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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2360: 19-31, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495504

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms of sex-determination systems among insect orders and species are diverse. Therefore, genes involved in sex determination are strong candidates for insect pest management. Even though lepidopterans are major agricultural insect pests that cause widespread economic damage to various crops, their sex-determination systems have not been fully elucidated, even in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model lepidopteran insect. In 2014, we found that a female-specific W chromosome-derived PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) determines femaleness in silkworms. To analyze the function of two core silkworm piRNA biogenesis pathway genes, Siwi and BmAgo3, in the sex-determination system, we developed a genomic DNA and total RNA extraction strategy for a siRNA-injected single embryo. The siRNA-injected embryo can be molecularly sexed by W chromosome-specific DNA markers. Using complementary DNA (cDNA) reverse transcribed from the sexed RNA, we evaluated the knockdown effect of the PIWI protein-coding genes on a sexual development-related gene, Bombyx mori doublesex.

2.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 137: 103624, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333110

RESUMO

The brown egg 4 (b-4) is a recessive mutant in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), whose egg and adult compound eyes exhibit a reddish-brown color instead of normal purple and black, respectively. By double digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) analysis, we narrowed down a region linked to the b-4 phenotype to approximately 1.1 Mb that contains 69 predicted gene models. RNA-seq analysis in a b-4 strain indicated that one of the candidate genes had a different transcription start site, which generates a short open reading frame. We also found that exon skipping was induced in the same gene due to an insertion of a transposable element in other two b-4 mutant strains. This gene encoded a putative amino acid transporter that belongs to the ß-group of solute carrier (SLC) family and is orthologous to Drosophila eye color mutant gene, mahogany (mah). Accordingly, we named this gene Bmmah. We performed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout targeting Bmmah. Several adult moths in generation 0 (G0) had totally or partially reddish-brown compound eyes. We also established three Bmmah knockout strains, all of which exhibit reddish-brown eggs and adult compound eyes. Furthermore, eggs from complementation crosses between the b-4 mutants and the Bmmah knockout mutants also exhibited reddish-brown color, which was similar to the b-4 mutant eggs, indicating that Bmmah is responsible for the b-4 phenotypes.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4498, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301931

RESUMO

In animal germlines, PIWI proteins and the associated PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect genome integrity by silencing transposons. Here we report the extensive sequence and quantitative correlations between 2',3'-cyclic phosphate-containing RNAs (cP-RNAs), identified using cP-RNA-seq, and piRNAs in the Bombyx germ cell line and mouse testes. The cP-RNAs containing 5'-phosphate (P-cP-RNAs) identified by P-cP-RNA-seq harbor highly consistent 5'-end positions as the piRNAs and are loaded onto PIWI protein, suggesting their direct utilization as piRNA precursors. We identified Bombyx RNase Kappa (BmRNase κ) as a mitochondria-associated endoribonuclease which produces cP-RNAs during piRNA biogenesis. BmRNase κ-depletion elevated transposon levels and disrupted a piRNA-mediated sex determination in Bombyx embryos, indicating the crucial roles of BmRNase κ in piRNA biogenesis and embryonic development. Our results reveal a BmRNase κ-engaged piRNA biogenesis pathway, in which the generation of cP-RNAs promotes robust piRNA production.


Assuntos
Endorribonucleases/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bombyx , Linhagem Celular , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Ácidos Fosfatídicos/química , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Testículo/metabolismo
4.
Virus Genes ; 57(5): 459-463, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185196

RESUMO

Baculovirus infection modulates the chromatin states and gene expression of host insect cells. Here we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) of H3 trimethylated at Lys4 (H3K4me3) histone modification in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected Bombyx mori cells. The ChIP-seq data revealed the changes of the genome-wide distribution and accumulation of euchromatic histone marks in host insect cells during the progression of baculovirus infection.


Assuntos
Bombyx/genética , Cromatina/genética , Histonas/genética , Nucleopoliedrovírus/genética , Animais , Baculoviridae/genética , Baculoviridae/patogenicidade , Bombyx/virologia , Cromatina/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Código das Histonas/genética , Nucleopoliedrovírus/patogenicidade , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética
5.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 183: 107604, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971220

RESUMO

Baculoviruses are classic pathogens that alter host behavior to enhance their dispersal and transmission. While viral protein tyrosine phosphatase (ptp) has been considered as a critical factor for inducing enhanced locomotory activity, preceding investigations have reported that viral ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) contributes to triggering climbing behavior in some virus and host species. Here we found that both egt and ptp were dispensable for these abnormal behaviors in Bombyx mandarina larvae induced by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus, thus implying that there is an unknown core mechanism of baculovirus-induced alteration of host behaviors.

6.
Virology ; 559: 173-181, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930820

RESUMO

Some insect viruses produce the occlusion body (OB), a large crystalline particle comprising a viral protein that occludes virions to protect them from harsh environments. The shapes and sizes of OBs are diverse depending on baculovirus species, but the detailed molecular mechanism determining them has yet to be totally clarified yet. Here we generated Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) mutants of the p24 gene that encodes a viral capsid protein and found that p24-mutated BmNPVs produced cuboidal OBs with a slightly larger size than typical truncated octahedral OBs produced by wild-type BmNPVs. Meanwhile, p24 disruption has no significant impact on progeny virus production and viral pathogenicity. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that a single amino acid substitution found in the P24 protein of the BmNPV Cubic isolate caused cuboidal OB production. These results suggest that p24 has a crucial role in generating the typical shape of OBs.

7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(7): 2897-2914, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739418

RESUMO

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a potentially critical source of material for ecological adaptation and the evolution of novel genetic traits. However, reports on posttransfer duplication in organism genomes are lacking, and the evolutionary advantages conferred on the recipient are generally poorly understood. Sucrase plays an important role in insect physiological growth and development. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of insect ß-fructofuranosidase transferred from bacteria via HGT. We found that posttransfer duplications of ß-fructofuranosidase were widespread in Lepidoptera and sporadic occurrences of ß-fructofuranosidase were found in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. ß-fructofuranosidase genes often undergo modifications, such as gene duplication, differential gene loss, and changes in mutation rates. Lepidopteran ß-fructofuranosidase gene (SUC) clusters showed marked divergence in gene expression patterns and enzymatic properties in Bombyx mori (moth) and Papilio xuthus (butterfly). We generated SUC1 mutations in B. mori using CRISPR/Cas9 to thoroughly examine the physiological function of SUC. BmSUC1 mutant larvae were viable but displayed delayed growth and reduced sucrase activities that included susceptibility to the sugar mimic alkaloid found in high concentrations in mulberry. BmSUC1 served as a critical sucrase and supported metabolic homeostasis in the larval midgut and silk gland, suggesting that gene transfer of ß-fructofuranosidase enhanced the digestive and metabolic adaptation of lepidopteran insects. These findings highlight not only the universal function of ß-fructofuranosidase with a link to the maintenance of carbohydrate metabolism but also an underexplored function in the silk gland. This study expands our knowledge of posttransfer duplication and subsequent functional diversification in the adaptive evolution and lineage-specific adaptation of organisms.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Duplicação Gênica , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Lepidópteros/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , Animais , Feminino , Homeostase , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Lepidópteros/enzimologia , Masculino , Sacarase/metabolismo
8.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(3): e21768, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644912

RESUMO

Bombyx mori Masculinizer protein (BmMasc) is essential for both masculinization and dosage compensation in B. mori. We previously identified a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) of BmMasc and two essential residues (lysine at 274 [K274] and arginine at 275 [R275]) implicated in its function. Sequence comparison showed the presence of putative NLSs in lepidopteran Masc proteins, but their functional properties and critical residues are unknown. Here we characterized a putative NLS of Ostrinia furnacalis Masc (OfMasc) using B. mori ovary-derived BmN-4 cell line. Deletion and alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that a putative NLS is required for nuclear localization of OfMasc. However, mutations at both K227 and R228, which correspond to K274 and R275 of BmMasc, respectively, do not greatly abolish the NLS activity. Additional mutagenesis analysis revealed that triple mutations at K227, R228, and K240 almost completely inhibited OfMasc nuclear localization. These results suggest that lepidopteran Masc proteins possess a common functional NLS, but the critical residues for its activity are different. Moreover, we examined the masculinizing activity of OfMasc derivatives and found that nuclear localization is not required for the masculinizing activity of OfMasc. The results from our studies indicate that lepidopteran Masc proteins function in the cytoplasm to drive masculinizing cascade.


Assuntos
Mariposas/genética , Sinais de Localização Nuclear , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos , Sinais de Localização Nuclear/genética , Sinais de Localização Nuclear/metabolismo
10.
Parasitology ; 148(1): 105-109, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054893

RESUMO

Many parasites manipulate host behaviour to enhance their transmission. Baculoviruses induce enhanced locomotory activity (ELA) combined with subsequent climbing behaviour in lepidopteran larvae, which facilitates viral dispersal. However, the mechanisms underlying host manipulation system are largely unknown. Previously, larval locomotion during ELA was summarized as the distance travelled for a few minutes at several time points, which are unlikely to characterize ELA precisely, as ELA typically persists for several hours. In this study, we modified a recently developed method using time-lapse recording to characterize locomotion of Bombyx mori larvae infected with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) for 24 h at 3 s resolution. Our data showed that the locomotion of the mock-infected larvae was restricted to a small area, whereas the BmNPV-infected larvae exhibited a large locomotory area. These results indicate that BmNPV dysregulates the locomotory pattern of host larvae. Furthermore, both the mock- and BmNPV-infected larvae showed periodic cycles of movement and stationary behaviour with a similar frequency, suggesting the physiological mechanisms that induce locomotion are unaffected by BmNPV infection. In contrast, the BmNPV-infected larvae exhibited fast and long-lasting locomotion compared with mock-infected larvae, which indicates that locomotory speed and duration are manipulated by BmNPV.


Assuntos
Bombyx/virologia , Locomoção , Nucleopoliedrovírus/patogenicidade , Animais , Baculoviridae/patogenicidade , Comportamento , Bombyx/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Viroses
11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(1): 327-339, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985129

RESUMO

Samia ricini, a gigantic saturniid moth, has the potential to be a novel lepidopteran model species. Samia ricini is far more resistant to diseases than the current model species Bombyx mori, and therefore can be more easily reared. In addition, genetic resources available for S. ricini rival those for B. mori: at least 26 ecoraces of S. ricini are reported and S. ricini can hybridize with wild Samia species, which are distributed throughout Asian countries, and produce fertile progenies. Physiological traits such as food preference, integument colour and larval spot pattern differ among S. ricini strains and wild Samia species so that those traits can be targeted in forward genetic analyses. To facilitate genetic research in S. ricini, we determined its whole genome sequence. The assembled genome of S. ricini was 458 Mb with 155 scaffolds, and the scaffold N50 length of the assembly was ~ 21 Mb. In total, 16,702 protein coding genes were predicted. While the S. ricini genome was mostly collinear with that of B. mori with some rearrangements and few S. ricini-specific genes were discovered, chorion genes and fibroin genes seemed to have expanded in the S. ricini lineage. As the first step of genetic analyses, causal genes for "Blue," "Yellow," "Spot," and "Red cocoon" phenotypes were mapped to chromosomes.

12.
Curr Biol ; 31(1): 173-181.e7, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125865

RESUMO

Despite the essentiality for faithful chromosome segregation, centromere architectures are diverse among eukaryotes1,2 and embody two main configurations: mono- and holocentromeres, referring, respectively, to localized or unrestricted distribution of centromeric activity. Of the two, some holocentromeres offer the curious condition of having arisen independently in multiple insects, most of which have lost the otherwise essential centromere-specifying factor CenH33 (first described as CENP-A in humans).4-7 The loss of CenH3 raises intuitive questions about how holocentromeres are organized and regulated in CenH3-lacking insects. Here, we report the first chromatin-level description of CenH3-deficient holocentromeres by leveraging recently identified centromere components6,7 and genomics approaches to map and characterize the holocentromeres of the silk moth Bombyx mori, a representative lepidopteran insect lacking CenH3. This uncovered a robust correlation between the distribution of centromere sites and regions of low chromatin activity along B. mori chromosomes. Transcriptional perturbation experiments recapitulated the exclusion of B. mori centromeres from active chromatin. Based on reciprocal centromere occupancy patterns observed along differentially expressed orthologous genes of Lepidoptera, we further found that holocentromere formation in a manner that is recessive to chromatin dynamics is evolutionarily conserved. Our results help us discuss the plasticity of centromeres in the context of a role for the chromosome-wide chromatin landscape in conferring centromere identity rather than the presence of CenH3. Given the co-occurrence of CenH3 loss and holocentricity in insects,7 we further propose that the evolutionary establishment of holocentromeres in insects was facilitated through the loss of a CenH3-specified centromere.

13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(2): e21761, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225529

RESUMO

Bombyx mori latent virus (BmLV) is a positive, single-stranded insect RNA virus closely related to plant maculaviruses. BmLV was first isolated from Bombyx mori ovary-derived cell line BmN-4, and this virus has already infected most B. mori-derived cultured cell lines. We previously reported that small interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathways function cooperatively to maintain the amount of BmLV RNA for normal BmN-4 cell growth. On the other hand, BmLV does not propagate in B. mori larvae. Here we conducted BmLV injection into the larval body cavities of B. mori, and examined BmLV accumulation in larval ovaries where siRNA and piRNA pathways are both active, to investigate whether this in vivo resistance is governed by small RNA pathways. Expression levels of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, coat protein, and p15 genes in BmLV-injected larval ovaries were extremely low compared with those in B. mori cultured cells, indicating that B. mori larval ovaries are more resistant to BmLV than B. mori cultured cells. We also sequenced small RNAs prepared from BmLV-injected larval ovaries and mapped them onto the BmLV genome. Although their amounts were very small, we were able to detect BmLV-derived small RNAs in the ovaries. According to their length distribution and nucleotide bias, they were likely to be siRNAs and piRNAs. These results suggest that B. mori ovaries can potentially produce small RNAs against BmLV, but the resistance of larval ovaries against BmLV is not dependent on RNA silencing pathways.


Assuntos
Bombyx/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Tymoviridae/fisiologia , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/virologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/imunologia , Larva/virologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovário/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 768: 145314, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220342

RESUMO

The BmN-4 cell line, originated from the silkworm Bombyx mori ovary, possesses endogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathways. We performed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Ago2 and Siwi, which are the core factors for siRNA and piRNA pathways, respectively, to understand the importance of the two distinct small RNA pathways in this cell line. We found that approximately half of the alleles contained loss-of-function mutations in both Ago2- and Siwi-mutated cells. The mutated cells grew at a slower rate compared to the control cells, strongly suggesting that the siRNA and piRNA pathways are both crucial for the normal growth of BmN-4 cells. The amounts of piRNAs decreased markedly in the Siwi-mutated cells, but global de-repression of transposable elements was not observed. Although the RNA amount of latently infected RNA virus, Bombyx mori macula-like virus (BmLV), increased in both Ago2- and Siwi-mutated cells, the siRNA and piRNA pathways showed a bias toward targeting BmLV genomic and subgenomic RNA, respectively. These results indicate the common, specific, and crucial roles of the two small RNA pathways in B. mori cultured cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Bombyx/citologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida/métodos , Tymoviridae/genética , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Edição de Genes , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Virus Res ; 291: 198200, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080246

RESUMO

A molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is required for efficient infection by several viruses. Hsp90 has been recently implicated in baculovirus infection, but its exact role remains obscure. This study investigated the effect of 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, on Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection. The 17-AAG treatment significantly decreased the production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies in BmNPV-infected Bombyx mori cultured cells. Immunoblot and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that the expression of early and delayed early gene products, DBP and BRO, was delayed and dysregulated, and the very late gene product POLH was almost completely diminished. RT-qPCR experiments revealed that 17-AAG treatment did not affect initiation of the immediate early gene ie-1 expression, but the expression decreased by ∼50 % during the late stage of infection. 17-AAG treatment also decreased ie-1 promoter activity by ∼50 %. In addition, the expression of delayed early and late genes was dysregulated and inhibited, respectively. These results indicated that Hsp90 function is required for stable ie-1 transcription. Inhibiting Hsp90 function negatively affects ie-1 expression, resulting in dysregulation of delayed early genes and a severe decrease in late and very late gene expression.


Assuntos
Baculoviridae/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Animais , Baculoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Mariposas/virologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 177: 107476, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039399

RESUMO

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is known to replicate in many tissues of Bombyx mori larvae. However, the cell lines used for BmNPV research are predominantly derived from B. mori ovaries or early embryos. In the present study, we examined the properties of NIAS-Bm-aff3 (aff3), a cell line that was established from B. mori larval fat body, which is one of the major tissues for BmNPV propagation. aff3 is a floating cell line, and cell adhesion was enhanced following the coating of the culture dish with poly-d-lysine. RT-qPCR assays demonstrated that the expression of germ cell markers, Vasa, Siwi, and BmAgo3, was much lower in aff3 cells as compared to the B. mori ovary-derived cell line BmN-4. Conversely, aff3 cells express an adipocyte marker, Fabp1, at higher levels, indicating that this cell line retains the characteristics of fat body cells. BmNPV infection induces unique cell fusion in aff3 cells, which was also observed following infection with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, a virus that does not cause productive infection in B. mori cells. Occlusion bodies (OBs) produced in BmNPV-infected aff3 cells exhibit large cuboidal shapes as compared to those produced in BmN-4 cells. Furthermore, extremely large OBs (~25 µm in side length) were produced in aff3 cells when infected with a cuboidal polyhedrin mutant. Taking into account these unusual properties, we conclude that aff3 could prove to be a useful resource for conducting baculovirus research.

17.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 173: 107374, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294464

RESUMO

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a severe pathogen for the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmNPV harbors over 140 protein-coding genes in its 128.4 kilobase pair-long double-stranded genome. However, many BmNPV genes are still uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of BmNPV Bm96 in both B. mori cultured cells and larvae. We found that Bm96 is mainly expressed at the late stage of infection and accumulation of Bm96 protein peaks at 24 h post infection (hpi) and declines gradually at 48 hpi in B. mori cultured cells. Compared with the wild-type viruses, Bm96-deletion viruses exhibited higher viral propagation and fast-killing phenotype in B. mori larvae. These results strongly suggest that Bm96 negatively regulates the propagation of BmNPV in B. mori larvae. Furthermore, we observed that larvae infected with Bm96-deletion viruses showed lower locomotory activity at the late stage of infection compared with those infected with the wild-type viruses.


Assuntos
Bombyx/virologia , Nucleopoliedrovírus/genética , Nucleopoliedrovírus/patogenicidade , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/virologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência
18.
Curr Biol ; 30(4): 561-572.e10, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032508

RESUMO

Accurate chromosome segregation requires assembly of the multiprotein kinetochore complex at centromeres. In most eukaryotes, kinetochore assembly is primed by the histone H3 variant CenH3 (also called CENP-A), which physically interacts with components of the inner kinetochore constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN). Unexpectedly, regarding its critical function, previous work identified that select eukaryotic lineages, including several insects, have lost CenH3 while having retained homologs of the CCAN. These findings imply alternative CCAN assembly pathways in these organisms that function in CenH3-independent manners. Here we study the composition and assembly of CenH3-deficient kinetochores of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). We show that lepidopteran kinetochores consist of previously identified CCAN homologs as well as additional components, including a divergent CENP-T homolog, that are required for accurate mitotic progression. Our study focuses on CENP-T, which we found to be sufficient to recruit the Mis12 and Ndc80 outer kinetochore complexes. In addition, CRISPR-mediated gene editing in Bombyx mori establishes an essential function of CENP-T in vivo. Finally, the retention of CENP-T and additional CCAN homologs in other independently derived CenH3-deficient insects indicates a conserved mechanism of kinetochore assembly between these lineages. Our study provides the first functional insights into CCAN-based kinetochore assembly pathways that function independently of CenH3, contributing to the emerging picture of an unexpected plasticity to build a kinetochore.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Cinetocoros , Lepidópteros/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bombyx/química , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Cinetocoros/química , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Nature ; 578(7794): 311-316, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996847

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) of between approximately 24 and 31 nucleotides in length guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal gonads, thereby ensuring fertility1. In the biogenesis of piRNAs, PIWI proteins are first loaded with 5'-monophosphorylated RNA fragments called pre-pre-piRNAs, which then undergo endonucleolytic cleavage to produce pre-piRNAs1,2. Subsequently, the 3'-ends of pre-piRNAs are trimmed by the exonuclease Trimmer (PNLDC1 in mouse)3-6 and 2'-O-methylated by the methyltransferase Hen1 (HENMT1 in mouse)7-9, generating mature piRNAs. It is assumed that the endonuclease Zucchini (MitoPLD in mouse) is a major enzyme catalysing the cleavage of pre-pre-piRNAs into pre-piRNAs10-13. However, direct evidence for this model is lacking, and how pre-piRNAs are generated remains unclear. Here, to analyse pre-piRNA production, we established a Trimmer-knockout silkworm cell line and derived a cell-free system that faithfully recapitulates Zucchini-mediated cleavage of PIWI-loaded pre-pre-piRNAs. We found that pre-piRNAs are generated by parallel Zucchini-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Cleavage by Zucchini occurs at previously unrecognized consensus motifs on pre-pre-piRNAs, requires the RNA helicase Armitage, and is accompanied by 2'-O-methylation of pre-piRNAs. By contrast, slicing of pre-pre-piRNAs with weak Zucchini motifs is achieved by downstream complementary piRNAs, producing pre-piRNAs without 2'-O-methylation. Regardless of the endonucleolytic mechanism, pre-piRNAs are matured by Trimmer and Hen1. Our findings highlight multiplexed processing of piRNA precursors that supports robust and flexible piRNA biogenesis.


Assuntos
Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência Consenso , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fosfolipase D/química , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/biossíntese , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bombyx , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Livre de Células , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Metilação , Camundongos , RNA Helicases/metabolismo
20.
Virus Genes ; 56(2): 249-259, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912283

RESUMO

The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) La is a variant BmNPV strain isolated in Laos. La has different features from BmNPV type strain T3 in virulence, production of the polyhedrin protein, and the formation of multicapsid occlusion-derived viruses. Here, the whole-genome sequence of La was compared to the sequences of nine BmNPV and two Bombyx mandarina nucleopolyhedrovirus strains. The complete La genome consisted of 127,618 base pairs with a G + C content of 40.3% and contained putative 136 open reading frames encoding more than 60 amino acids. The La genome lacked the bro-b gene and had the highest identity with that of the T3 strain. A comparison of the transcriptomes of La- and T3-infected cells showed that the expression levels of the polyhedrin and cathepsin genes were greater in cells infected with La as compared to those infected with T3. Interestingly, the virus genes with different RNA levels between the two BmNPV strains were assembled into five clusters in the genome of La. Also, the RNA levels of host ribosomal protein genes were significantly decreased in cells infected with La as compared to those infected with T3.


Assuntos
Bombyx/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Nucleopoliedrovírus/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Composição de Bases/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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