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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(30): eaba1195, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743070

RESUMO

Immotile cilia sense extracellular signals such as fluid flow, but whether Ca2+ plays a role in flow sensing has been unclear. Here, we examined the role of ciliary Ca2+ in the flow sensing that initiates the breaking of left-right (L-R) symmetry in the mouse embryo. Intraciliary and cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients were detected in the crown cells at the node. These Ca2+ transients showed L-R asymmetry, which was lost in the absence of fluid flow or the PKD2 channel. Further characterization allowed classification of the Ca2+ transients into two types: cilium-derived, L-R-asymmetric transients (type 1) and cilium-independent transients without an L-R bias (type 2). Type 1 intraciliary transients occurred preferentially at the left posterior region of the node, where L-R symmetry breaking takes place. Suppression of intraciliary Ca2+ transients delayed L-R symmetry breaking. Our results implicate cilium-derived Ca2+ transients in crown cells in initiation of L-R symmetry breaking in the mouse embryo.

2.
Genes Cells ; 24(11): 731-745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554018

RESUMO

Cluap1/IFT38 is a ciliary protein that belongs to the IFT-B complex and is required for ciliogenesis. In this study, we have examined the behaviors of Cluap1 protein in nonciliated and ciliated cells. In proliferating cells, Cluap1 is located at the distal appendage of the mother centriole. When cells are induced to form cilia, Cluap1 is found in a novel noncentriolar compartment, the cytoplasmic IFT spot, which mainly exists once in a cell. Other IFT-B proteins such as IFT46 and IFT88 are colocalized in this spot. The cytoplasmic IFT spot is present in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) but is absent in ciliogenesis-defective MEFs lacking Cluap1, Kif3a or Odf2. The cytoplasmic IFT spot is also found in mouse embryos but is absent in the Cluap1 mutant embryo. When MEFs are induced to form cilia, the cytoplasmic IFT spot appears at an early step of ciliogenesis but starts to disappear when ciliogenesis is mostly completed. These results suggest that IFT-B proteins such as Cluap1 accumulate in a previously undescribed cytoplasmic compartment during ciliogenesis.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Animais , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Fibroblastos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Cinesina , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15562, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348958

RESUMO

To study the properties of tracheal cilia beating under various conditions, we developed a method to monitor the movement of the ciliary tip. One end of a demembranated cilium was immobilized on the glass surface, while the other end was capped with a polystyrene bead and tracked in three dimensions. The cilium, when activated by ATP, stably repeated asymmetric beating as in vivo. The tip of a cilium in effective and recovery strokes moved in discrete trajectories that differed in height. The trajectory remained asymmetric in highly viscous solutions. Model calculation showed that cilia maintained a constant net flux during one beat cycle irrespective of the medium viscosity. When the bead attached to the end was trapped with optical tweezers, it came to display linear oscillation only in the longitudinal direction. Such a beating-mode transition may be an inherent nature of movement-restricted cilia.


Assuntos
Cílios/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Movimento , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Traqueia/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microesferas
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