Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603573

RESUMO

Introduction: following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries imposed restrictions on public gatherings, health workers were repurposed for COVID-19 response, and public demand for preventive health services declined due to fear of getting COVID-19 in health care settings. These factors led to the disruption in health service delivery, including childhood immunization, in the first months of the pandemic. Measles surveillance supported with laboratory confirmation, is implemented in the African Region as part of the strategies towards attaining measles elimination. World Health Organisation developed guidelines to assist countries to continue to safely provide essential health services including immunization and the surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases during the pandemic. Methods: we analysed the measles case-based surveillance and laboratory databases for the years 2014 to 2020, to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on measles surveillance, comparing the performance in 2020 against the preceding years. Results: the weekly reporting of suspected measles cases declined starting in April 2020. Twelve countries had more than 50% decline in both the number of reported cases as well as in the number of specimens collected in 2020, as compared to the mean for the years 2014-2018. In 2020, only 30% of the specimens from suspected measles cases arrived at the national laboratory within 3 days of collection. At Regional level, 86% of the districts reported suspected measles cases in 2020, while the non-measles febrile rash illness rate was 2.1 per 100,000 population, which was the lowest rate documented since 2014. Only 11 countries met the targets for the two principal surveillance performance indicators in 2020 as compared to an average of 21 countries in the years 2014-2019. Conclusion: the overall quality of measles surveillance has declined during the COVID pandemic in many countries. Countries should implement immediate and proactive measures to revitalise active surveillance for measles and monitor the quality of surveillance. We recommend that countries consider implementing specimen collection and testing methods that can facilitate timely confirmation of suspected measles cases in remote communities and areas with transportation challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , África/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vacinação , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S275-S284, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of vaccines, invasive bacterial diseases remain a public health concern and cause childhood morbidity and mortality. We investigated the characteristics of etiological agents causing bacterial meningitis in children <5 years in the years pre- (2010-2012) and post- (2014-2019) 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) introduction in Zambia. METHODS: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi), and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were identified by microbiological culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: During the surveillance period, a total of 3811 children were admitted with suspected meningitis, 16% (598 of 3811) of which were probable cases. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed in 37% (221 of 598) of the probable cases. Spn pneumoniae, Hi, and Nm accounted for 67% (148 of 221), 14% (31 of 221), and 19% (42 of 221) of confirmed cases, respectively. Thirty-six percent of pneumococcal meningitis was caused by 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) serotypes, 16% 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 39% by nonvaccine serotype (NVS). There was an association between the introduction of PCV10 vaccination and a decrease in both Spn meningitis and the proportion of PVC10 serotypes in the postvaccination period. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 47 Spn isolates revealed 34% (16 of 47) penicillin resistance. The 31 serotyped Hi accounted for 74% type b (Hib) and 10% type a (Hia). All 42 serogrouped Nm belonged to serogroup W. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decline in pneumococcal meningitis and proportion of PCV10 serotypes in the postvaccination period. However, the serotype replacement with non-PCV10 serotypes and penicillin resistance warrant continued surveillance to inform policy.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_3): S161-S173, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates the Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network to support vaccine introduction decisions and use. The network was established to strengthen surveillance and laboratory confirmation of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. METHODS: Sentinel hospitals report cases of children <5 years of age hospitalized for suspected meningitis. Laboratories report confirmatory testing results and strain characterization tested by polymerase chain reaction. In 2019, the network included 123 laboratories that follow validated, standardized testing and reporting strategies. RESULTS: From 2014 through 2019, >137 000 suspected meningitis cases were reported by 58 participating countries, with 44.6% (n = 61 386) reported from countries in the WHO African Region. More than half (56.6%, n = 77 873) were among children <1 year of age, and 4.0% (n = 4010) died among those with reported disease outcome. Among suspected meningitis cases, 8.6% (n = 11 798) were classified as probable bacterial meningitis. One of 3 bacterial pathogens was identified in 30.3% (n = 3576) of these cases, namely S. pneumoniae (n = 2177 [60.9%]), H. influenzae (n = 633 [17.7%]), and N. meningitidis (n = 766 [21.4%]). Among confirmed bacterial meningitis cases with outcome reported, 11.0% died; case fatality ratio varied by pathogen (S. pneumoniae, 12.2%; H. influenzae, 6.1%; N. meningitidis, 11.0%). Among the 277 children who died with confirmed bacterial meningitis, 189 (68.2%) had confirmed S. pneumoniae. The proportion of pneumococcal cases with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) serotypes decreased as the number of countries implementing PCV increased, from 77.8% (n = 273) to 47.5% (n = 248). Of 397 H. influenzae specimens serotyped, 49.1% (n = 195) were type b. Predominant N. meningitidis serogroups varied by region. CONCLUSIONS: This multitier, global surveillance network has supported countries in detecting and serotyping the 3 principal invasive bacterial pathogens that cause pediatric meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common bacterial pathogen detected globally despite the growing number of countries that have nationally introduced PCV. The large proportions of deaths due to S. pneumoniae reflect the high proportion of meningitis cases caused by this pathogen. This global network demonstrated a strong correlation between PCV introduction status and reduction in the proportion of pneumococcal meningitis infections caused by vaccine serotypes. Maintaining case-based, active surveillance with laboratory confirmation for prioritized vaccine-preventable diseases remains a critical component of the global agenda in public health.The World Health Organization (WHO)-coordinated Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease (IB-VPD) Surveillance Network reported data from 2014 to 2019, contributing to the estimates of the disease burden and serotypes of pediatric meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

4.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1105, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997861

RESUMO

The polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) is one of the most important public health interventions in Africa. Quality data is necessary to monitor activities and key performance indicators and access year by year progress made. This process has been possible with a solid polio health information system that has been consolidated over the years. This study describes the whole process to have data for decision making. The main components are the data flow, the role of the different levels, data capture and tools, standards and codes, the data cleaning process, the integration of data from various sources, the introduction of innovative technologies, feedback and information products and capacity building. The results show the improvement in the timeliness of reporting data to the next level, the availability of quality data for analysis to monitor key surveillance performance indicators, the output of the data cleaning exercise pointing out data quality gaps, the integration of data from various sources to produce meaningful outputs and feedback for information dissemination. From the review of the process, it is observed an improvement in the quality of polio data resulting from a well-defined information system with standardized tools and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the introduction of innovative technologies. However, there is room for improvement; for example, multiple data entries from the field to the surveillance unit and the laboratory. Innovative technologies are implemented for the time being in areas hard to reach due to the high cost of the investment. A strong information system has been put in place from the community level to the global level with a link between surveillance, laboratory and immunization coverage data. To maintain standards in Polio Information system, there is need for continuous training of the staff on areas of surveillance, information systems, data analysis and information sharing. The use of innovative technologies on web-based system and mobile devices with validation rules and information check will avoid multiple entries.

5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373258

RESUMO

Introduction: The Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) has been operational in Eritrea since 1980. Eritrea has endorsed the resolution of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organisation African region, committing to a measles elimination goal for 2020 in the African Region. The country is implementing the recommended strategies. Methods: We reviewed administrative coverage and WHO UNICEF coverage estimates for Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT) and measles routine vaccination, as well as for measles supplemental immunization activities. We reviewed national surveillance performance and analyzed the epidemiological trends of measles as reported in the case-based surveillance database. Results: Eritrea has maintained more than 90% coverage with the first dose of measles vaccine at national level since 2001 and 88% MCV2 coverage from 2015 - 2017 according to the WHO-UNICEF coverage estimates. Since 2011, the country has not met the surveillance performance target of at least 80% districts reporting suspected measles cases with blood specimen. Measles incidence was between 16.8 - 24.7 cases per million population in the period 2015 - 2018. The mean and median age of confirmed measles cases was more than 10 years in 8 of the 14 years covered by the analysis. In 2017, Eritrea reported 1,199 cases of measles which differs significantly from the 185 suspected cases in the case based surveillance database for the same year. Eritrea has maintained high coverage for MCV1 and MCV2 and made progress towards measles elimination. However, the country has gaps in surveillance performance which may mask the true incidence of measles. Conclusion: In order to attain elimination of measles, Eritrea needs to implement measures to improve surveillance quality, to conduct regular risk assessment and implement targeted measures to close immunity gaps. In addition, setting up a national committee for the verification of measles elimination will help the country document progress and also to highlight and advocate for addressing issues related to data quality and performance gaps.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Programas de Imunização , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 1): 8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373259

RESUMO

Introduction: Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have attained significant reduction in measles incidence between 2004 and 2013. The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 in West Africa caused significant disruption of the health service delivery in the three worst affected countries. The magnitude of the impact on the immunization program has not been well documented. Methods: We reviewed national routine immunization administrative coverage data as well as measles surveillance performance and measles epidemiology in the years before, during and after the EVD outbreak in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone. Results: Both Liberia and Guinea experienced a sharp decline of more than 25% in the monthly number of children vaccinated against measles in 2014 and 2015 as compared to the previous years, while there was no reported decline in Sierra Leone. Guinea and Liberia experienced a decline in measles surveillance activity and performance indicators in 2014 and 2015. During this period, there was an increase in measles incidence and a decline in the mean age of measles cases reported in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Guinea started reporting high measles incidence in 2016. All three countries organized measles supplemental immunization activities by June 2015. Liberia achieved 99% administrative coverage, while Guinea and Sierra Leone attained 90.6% and 97.2% coverage respectively. There were no severe adverse events reported during these mass vaccination activities. The disruptive effect of the Ebola outbreak on immunization services was especially evident in Guinea and Liberia. Our review of the reported administrative vaccination coverage at national level does not show significant decline in measles first dose vaccination coverage in Sierra Leone as compared to other reports. This may be due to inaccuracies in coverage monitoring and data quality problems. The increases in measles transmission and incidence in these three countries can be explained by the rapid accumulation of susceptible children. Despite the organization of mass vaccination activities, measles incidence through 2017 has remained higher than the pre-Ebola period in all three countries. Conclusion: The Ebola outbreak in West Africa significantly affected measles vaccination coverage rates in two of the three worst affected countries, and led to persistent gaps in coverage, along with high measles incidence that was documented until two years after the end of the Ebola outbreak. Liberia and Sierra Leone have demonstrated coverage improvements after the end of the Ebola outbreak.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/normas , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Libéria/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Vacinação em Massa/normas , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/normas
7.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl: 140-144, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766973

RESUMO

Background: Measles elimination is defined as the absence of endemic measles virus transmission in a defined geographic area for at least 12 months in the presence of a well-performing surveillance system. The WHO framework for verification of measles elimination indicates that the achievement of measles and/or rubella elimination should be verified for individual countries. Objective: We identified 11 high performing countries based on their first dose measles vaccination coverage, and looked at their performance across the various programmatic parameters, to see if they are ready to undertake the verification of measles elimination. Methods: We identified 11 countries with >90% measles first dose coverage for the most recent 5 years according to the WHO UNICEF estimates of national immunisation coverage. We analysed vaccination coverage and surveillance performance in these countries. Results: Algeria, Botswana, Gambia, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles have maintained measles first dose (MCV1) coverage of 95% or more since 2011. In 2015, only Algeria, Cape Verde and Seychelles had coverage of 95% or more for the second dose of measles vaccine (MCV2). Of the 22 supplemental immunisation activities (SIAs) among the 11 countries, only 6 had administrative coverage of less than 95%. Only Rwanda and Lesotho attained the case-based surveillance performance targets in all the five years. Conclusion: Despite their high routine first dose measles immunisation coverage, all of the 11 countries have some program gaps indicating that they do not meet all the criteria to undergo verification of elimination at this point. It is recommended for these countries to set up national verification committees as per the WHO framework for verification of measles elimination, in order to initiate the documentation and monitoring of progress, and to address programmatic gaps in the coming years.

8.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl: 130-134, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957101

RESUMO

Case based surveillance for measles is implemented in the African Region integrated with Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance. In 2011, the Region adopted a measles elimination goal to be achieved by 2020, which included coverage, incidence and surveillance performance targets. We reviewed measles case-based surveillance data and surveillance performance from countries in the African Region for the years 2012 - 2016. During this period, a total of 359,019 cases of suspected measles were reported from the 44 of 47 (94%) countries using the case based surveillance system. Of these, 202,126 (56%) had specimens collected for laboratory testing. A total of 39,806 measles cases and 25,679 rubella cases were confirmed by IgM serology. Twelve countries met the two principal surveillance performance indicators for each year during the period and four countries met neither indicator over the period. At the Regional level, both surveillance targets were met in 3 of the 5 years in the period of study; however performance varies widely by country. Surveillance performance did not improve across the Region during the 5 years period. High quality surveillance performance is critical to support the achievement of the regional measles elimination goal. Better integrating implementation with AFP surveillance, securing predictable long-term funding sources, and conducting detailed evaluations at country level to identify and address the root cause of performance gaps is recommended.

9.
Vaccine ; 36(47): 7210-7214, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swaziland introduced rotavirus vaccine in the National Immunization Program, in May 2015, with the objective of reducing the burden of rotavirus diarrheal disease. We monitored the early impact of the vaccine in reducing rotavirus diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted sentinel rotavirus surveillance from January 2013 to December 2016 in children under five years of age admitted due to diarrhea attending Mbabane Government Referral Hospital in the Hhohho Region and Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in the Manzini Region. All cases had stool samples collected and tested for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2016, 596 samples were collected and tested. Rotavirus positivity reduced from average of 50.8% (172/338) (in 2013-2014 (pre vaccine period)) to 29% (24/82) in 2016, post-vaccine introduction. The median age of children with rotavirus infection increased from average of 10months in 2013-2014 to 13.7months in 2016. The peak season for all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalizations among children under five years of age was June-August in all years with a blunting of the peak season in 2016. Rotavirus positivity among children 0-11months reduced from an average of 49% in 2013-2014 (116/236) to 33% (15/45) in 2016, a 33% reduction following rotavirus vaccine introduction. CONCLUSION: There has been a rapid reduction of all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalizations in Swaziland, particularly in young children and during the rotavirus season, after the introduction rotavirus vaccine. Continued surveillance is needed to monitor the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Lactente , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação
10.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177746, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Mozambique in March 2013, however its impact on pediatric pneumococcal meningitis is unknown. In this study, we assessed for the first time the impact of PCV10 on the burden of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 5 years of age at the three largest hospitals in Mozambique. METHOD: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a total of 744 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 160 (21.5%) were positive for S. pneumoniae. Of these, only 86 samples met the criteria for serotyping and were subsequently serotyped using sequential multiplex PCR (SM-PCR), but 17 samples were non-typable. RESULTS: The proportion of cases of pneumococcal meningitis decreased from 33.6% (124 of 369) in 2013 to 1.9% (3 of 160) in 2015 (p < 0.001). The relative frequency of PCV10 serotype cases also decreased from 84.2% (48 of 57) in 2013 to 0% (0 of 3) in 2015 (p = 0.006). Between 2013 and 2015, serotype coverage of PCV-10 and PCV13 vaccine formulations was 66.7% and 81.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our findings shows that introduction of PCV-10 immunization resulted in rapid decline of pneumococcal meningitis children less than 5 years old in Mozambique. This decline was accompanied by substantial changes in the pattern of circulating pneumococcal serotypes.


Assuntos
Meningite Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Meningite Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Vacinação
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(17): 436-443, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472026

RESUMO

In 2011, the 46 World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) member states established a goal of measles elimination* by 2020, by achieving 1) ≥95% coverage of their target populations with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) at national and district levels; 2) ≥95% coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) per district during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs); and 3) confirmed measles incidence of <1 case per 1 million population in all countries (1). Two key surveillance performance indicator targets include 1) investigating ≥2 cases of nonmeasles febrile rash illness per 100,000 population annually, and 2) obtaining a blood specimen from ≥1 suspected measles case in ≥80% of districts annually (2). This report updates the previous report (3) and describes progress toward measles elimination in AFR during 2013-2016. Estimated regional MCV1 coverage† increased from 71% in 2013 to 74% in 2015.§ Seven (15%) countries achieved ≥95% MCV1 coverage in 2015.¶ The number of countries providing a routine second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 11 (24%) in 2013 to 23 (49%) in 2015. Forty-one (79%) of 52 SIAs** during 2013-2016 reported ≥95% coverage. Both surveillance targets were met in 19 (40%) countries in 2016. Confirmed measles incidence in AFR decreased from 76.3 per 1 million population to 27.9 during 2013-2016. To eliminate measles by 2020, AFR countries and partners need to 1) achieve ≥95% 2-dose MCV coverage through improved immunization services, including second dose (MCV2) introduction; 2) improve SIA quality by preparing 12-15 months in advance, and using readiness, intra-SIA, and post-SIA assessment tools; 3) fully implement elimination-standard surveillance††; 4) conduct annual district-level risk assessments; and 5) establish national committees and a regional commission for the verification of measles elimination.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(13): 285-91, 2014 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24699765

RESUMO

In 2008, the 46 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) adopted a measles preelimination goal to reach by the end of 2012 with the following targets: 1) >98% reduction in estimated regional measles mortality compared with 2000, 2) annual measles incidence of fewer than five reported cases per million population nationally, 3) >90% national first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage and >80% MCV1 coverage in all districts, and 4) >95% MCV coverage in all districts by supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Surveillance performance objectives were to report two or more cases of nonmeasles febrile rash illness per 100,000 population, one or more suspected measles cases investigated with blood specimens in ≥80% of districts, and 100% completeness of surveillance reporting from all districts. This report updates previous reports and describes progress toward the measles preelimination goal during 2011-2012. In 2012, 13 (28%) member states had >90% MCV1 coverage, and three (7%) reported >90% MCV1 coverage nationally and >80% coverage in all districts. During 2011-2012, four (15%) of 27 SIAs with available information met the target of >95% coverage in all districts. In 2012, 16 of 43 (37%) member states met the incidence target of fewer than five cases per million, and 19 of 43 (44%) met both surveillance performance targets. In 2011, the WHO Regional Committee for AFR established a goal to achieve measles elimination by 2020. To achieve this goal, intensified efforts to identify and close population immunity gaps and improve surveillance quality are needed, as well as committed leadership and ownership of the measles elimination activities and mobilization of adequate resources to complement funding from global partners.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , África/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vírus do Sarampo/genética , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Infect Dis ; 204 Suppl 1: S198-204, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21666162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2001, countries in the African region adopted the measles-associated mortality reduction strategy recommended by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. With support from partners, these strategies were implemented during 2001-2009. METHODS: To assess implementation, estimates of the first dose of measles vaccination through routine services (MCVI) and reported coverage for measles supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) were reviewed. Measles surveillance data were analyzed. RESULTS: During 2001-2009, regional MCV1 coverage increased from 56% to 69%, and >425 million children received measles vaccination through 125 SIAs. Measles case-based surveillance was established in 40 of 46 countries; the remaining 6 have aggregated case reporting. From 2001 through 2008, reported measles cases decreased by 92%, from 492,116 to 37,010; however, in 2009, cases increased to 83,625. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the recommended strategies led to a marked decrease in measles cases in the region; however, the outbreaks occurring since 2008 indicate suboptimal vaccination coverage. To achieve high MCV1 coverage, provide a second dose through either periodic SIAs or routine services, and to ensure further progress toward attaining the regional measles pre-elimination goal by 2012, a renewed commitment from implementing partners and donors is needed.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo/mortalidade , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Vaccine ; 25(39-40): 7001-5, 2007 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17709159

RESUMO

Rwanda introduced Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in January 2002 and simultaneously implemented pediatric bacterial meningitis surveillance at a major referral hospital in the capital Kigali. We reviewed clinical and laboratory information collected during January 2002 to June 2006. Due to a variety of laboratory limitations, only eight confirmed Hib cases were identified, all before 2004. However, the proportion of cerebrospinal fluid with purulence decreased from 26.0% during 2002, to 15.9% during 2003, 9.7% during 2004 and 8.4% in 2005 (p<0.001). Vaccine effectiveness of two or three doses of Hib vaccine against purulent meningitis was 52% (95% confidence interval, 5-75%). In an African setting with few resources and in which few confirmed Hib meningitis cases were identified, Hib vaccine impact nevertheless could be demonstrated against the outcome of purulent meningitis and was found to be high.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Cápsulas Bacterianas , Pré-Escolar , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Meningite por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Meningite por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Vigilância da População , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
15.
Vaccine ; 24(37-39): 6232-9, 2006 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16806603

RESUMO

Malawi has extreme poverty and a high-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Following Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine introduction during 2002, we evaluated vaccine impact by reviewing hospital surveillance data for acute bacterial meningitis in Blantyre district among children age 1-59 months admitted during 1997-2005. Documented annual Hib meningitis incidence rates decreased from 20-40/100,000 to near zero among both rural and urban residents despite no change in pneumococcal meningitis incidence rates. Before vaccine introduction, an average of 10 children/year had Hib meningitis and HIV infection compared to 2/year during 2003-2004 and none during 2005. Vaccine effectiveness was high following two or more doses of vaccine. The most urgent future need is for a sustainable routine infant immunization program, including a less expensive vaccine that preferably is delivered in a multivalent form.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV/imunologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/uso terapêutico , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Meningite por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningite por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Meningite por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Prevalência , Vacinação/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...