study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). The children whose signs and symptoms fulfilled the criteria of AD, which are mostly based on questionnaire including past symptoms, tended to have higher levels of the two chemokine ligands, CCL17 and CCL27, which are used for diagnosis of AD. On the other hand, another AD-related chemokine CCL22 level in plasma was higher only in children with visible flexural eczema, which is one of AD diagnostic criteria but was judged on the same day of blood examination unlike other criteria. Here, we also developed an innovative method of machine learning for elucidating the complex cytokine/chemokine milieu related to symptoms of allergic diseases by using clustering analysis based on the random forest dissimilarity measure that relies on artificial intelligence (AI) technique. To our surprise, the majority of children showing at least any asthma-related symptoms during the last month were divided by AI into the two clusters, either cluster-2 having elevated levels of IL-33 (related to eosinophil activation) or cluster-3 having elevated levels of CXCL7/NAP2 (related to neutrophil activation), among the total three clusters. Future studies will clarify better approach for allergic diseases by endotype classification.

11.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875631

RESUMO

The term behavioral science was coined in 1946 by a research group at the University of Chicago led by Miller. It is defined as "science that systematically reveals the rules of human behavior". To elucidate human behavior, they proposed combining biological science and social science. In Japan, achievements in behavioral science research have accumulated and have been applied in health education and health policy. In this paper, we describe the current status and future approaches in social medicine through an overview of behavioral science research in Japan with regard to the following five points: 1) representative theories and techniques in health behavior, 2) differences in health awareness, 3) a new approach of behavioral science based on the dual process theory, behavioral economics, and zero-order prevention, 4) diversity in behavioral changes and 5) experimental research in behavioral science.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Ciências do Comportamento/tendências , Medicina Social/tendências , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Economia Comportamental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Japão
12.
Am J Med Sci ; 357(6): 492-506, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 promotes formation of endothelial microparticles with procoagulant activity. However, it remains unclear whether di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, influences microparticle formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on release of tissue factor-bearing microparticles was investigated using human M1 macrophages. RESULTS: Exposure of M1 macrophages to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate significantly upregulated expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, whereas incubation of macrophages with small interfering RNA for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α attenuated it. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate significantly increased the tissue factor protein level in culture supernatants of M1 macrophages, but not M2 macrophages. After purification of proteins by centrifugal filtration, western blotting detected 2 high molecular weight bands of tissue factor-bearing microparticles in culture supernatants of M1 macrophages. The upper band showed binding to factor VIIa and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, unlike the lower band. This suggested heterogeneity of the procoagulant activity of tissue factor-bearing microparticles, presumably dependent upon encryption/decryption of tissue factor. Phosphatidylserine contributes to tissue factor decryption, and western blotting revealed that the density of phosphatidylserine was reduced in the upper tissue factor band compared with the lower band. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate also upregulated transforming growth factor-ß1 protein production by M1 macrophages. Moreover, silencing of Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 attenuated plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression and tissue factor-release from macrophages after di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes formation of tissue factor-bearing microparticles in human M1 macrophages via the transforming growth factor-ß1/Smad/ plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
14.
J Occup Health ; 60(4): 333-335, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984740
15.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 23(1): 30, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973138

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported a correction in the units in the methods section under "Subjects".

16.
BMC Womens Health ; 18(1): 86, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, although the number of females who continue to work after marriage has recently increased, the proportion of those working while parenting their infants is still not clearly increasing, indicating that it is still difficult for them to continue working after delivery. The present study aimed to clarify factors influencing females' continuation of work, using data obtained by continuously following up the same subjects and focusing on occupation changes, family environments, and the type of employment after pregnancy or delivery. METHODS: Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, which was conducted involving 164 participants at 4 universities, as part of the Japan Environment and Children's Pilot Study (JECS Pilot Study) led by the Ministry of Environment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, the occupational status was compared between the detection of pregnancy (weeks 0 to 7) and 1 year after delivery. RESULTS: compared with changed their occupations significantly more frequently (OR = 5.07, 95% CI = 2.57-10.01, P < 0.001). Furthermore, on examining in detail, occupation changes were particularly marked among (OR = 12.48, 95% CI = 4.43-35.15, P < 0.001). This tendency was especially shown among < > (OR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.59-67.38, P = 0.014) and < > (OR = 15.15, 95% CI = 2.55-90.17, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis revealed that the type of employment, rather than the category of occupation, was associated with the continuation of work after pregnancy or delivery more closely, as compared with continued to work less frequently. Furthermore, on comparison of the category of occupation among , < > and < > were shown to be more likely to continue to be engaged in the same occupation after pregnancy or delivery. These differences may be related to availability of the child-care leave program and other support resources, therefore, it may be important to establish social systems that enable all females, to use these support resources if they wish, and actively work, while delivering and parenting their children.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Cuidado da Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Familiar , Parto , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 73(1): 1-8, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386440

RESUMO

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), also known as idiopathic environmental intolerance, has been described as a chronic acquired disorder characterized by nonspecific symptoms in multiple organ systems and is associated with exposure to low-level chemicals. The name was established by Cullen, in 1987, although the name and diagnostic criteria are still under debate even now. A number of hypotheses concering the etiology and pathogenesis of MCS have been proposed, including impairmens of neurological, immunological and psychological systems. However, research on the possible mechanisms underlying MCS is far from complete. The name and diagnostic criteria of its history as well as theoretical and experimental mechanisms underlying MCS are reviewed here.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/história , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479338

RESUMO

Environmental chemicals are known to disrupt the endocrine system in humans and to have adverse effects on several organs including the developing brain. Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental chemicals during gestation can interfere with neuronal differentiation, subsequently affecting normal brain development in newborns. Xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used in plastic products, is one such chemical. Adverse effects of exposure to BPA during pre- and postnatal periods include the disruption of brain function. However, the effect of BPA on neural differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of BPA or bisphenol F (BPF), an alternative compound for BPA, on neural differentiation using ReNcell, a human fetus-derived neural progenitor cell line. Maintenance in growth factor-free medium initiated the differentiation of ReNcell to neuronal cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We exposed the cells to BPA or BPF for 3 days from the period of initiation and performed real-time PCR for neural markers such as ß III-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Olig2. The ß III-tubulin mRNA level decreased in response to BPA, but not BPF, exposure. We also observed that the number of ß III-tubulin-positive cells in the BPA-exposed group was less than that of the control group. On the other hand, there were no changes in the MAP2 mRNA level. These results indicate that BPA disrupts neural differentiation in human-derived neural progenitor cells, potentially disrupting brain development.

19.
Nurs Open ; 5(1): 15-20, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344390

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to clarify how stress among psychiatric assistant nurses (PANs) differed from Registered Nurses (PRNs). Design: Cross-sectional survey study was conducted with PRNs and PANs working in six psychiatric hospitals in Japan. Methods: The Psychiatric Nurse Job Stressor Scale (PNJSS) and the job stressor and stress reaction subscales of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire measured stress in 68 PANs and 140 PRNs. The results were statistically analysed. Results: Psychiatric assistant nurses had significantly higher scores than PRNs on the job stressor subscales in psychiatric nursing ability, interpersonal relations and in the stress reaction subscales of irritability and somatic symptoms. "Psychiatric nursing ability," "Communication" and "Use of techniques" were associated with almost all stress reactions in PANs than in PRNs.

20.
Pediatr Int ; 60(1): 30-34, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, a resurgence in the number of infants with vitamin D deficiency has been noted. In addition to seasonal differences in exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, regional differences in dietary habits and lifestyles may affect susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency. No studies have been conducted, however, on infants in multiple regions of Japan to determine the extent of differences in vitamin D status. METHODS: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured on radioimmunoassay in 126 infants aged 2-4 years, who participated in the Pilot Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. A multiple regression model with 25OHD level as the outcome variable, and season and region as explanatory variables, was generated. RESULTS: Both region and season during which infants participated in this study significantly affected 25OHD level (P = 0.0087 and <0.0001, respectively; Wald test). Reflecting decreased exposure to UV rays, infants who were examined in winter had lower 25OHD than those examined in summer. Infants from both Fukuoka Prefecture (33°N) and Kumamoto Prefecture (32°N), however, had lower 25OHD than those from Tochigi Prefecture (36°N), contrary to expectations given the extent of UV exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Regional differences in daily habits and/or environmental factors affect 25OHD level in Japanese infants. The JECS is expected to identify those factors to provide guidance on preventing infantile vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
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