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1.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234335

RESUMO

The degree and frequency of orthostatic hypotension (OH) are high in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA); however, the association of orthostatic blood pressure (BP) with the symptoms of OH and cognitive impairment in these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify whether absolute BP and/or changes in BP during standing are related to OH symptoms and cognitive impairment in patients with MSA. Thirty-two patients with MSA were examined using the head-up tilt and cognitive function tests. OH symptoms were evaluated using a patient-reported scale. The results were compared with those for 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen of the 32 (53.1%) patients had OH, with eight of them exhibiting OH symptoms, which were related to the absolute BP value at 60° tilt. However, OH symptoms were not related to the degree of decrease in BP during the tilt test, and they were frequently observed in patients with a mean BP of <80 mmHg at 60° tilt (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 91%). Cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; ≤ 26) was also associated with a low mean BP at 60° tilt (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.67; p = 0.02). The upright BP value is associated with OH symptoms and the MMSE score in patients with MSA. Thus, careful observation of OH symptoms can enable early management of BP and the detection of cognitive impairment in these patients.

2.
Neurology ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)-associated neuropathy with a focus on the presence or absence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). METHODS: We examined the clinical features and pathologic findings of sural nerve biopsy specimens from 82 patients with EGPA-associated neuropathy. Of these patients, 32.9% were myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA positive, and 67.1% were MPO-ANCA negative. PR3-ANCA was negative in all of 78 examined patients. RESULTS: Upper limb symptoms were more frequently reported as initial neuropathic manifestations in the MPO-ANCA-positive group than in the MPO-ANCA-negative group (44.4% vs 14.6%, p < 0.01). The serum levels of C-reactive protein were significantly higher in the MPO-ANCA-positive group than in the MPO-ANCA-negative group (p < 0.05). Sural nerve biopsy specimens showed findings suggestive of vasculitis (i.e., destruction of vascular structures) in epineurial vessels; these results were seen more frequently in the MPO-ANCA-positive group than in the MPO-ANCA-negative group (p < 0.0001). Conversely, the numbers of eosinophils in the lumen of the epineurial vessels (p < 0.01) and epineurial vessels occluded by intraluminal eosinophils (p < 0.05) were higher in the MPO-ANCA-negative group than in the MPO-ANCA-positive group. Furthermore, the incidence of eosinophil infiltration in the endoneurium was higher in the MPO-ANCA-negative group than in the MPO-ANCA-positive group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the pathogenesis of EGPA comprises at least 2 distinct mechanisms: ANCA-associated vasculitis resulting in ischemic effects and inflammation, which is prominent in MPO-ANCA-positive patients, and eosinophil-associated vascular occlusion leading to ischemia and eosinophil-associated tissue damage, which is conspicuous in MPO-ANCA-negative patients.

3.
Clin Auton Res ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurodegeneration of the nucleus ambiguus and the dorsal vagal motor nucleus has been implicated in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA). The nucleus ambiguus and the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, which are located in the medulla oblongata (MO), control the autonomic-specifically, the parasympathetic-functions of the body. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction and the anteroposterior diameter of the MO in MSA by quantitatively analyzing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome measures. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 40 consecutive patients with probable MSA and 25 age- and sex-matched controls. The anteroposterior diameter of the MO at two locations (MO diameter-A and -B) and the diameters of the midbrain and pons were measured by conventional MRI. A cardiac parasympathetic function score (CP-score) and cardiac sympathetic function score (CS-score) were generated by calculating the z-scores of multiple autonomic function tests. The relationship between the scores and the measured diameters of the brainstem was also investigated. RESULTS: The CP-score and CS-score were significantly lower in the patients with MSA than in the controls (CP-score: 0.61 ± 0.75 vs. - 0.38 ± 0.52, p < 0.001; CS-score: 0.91 ± 1.06 vs. - 0.57 ± 1.07, p < 0.001). Also, in the patients with MSA, the CP-score was significantly correlated with MO diameter-A (r = 0.40, p = 0.010), and the CS-score was significantly correlated with the diameter of the midbrain (r = 0.33, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: The anteroposterior diameter of the MO is a potential imaging marker of parasympathetic dysfunction in MSA.

4.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(4): 370-377, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142134

RESUMO

Alterations of RNA metabolism caused by mutations in RNA-binding protein genes, such as transactivating DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Unlike the accumulation of TDP43, which is accepted as a pathological hall mark of sporadic ALS (sALS), FUS pathology in sALS is still under debate. Although immunoreactive inclusions of FUS have been detected in sALS patients previously, the technical limitation of signal detection, including the necessity of specific antigen retrieval, restricts our understanding of FUS-associated ALS pathology. In this study, we applied a novel detection method using a conventional antigen retrieval technique with Sudan Black B treatment to identify FUS-positive inclusions in sALS patients. We classified pathological motor neurons into 5 different categories according to the different aggregation characteristics of FUS and TDP-43. Although the granular type was more dominant for inclusions with TDP-43, the skein-like type was more often observed in FUS-positive inclusions, suggesting that these 2 proteins undergo independent aggregation processes. Moreover, neurons harboring FUS-positive inclusions demonstrated substantially reduced expression levels of dynactin-1, a retrograde motor protein, indicating that perturbation of nucleocytoplasmic transport is associated with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions of FUS in sALS.

6.
J Neurol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to survey the prevalence of prodromal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Japanese health checkup examinees, for identifying at-risk subjects. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey of annual health checkup examinees without neurological symptoms using the following self-reported questionnaires: Japanese version of the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms (SCOPA-AUT); Self-administered Odor Question (SAOQ); REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Scale (RBDSQ); Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II); Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). The presence of prodromal symptoms was determined using the 90th percentile threshold of each questionnaire. Subjects ≥ 50 years of age with ≥ 2 core prodromal symptoms (dysautonomia, hyposmia, and RBD), were classified as at risk. RESULTS: Between March 2017 and March 2018, 4,953 participants sufficiently answered the questionnaires. Among 2,726 subjects ≥ 50 years of age, 155 were classified as at risk. These subjects had worse values of BDI-II (12.0 ± 8.3 vs. 4.4 ± 3.8, p < 0.001) and ESS (9.6 ± 5.0 vs. 6.3 ± 3.2, p < 0.001), in addition to SCOPA-AUT, SAOQ, and RBDSQ. Male at-risk subjects showed lower values of hemoglobin (14.8 ± 1.3 vs. 15.0 ± 1.1, p = 0.032) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (114.5 ± 30.3 vs. 123.0 ± 28.9, p = 0.004) than the examinees reporting no prodromal symptoms. CONCLUSION: Approximately 6% of the population aged 50 years or older was at risk for PD. Male at-risk subjects had mild hematological and metabolic changes relevant to PD.

7.
Epileptic Disord ; 22(1): 90-102, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031531

RESUMO

To retrospectively evaluate the pharmacological profiles of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in epilepsy patients during haemodialysis using therapeutic drug monitoring data. The serum concentration of AEDs was collected before and after haemodialysis, and the clearance rate and concentration-to-dose ratio were calculated as pharmacological parameters. Thirty-six patients were enrolled in the study (25 males, 11 females; age: 65.3 ± 14.8 years). In 24 of the 36 patients, epilepsy was associated with cerebrovascular disorders, and diabetes was the most common reason for haemodialysis in 16 patients. With regards to seizure type, focal aware seizures were less frequent than focal impaired awareness seizures and focal-to-bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. Interictal EEG showed intermittent rhythmic slow waves and intermittent slow waves more often than spikes or sharp waves. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED and led to the highest percentage of responders (80%; 16/20 patients). However, the clearance rate of levetiracetam during dialysis was highest among the antiepileptic drugs used, requiring supplementary doses after haemodialysis in all 20 patients. Valproic acid was not effective for focal epilepsy for patients on haemodialysis, and non-responders to phenytoin had low serum concentration of phenytoin both before and after haemodialysis. The pre-haemodialysis concentration of levetiracetam tended to be higher than the reference range, suggesting a potential risk of overdosing before haemodialysis. The pre- and post-haemodialysis concentrations of valproic acid tended to be lower than the reference range, suggesting a potential risk of underdosing. The concentration-to-dose ratios for levetiracetam, valproic acid, phenytoin, and carbamazepine were significantly lower after than before haemodialysis. The majority of patients with epilepsy on haemodialysis had cerebrovascular diseases, and therapeutic drug monitoring for levetiracetam, valproic acid, and phenytoin, before and after haemodialysis, is needed to ensure proper dosing.

8.
Mol Brain ; 13(1): 18, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070397

RESUMO

Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, slowly progressive motor neuron disease caused by abnormal CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Although ligand (testosterone)-dependent mutant AR aggregation has been shown to play important roles in motor neuronal degeneration by the analyses of transgenic mice models and in vitro cell culture models, the underlying disease mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated because of the discrepancy between model mice and SBMA patients. Thus, novel human disease models that recapitulate SBMA patients' pathology more accurately are required for more precise pathophysiological analysis and the development of novel therapeutics. Here, we established disease specific iPSCs from four SBMA patients, and differentiated them into spinal motor neurons. To investigate motor neuron specific pathology, we purified iPSC-derived motor neurons using flow cytometry and cell sorting based on the motor neuron specific reporter, HB9e438::Venus, and proceeded to the genome-wide transcriptome analysis by RNA sequences. The results revealed the involvement of the pathology associated with synapses, epigenetics, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in SBMA. Notably, we demonstrated the involvement of the neuromuscular synapse via significant upregulation of Synaptotagmin, R-Spondin2 (RSPO2), and WNT ligands in motor neurons derived from SBMA patients, which are known to be associated with neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. These aberrant gene expression in neuromuscular synapses might represent a novel therapeutic target for SBMA.

9.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 285-290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe and clarify the factors affecting the prognosis of Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) undergoing tracheostomy invasive ventilation (TIV) therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational case-control study using a multicentre registry. ALS patients who started TIV therapy after registration (TIV group) and those who did not receive TIV (non-TIV group) were included. We compared the survival time between the TIV group and the non-TIV group using a propensity score matching analysis and evaluated the prognostic factors in the TIV group. RESULTS: From February 2006 to January 2018, 190 patients in the TIV group and 1093 patients in the non-TIV group were included in this study. The mean age of disease onset and usage rate of gastrostomy and non-invasive ventilation therapy differed between the groups. In the propensity score matching analysis using known prognostic factors, the median overall survival time of the TIV group was significantly greater than that of the non-TIV group (11.33 years vs 4.61 years; p<0.001). Analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model suggested that older age of onset and respiratory onset was an independent factor for poor prognosis after starting TIV therapy. CONCLUSION: We showed that there was a significant difference of approximately 7 years in life expectancy between Japanese ALS patients who did and did not receive TIV therapy.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 507, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980612

RESUMO

The timing and characteristics of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. Here we examine AD mouse models with an original marker, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate phosphorylated at serine 46 (pSer46-MARCKS), and reveal an increase of neuronal necrosis during pre-symptomatic phase and a subsequent decrease during symptomatic phase. Postmortem brains of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) rather than symptomatic AD patients reveal a remarkable increase of necrosis. In vivo imaging reveals instability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in mouse AD models and genome-edited human AD iPS cell-derived neurons. The level of nuclear Yes-associated protein (YAP) is remarkably decreased in such neurons under AD pathology due to the sequestration into cytoplasmic amyloid beta (Aß) aggregates, supporting the feature of YAP-dependent necrosis. Suppression of early-stage neuronal death by AAV-YAPdeltaC reduces the later-stage extracellular Aß burden and cognitive impairment, suggesting that preclinical/prodromal YAP-dependent neuronal necrosis represents a target for AD therapeutics.

11.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(1): 123-130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative disorder affecting striatonigral system. Although various lines of evidence demonstrate that dopaminergic neuron degeneration emerges before the onset of motor symptoms in PD, preclinical/prodromal progression of neurodegeneration is far less understood in MSA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the difference in the progression of dopaminergic degeneration in MSA and PD using dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT SPECT). METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data of the specific binding ratio (SBR), a measure of striatal radiotracer uptake, in DAT SPECT from 7 patients with MSA-C, 5 patients with MSA-P, and 18 patients with PD. We performed 2.7±0.7 scans with an interval of 9.85±6.00 months for MSA and 2 scans with an interval of 2.16±0.16 years for PD. RESULTS: The rate of SBR decline was faster in both subtypes of MSA compared with PD, but the value was similar between MSA-P and MSA-C. The estimated SBR at the onset of initial motor symptoms was lower in PD and MSA-P than in MSA-C, especially in the predominantly affected side. SBR of the predominantly affected side starts to decrease before the onset of motor symptoms in PD and MSA-P, whereas the initiation of SBR decline is around the onset in MSA-C individuals. The decline of SBR in the less affected side was not clearly shown before the onset in MSA-P or MSA-C. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the SBR in DAT SPECT analysis is an important pathophysiological marker reflecting the disease- and subtype-specific progression of dopaminergic degeneration in MSA and PD.

13.
Intern Med ; 59(3): 435-438, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588080

RESUMO

We herein report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with the acute onset of limb weakness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple abnormal-signal-intensity lesions. Steroids were administered, and the patient initially responded. Nerve conduction testing findings were consistent with demyelinating polyneuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy specimen revealed fascicles with extensive onion-bulb formation. Although skin and sural nerve biopsies showed no atypical cellular infiltration, the histopathological diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma was obtained by a brain biopsy. The neuropathy in this patient may be attributed to a demyelinating process independent of ischemic damage by lymphoma.

15.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(1): 131-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Speech disorders are among the most common adverse effects after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, longitudinal speech changes after STN-DBS are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We performed a two-year prospective study on PD patients who underwent STN-DBS and analyzed changes in speech function to clarify factors predicting for speech deterioration. METHODS: Twenty-five PD patients were assessed before and up to two years after STN implantation. Speech function was evaluated in the on-stimulation condition and 30 min after stimulation cessation using auditory-perceptual assessment. Patients who experienced overall worsening in speech intelligibility or naturalness ≥1 point during follow-up were classified into a deteriorated group (n = 16), with the remaining subjects being classified into a stable group (n = 9). Cognitive and motor functions were also assessed. RESULTS: The stable group had significantly better values of low volume, monoloudness, and asthenic voice subscores of the auditory-perceptual assessment in the on-stimulation condition compared with the off-stimulation condition. Imprecise consonants, excess loudness variation, and strained voice subscores were improved via cessation of stimulation in both groups. Before surgery, the deteriorated group had significantly lower scores in the Stroop Color-Word Test and Digit Span compared to the stable group. CONCLUSIONS: During follow-up, some subscores showed significant worsening in the on-stimulation condition in both groups. However, beneficial effects of STN-DBS on speech appeared to counterbalance negative effects of STN-DBS on speech function only in the stable group. Worse cognitive function may be a potential predictor for speech deterioration after STN-DBS in PD patients.

16.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(3): 379-383, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873768

RESUMO

Wheelchair use is an important indicator of disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated whether orthostatic hypotension (OH) affects the time to wheelchair use. We examined 33 PD patients with OH and 95 without OH. Median time to start using a wheelchair calculated from the time of disease onset was significantly shorter in patients with OH than in those without OH (12.0 vs 19.0 years; p < 0.001). Thus, appropriate management of OH and motor function is necessary.

17.
J Neurol Sci ; 407: 116503, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669728

RESUMO

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease affecting only males characterized by progressive muscular atrophy and weakness in bulbar and limb muscles. The present study aimed to evaluate the features of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) in SBMA subjects by an acoustic analysis of speech. Twenty-three genetically confirmed patients with SBMA were enrolled and assessed their speech by measuring the nasalance score with a Nasometer II. The nasalance scores of the SBMA group was higher than that of healthy controls (p = .035) and significantly correlated with the total score of the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale (rs = -0.520, p = .011). On the basis of the results of the VPD study, the efficacy of a palatal lift prosthesis (PLP) was assessed in two patients with SBMA to treat their VPD. The PLP improved dysarthria in both cases, although the impact of the prosthesis on dysphagia was not consistent. The present study suggested that the nasalance score is a useful quantitative measurement to evaluate VPD in patients with SBMA. A PLP may improve dysarthria in SBMA patients by reducing VPD, but the clinical application of this procedure should be considered carefully in view of its possible negative effect on dysphagia.

18.
Brain Nerve ; 71(11): 1215-1225, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722307

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient registries can assist in the provision of appropriate care to patients and promote therapeutic developments related to ALS. In Japan, a multicenter registration and follow-up system called the Japanese Consortium for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis research (JaCALS) was built in 2006. Genomic DNA samples and B-cell lines of patients with ALS were stored and linked to clinical information. Information obtained from JaCALS shows the natural histories of Japanese patients with ALS, including their genetic backgrounds and clinical and genetic factors associated with disease progression and prognosis. Research efforts that focus on pathophysiology, identification of biomarkers related to progression and prognosis, and drug discoveries for patients with ALS are advanced using data obtained from JaCALS. In the future, we expect that JaCALS will be a source of real-world evidence, combining data from a large number of cases.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Japão , Prognóstico
19.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 59(12): 806-813, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761834

RESUMO

A global, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to confirm that BYM338 (bimagrumab), an anti-activin type II receptor antibody, improves motor function in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis after 52 weeks' treatment consisting of intravenous administration every 4 weeks at doses of 10, 3, and 1 mg/kg. In a Japanese sub-population (20 patients in total, 5 per dose group), no significant differences in the change from baseline of the 6-minute walking distance at Week 52 (primary endpoint) were observed between the placebo group and each BYM338 dose group. Furthermore, the lean body mass as an indicator of skeletal muscle mass increased in all BYM338 groups compared with the placebo group and the effects were dose-dependent. Overall, the Japanese sub-population showed similar trends as observed in the entire population (251 patients in total).

20.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(3): 359-373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579328

RESUMO

Cilostazol is a phosphodiesterase III-inhibiting antiplatelet agent that is often used to prevent stroke and peripheral artery disease, and its administration has shown significant improvements for cognitive impairment. We investigate the potential of cilostazol for reducing or restoring cognitive decline during convalescent rehabilitation in patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. The study sample included 371 consecutive patients with lacunar (n = 44) and atherothrombosis (n = 327) subtypes of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke (224 men and 147 women; mean age, 72.9 ± 8.1 years) who were required for inpatient convalescent rehabilitation. Their medical records were retrospectively surveyed to identify those who had received cilostazol (n = 101). Patients were grouped based on cilostazol condition, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores (total and motor or cognitive subtest scores) were assessed both at admission and discharge. The gain and efficiency in FIM cognitive scores from admission to discharge were significantly higher in patients who received cilostazol than those who did not (p = 0.047 and p = 0.035, respectively); we found no significant differences in other clinical factors or scores. Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed that cilostazol was a significant factor in FIM cognitive scores at discharge (ß = 0.041, B = 0.682, p = 0.045); the two tested dosages were not significantly different (100 mg/day, n = 43; 200 mg/day, n = 58). Cilostazol can potentially improve cognitive function during convalescent rehabilitation of patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke, although another research must be needed to confirm this potential.

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