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1.
J Neurol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify whether serum neurofilament light chains (NfLs) serve as a biomarker of axonal damage in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), especially in patients with anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibodies. METHODS: The Simoa system was used to examine serum NfL levels from 58 patients with CIDP, including 13 anti-NF155 antibody-positive patients, and from 14 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Serum NfL levels were evaluated before and after treatment in eight patients with anti-NF155 antibodies. Clinical features, electrophysiological findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels, were evaluated. The pathological features of sural nerves from 40 patients were also examined. RESULTS: Serum NfL levels were significantly higher in patients with CIDP than in healthy individuals (median 29.63 vs. 7.71 pg/mL, p < 0.001) and were correlated with both modified Rankin Scale scores (r = 0.584, p < 0.001) and CSF protein levels (r = 0.432, p = 0.001). The NfL levels of anti-NF155 antibody-positive patients were higher than those of antibody-negative patients (p = 0.005). Serum NfL levels were negatively correlated with compound muscle action potential amplitudes of the tibial nerves (r = - 0.404, p = 0.004) and positively correlated with the degree of active axonal degeneration in the pathological findings (r = 0.485, p = 0.001). In the antibody-positive group, NfL levels and antibody titers decreased after treatment in all examined patients. CONCLUSION: Serum NfL correlated with pathological indices of axonal degeneration, and may serve as a biomarker that reflects active axonal damage of CIDP.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the validity of urinary N-terminal titin fragment as a biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We consecutively enrolled patients with ALS (n=70) and healthy controls (HC) (n=43). We assessed the urinary titin N-terminal fragment, urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain, serum neurofilament light chain (NfL), motor functional measurements and prognosis. We used urinary creatinine (Cr) levels to normalise the urinary levels of titin fragment. RESULTS: Compared with HC, patients with ALS had significantly increased urinary levels of titin N-terminal fragment normalised with Cr (titin/Cr) (ALS, 27.2 pmol/mg/dL; HC, 5.8 pmol/mg/dL; p<0.001), which were correlated with the scores of the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (r=-0.422, p<0.001). A Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that the high urinary level of titin/Cr was a survival predictor in patients with ALS. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors showed that the urinary titin/Cr and serum NfL were independent factors for poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that urinary N-terminal titin fragment is a non-invasive measure of muscle damage in ALS, which could be applied in disease monitoring and prediction of disease progression, in combination with serum NfL.

3.
Neurology ; 96(12): e1595-e1607, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term (2 years) effects of bimagrumab in participants with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). METHODS: Participants (aged 36-85 years) who completed the core study (RESILIENT [Efficacy and Safety of Bimagrumab/BYM338 at 52 Weeks on Physical Function, Muscle Strength, Mobility in sIBM Patients]) were invited to join an extension study. Individuals continued on the same treatment as in the core study (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg bimagrumab or matching placebo administered as IV infusions every 4 weeks). The co-primary outcome measures were 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and safety. RESULTS: Between November 2015 and February 2017, 211 participants entered double-blind placebo-controlled period of the extension study. Mean change in 6MWD from baseline was highly variable across treatment groups, but indicated progressive deterioration from weeks 24-104 in all treatment groups. Overall, 91.0% (n = 142) of participants in the pooled bimagrumab group and 89.1% (n = 49) in the placebo group had ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (AE). Falls were slightly higher in the bimagrumab 3 mg/kg group vs 10 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and placebo groups (69.2% [n = 36 of 52] vs 56.6% [n = 30 of 53], 58.8% [n = 30 of 51], and 61.8% [n = 34 of 55], respectively). The most frequently reported AEs in the pooled bimagrumab group were diarrhea 14.7% (n = 23), involuntary muscle contractions 9.6% (n = 15), and rash 5.1% (n = 8). Incidence of serious AEs was comparable between the pooled bimagrumab and the placebo group (18.6% [n = 29] vs 14.5% [n = 8], respectively). CONCLUSION: Extended treatment with bimagrumab up to 2 years produced a good safety profile and was well-tolerated, but did not provide clinical benefits in terms of improvement in mobility. The extension study was terminated early due to core study not meeting its primary endpoint. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02573467. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with sIBM, long-term treatment with bimagrumab was safe, well-tolerated, and did not provide meaningful functional benefit. The study is rated Class IV because of the open-label design of extension treatment period 2.

4.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117305, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although polyneuropathy in patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis has been considered to be attributable to axonal degeneration resulting from amyloid deposition, patients with nerve conduction parameters indicating demyelination that mimics chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) have also been reported anecdotally. METHODS: We evaluated the electrophysiological and pathological features of 8 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis who were referred for sural nerve biopsy. RESULTS: Although findings of axonal neuropathy predominantly in the lower limbs were the cardinal feature, all patients showed one or more abnormalities of nerve conduction velocities or distal motor latencies. In particular, 2 of these patients fulfilled the definite electrophysiological for CIDP defined by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society (EFNS/PNS). On electron microscopic examination of sural nerve biopsy specimens, Schwann cells apposed to amyloid fibrils became atrophic in all patients, suggesting that amyloid deposits directly affect neighboring tissues. Additionally, detachment of the neurilemma from the outermost compacted myelin lamella was seen where amyloid fibrils were absent in 4 patients. Electrophysiological findings suggestive of demyelination were more conspicuous in these patients compared with the other patients. The detachment of the neurilemma from the outermost compacted myelin lamella was particularly conspicuous in patients who fulfilled the definite EFNS/PNS electrophysiological criteria for CIDP. CONCLUSION: Abnormalities of myelinated fibers unrelated to amyloid deposition may frequently occur in AL amyloidosis. Disjunction between myelin and the neurilemma may induce nerve conduction abnormalities suggestive of demyelination.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction characterized by executive dysfunction and persistent attention function has been reported in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, it is unclear if this contributes to the pain processing deficits associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: We clarified the relationship between pain processing and both cognitive function and sensory symptoms in patients with ALS. METHODS: We enrolled 23 patients with ALS and 14 healthy control subjects. We examined pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) using an intra-epidermal needle electrode. We evaluated cognitive function and the clinical characteristics of sensation and analyzed their relationships with pain-related SEPs. RESULTS: Pain-related SEP amplitudes were significantly lower, while the rate of amplitude attenuation due to habituation or change in attention was significantly greater in patients with ALS than in control subjects. There were no significant differences in pain-related SEP parameters between patients with or without sensory symptoms. Instead, pain-related SEP amplitude and its rate of attenuation were correlated with cognitive dysfunction, particularly with attention domains. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that attention deficit, but not sensory nerve involvement, is a major cause of the alterations in pain-related SEP in patients with ALS.

6.
Neurobiol Aging ; 100: 120.e1-120.e6, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339634

RESUMO

Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene are known to cause various neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report 8 Japanese patients [6 men, 2 women; median age at onset: 49.5 (range, 35-58) years] from 5 unrelated families with VCP missense mutations. Although 7 of 8 patients were diagnosed with either inclusion body myopathy or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 1 patient showed demyelinating polyneuropathy, which was confirmed by longitudinal nerve conduction studies. Sural nerve biopsy of the patient revealed intranuclear ubiquitin staining in Schwann cells. Three known pathogenic VCP mutations (p.Arg191Gln, p.Arg155Cys, and p.Ile126Phe) were detected. A novel mutation, c.293 A>T (p.Asp98Val), was also identified in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This mutation was predicted to be "deleterious" or "disease causing" using in silico mutation analyses. In conclusion, demyelinating polyneuropathy may be a novel phenotype caused by VCP mutations. The p.Asp98Val mutation was found to be a novel pathogenic mutation of VCP proteinopathy. We believe our cases represent a wide clinical spectrum of VCP mutations.

7.
mSystems ; 5(6)2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293403

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis has been repeatedly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) but only once in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) from Germany. Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein fibrils causing PD possibly starts from the intestine, although this is still currently under debate. iRBD patients frequently develop PD. Early-stage gut dysbiosis that is causally associated with PD is thus expected to be observed in iRBD. We analyzed gut microbiota in 26 iRBD patients and 137 controls by 16S rRNA sequencing (16S rRNA-seq). Our iRBD data set was meta-analyzed with the German iRBD data set and was compared with gut microbiota in 223 PD patients. Unsupervised clustering of gut microbiota by LIGER, a topic model-based tool for single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, revealed four enterotypes in controls, iRBD, and PD. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were conserved in an enterotype observed in controls and iRBD, whereas they were less conserved in enterotypes observed in PD. Genus Akkermansia and family Akkermansiaceae were consistently increased in both iRBD in two countries and PD in five countries. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were not significantly decreased in iRBD in two countries. In contrast, we previously reported that recognized or putative SCFA-producing genera Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group were consistently decreased in PD in five countries. In α-synucleinopathy, increase of mucin-layer-degrading genus Akkermansia is observed at the stage of iRBD, whereas decrease of SCFA-producing genera becomes obvious with development of PD.IMPORTANCE Twenty studies on gut microbiota in PD have been reported, whereas only one study has been reported on iRBD from Germany. iRBD has the highest likelihood ratio to develop PD. Our meta-analysis of iRBD in Japan and Germany revealed increased mucin-layer-degrading genus Akkermansia in iRBD. Genus Akkermansia may increase the intestinal permeability, as we previously observed in PD patients, and may make the intestinal neural plexus exposed to oxidative stress, which can lead to abnormal aggregation of prion-like α-synuclein fibrils in the intestine. In contrast to PD, SCFA-producing bacteria were not decreased in iRBD. As SCFA induces regulatory T (Treg) cells, a decrease of SCFA-producing bacteria may be a prerequisite for the development of PD. We propose that prebiotic and/or probiotic therapeutic strategies to increase the intestinal mucin layer and to increase intestinal SCFA potentially retard the development of iRBD and PD.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20524, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239649

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder in which nonmotor symptoms, such as constipation and hyposmia, precede the onset of motor symptoms by 20 years. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers at the premotor stage of PD. We assessed the differences in longitudinal changes in anthropometric and serological indices obtained from health check-up data before and after the onset of motor symptoms between male and female PD patients and healthy subjects. We enrolled 22 male and 23 female PD patients and 60 male and 60 female healthy controls. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate the trajectory of each clinical marker over the years before and after motor symptoms onset in the PD subjects, which were then compared with the trajectories of the healthy controls. The results showed a premotor blood pressure increase in female PD patients and premotor decreases in haematocrit, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the male patients. Our results indicated that blood pressure, haematocrit and serum cholesterol levels are potential premotor markers of PD. Additionally, the changes in anthropometric and serological indices before PD motor symptoms onset were sex specific.

9.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 592469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192489

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that connector hubs, regions considered critical for the flow of information across neural systems, are mostly involved in neurodegenerative dementia. Considering that aging can significantly affect the brain's intrinsic connectivity, identifying aging's impact on these regions' overall connection strength is important to differentiate changes associated with healthy aging from neurodegenerative disorders. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a carefully selected cohort of 175 healthy volunteers aging from 21 to 86 years old, we computed an intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) metric, which quantifies a region's overall connectivity strength, for whole brain, short-range, and long-range connections and examined age-related changes of this metric over the adult lifespan. We have identified a limited number of hub regions with ICC values that showed significant negative relationship with age. These include the medial precentral/midcingulate gyri and insula with both their short-range and long-range (and thus whole-brain) ICC values negatively associated with age, and the angular, middle frontal, and posterior cingulate gyri with their long-range ICC values mainly involved. Seed-based connectivity analyses further confirmed that these regions are connector hubs with connectivity profile that strongly overlapped with multiple large-scale brain networks. General cognitive performance was not associated with these hubs' ICC values. These findings suggest that even healthy aging could negatively impact the efficiency of regions critical for facilitating information transfer among different functional brain networks. The extent of the regions involved, however, was limited.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 909, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097688

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic inclusion of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Recent studies have suggested that the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregates is dependent on a liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) mechanism. However, it is unclear whether TDP-43 pathology is induced through a single intracellular mechanism such as LLPS. To identify intracellular mechanisms responsible for TDP-43 aggregation, we established a TDP-43 aggregation screening system using a cultured neuronal cell line stably expressing EGFP-fused TDP-43 and a mammalian expression library of the inherited ALS/FTLD causative genes, and performed a screening. We found that microtubule-related proteins (MRPs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) co-aggregated with TDP-43. MRPs and RBPs sequestered TDP-43 into the cytoplasmic aggregates through distinct mechanisms, such as microtubules and LLPS, respectively. The MRPs-induced TDP-43 aggregates were co-localized with aggresomal markers and dependent on histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), suggesting that aggresome formation induced the co-aggregation. However, the MRPs-induced aggregates were not affected by 1,6-hexanediol, an LLPS inhibitor. On the other hand, the RBPs-induced TDP-43 aggregates were sensitive to 1,6-hexanediol, but not dependent on microtubules or HDAC6. In sporadic ALS patients, approximately half of skein-like TDP-43 inclusions were co-localized with HDAC6, but round and granular type inclusion were not. Moreover, HDAC6-positive and HDAC6-negative inclusions were found in the same ALS patient, suggesting that the two distinct pathways are both involved in TDP-43 pathology. Our findings suggest that at least two distinct pathways (i.e., aggresome formation and LLPS) are involved in inducing the TDP-43 pathologies.

11.
Magn Reson Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The estimation of functional connectivity (FC) measures using resting state functional MRI (fMRI) is often affected by head motion during functional imaging scans. Head motion is more common in the elderly than in young participants and could therefore affect the evaluation of age-related changes in brain networks. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of head motion in FC estimation when evaluating age-related changes in brain networks. METHODS: This study involved 132 healthy volunteers divided into 3 groups: elderly participants with high motion (OldHM, mean age (±SD) = 69.6 (±5.31), N = 44), elderly participants with low motion (OldLM, mean age (±SD) = 68.7 (±4.59), N = 43), and young adult participants with low motion (YugLM, mean age (±SD) = 27.6 (±5.26), N = 45). Head motion was quantified using the mean of the framewise displacement of resting state fMRI data. After preprocessing all resting state fMRI datasets, several resting state networks (RSNs) were extracted using independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, several network metrics were also calculated using network analysis. These FC measures were then compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: In ICA, the number of voxels with significant differences in RSNs was higher in YugLM vs. OldLM comparison than in YugLM vs. OldHM. In network analysis, all network metrics showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in comparisons involving low vs. high motion groups (OldHM vs. OldLM and OldHM vs. YugLM). However, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the comparison involving the low motion groups (OldLM vs. YugLM). CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that head motion during functional imaging could significantly affect the evaluation of age-related brain network changes using resting state fMRI data.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(11): 2115-2126, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystem disorder associated with motor impairment and behavioral/cognitive involvement. We examined decision-making features and changes in the neural hub network in patients with ALS using a probabilistic reversal learning task and resting-state network analysis, respectively. METHODS: Ninety ALS patients and 127 cognitively normal participants performed this task. Data from 62 ALS patients and 63 control participants were fitted to a Q-learning model. RESULTS: ALS patients had anomalous decision-making features with little shift in choice until they thought the value of the two alternatives had become equal. The quantified parameters (Pαß) calculated by logistic regression analysis with learning rate and inverse temperature well represented the unique choice pattern of ALS patients. Resting-state network analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between Pαß and decreased degree centrality in the anterior cingulate gyrus and frontal pole. INTERPRETATION: Altered decision-making in ALS patients may be related to the decreased hub function of medial prefrontal areas.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888732

RESUMO

Two recent genetic studies reported that loss-of-function mutation of the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain of the KIF5A gene cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of KIF5A variants in Japanese patients with sporadic ALS. In total, 807 sporadic ALS patients and 191 normal controls from a multicenter ALS cohort in Japan were included. Whole exome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 sequencer was used to identify and select variants within the KIF5A gene. Thirteen patients harbored a nonsynonymous variant in the KIF5A gene; These were considered variants of uncertain significance. One patient harbored a novel splice-site variant (c.2993-3C>A) in the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain of the KIF5A gene. Functional analysis of this variant revealed that it caused skipping of exon 27. The frequency of KIF5A mutations in Japanese patients with sporadic ALS was 0.12% (1/807). This study reports a novel loss-of-function variant in KIF5A, and indicates that loss-of-function variant in KIF5A is a rare cause of sporadic ALS in Japanese patients.

15.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 526, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968195

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10-8). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10-4). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10-11). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.

17.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 80: 21-27, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of the cerebellum in Parkinson's disease (PD) has attracted increasing attention; however, the role of functional connectivity (FC) between the basal ganglia and particular cerebellar subregions remains to be elucidated. We aimed to clarify the FC and its contribution to motor and cognitive performances in patients with PD. METHODS: We included 99 patients with PD and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in this study. We created a cerebellar functional parcellation by performing cerebellum-only independent component analysis. Using the functional parcellation map, we performed seed-based connectivity analysis using each region as a seed and extracted the mean correlation coefficients within the thalamus and basal ganglia, including the caudate, pallidum, putamen and subthalamic nucleus. We examined the group differences and correlations with the motor and general cognitive scores. In addition, we conducted a mediation analysis to clarify the relationship among FC, motor severity, and cognition. RESULTS: The PD group showed decreased FC between a wide range of cerebellar subregions and the basal ganglia. Motor severity was correlated with FC between the subthalamic nucleus and posterior Crus I/II, and general cognitive performance scores correlated with FC between the caudate nucleus and medial-posterior part of the Crus I/II (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). The cerebello-caudate network had a direct effect on cognitive performance (p = 9.0 × 10-3), although partially mediated by motor performance (p = 8.2 × 10-3). CONCLUSION: FC between cerebellar Crus I/II and divergent basal ganglia related to motor and cognitive performance in PD.

18.
Neurol Ther ; : 1-17, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983832

RESUMO

ATTR amyloidosis is caused by systemic deposition of transthyretin (TTR) and comprises ATTRwt (wt for wild-type) amyloidosis, ATTRv (v for variant) amyloidosis, and acquired ATTR amyloidosis after domino liver transplantation. ATTRwt amyloidosis has classically been regarded as cardiomyopathy found in the elderly, whereas carpal tunnel syndrome has also become a major initial manifestation. The phenotypes of ATTRv amyloidosis are diverse and include neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and oculoleptomeningeal involvement as the predominant features, depending on the mutation and age of onset. In addition to variant TTR, the deposition of wild-type TTR plays a significant role, even in patients with ATTRv amyloidosis. The formation of amyloid fibrils tends to occur in association with the basement membrane. The thickening or reduplication of the basement membrane surrounding endoneurial microvessels, which is similar to diabetic neuropathy, is observed in ATTRv amyloidosis, suggesting that common mechanisms, such as an accumulation of advanced glycation end products, may participate in the disease process. In addition to direct damage caused by amyloid fibrils, recent studies have suggested that the toxicity of nonfibrillar TTRs, such as TTR oligomers, participates in the process of tissue damage. Although liver transplantation has been performed for patients with ATTRv amyloidosis since 1990, late-onset patients were not eligible for this treatment. However, as the efficacy of orally administered tafamidis and diflunisal, which stabilize TTR tetramers, was suggested in the early 2010s, such late-onset patients have also become targets for disease-modifying therapies. Additionally, recent studies of small interfering RNA (patisiran) and antisense oligonucleotide (inotersen) therapies have demonstrated the efficacy of these gene-silencing agents. A strategy for monitoring patients that enables the choice of an appropriate treatment from comprehensive and long-term viewpoints should be established. As many patients with ATTR amyloidosis are aged and have heart failure, they are at increased risk of aggravation if they are infected by SARS-CoV2. The optimal interval of evaluation should also be considered, particularly in this COVID-19 era.

19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(10): 1085-1091, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934110

RESUMO

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disorder caused by CAG trinucleotide expansion in the gene encoding the androgen receptor (AR). In the central nervous system, lower motor neurons are selectively affected, whereas pathology of patients and animal models also indicates involvement of skeletal muscle including loss of fast-twitch type 2 fibres and increased slow-twitch type 1 fibres, together with a glycolytic-to-oxidative metabolic switch. Evaluation of muscle and fat using MRI, in addition to biochemical indices such as serum creatinine level, are promising biomarkers to track the disease progression. The serum level of creatinine starts to decrease before the onset of muscle weakness, followed by the emergence of hand tremor, a prodromal sign of the disease. Androgen-dependent nuclear accumulation of the polyglutamine-expanded AR is an essential step in the pathogenesis, providing therapeutic opportunities via hormonal manipulation and gene silencing with antisense oligonucleotides. Animal studies also suggest that hyperactivation of Src, alteration of autophagy and a mitochondrial deficit underlie the neuromuscular degeneration in SBMA and provide alternative therapeutic targets.

20.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947653

RESUMO

Remyelination plays an important role in determining the fate of demyelinating disorders. However, it is arrested during chronic disease states. Cystatin F, a papain-like lysosomal cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is a crucial regulator of demyelination and remyelination. Using hemizygous proteolipid protein transgenic 4e (PLP4e/- ) mice, an animal model of chronic demyelination, we found that cystatin F mRNA expression was induced at 2.5 months of age and up-regulated in the early phase of demyelination, but significantly decreased in the chronic phase. We next investigated cystatin F regulatory factors as potential mechanisms of remyelination arrest in chronic demyelinating disorders. We used the CysF-STOP-tetO::Iba-mtTA mouse model, in which cystatin F gene expression is driven by the tetracycline operator. Interestingly, we found that forced cystatin F mRNA over-expression was eventually decreased. Our findings show that cystatin F expression is modulated post-transcriptionally. We next identified embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, drosophila like RNA-binding protein 1 (ELAVL-1), and miR29a as cystatin F mRNA stabilizing and destabilizing factors, respectively. These roles were confirmed in vitro in NIH3T3 cells. Using postmortem plaque samples from human multiple sclerosis patients, we also confirmed that ELAVL-1 expression was highly correlated with the previously reported expression pattern of cystatin F. These data indicate the important roles of ELAVL-1 and miR29a in regulating cystatin F expression. Furthermore, they provide new insights into potential therapeutic targets for demyelinating disorders.

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