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1.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), catheter ablation is considered as first-line therapy. Despite high success rates, some patients present with arrhythmia recurrence or develop other types of arrhythmias over time. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of symptomatic arrhythmias after initially successful AVNRT ablation and to analyze their clinical implications in a real-world cohort. METHODS: We included 2,795 patients from the German Ablation Registry undergoing first ablation of AVNRT between 01/2007 and 01/2010. In patients alive at long-term follow-up, patient-specific characteristics and long-term follow-up data were compared between patients with (group A) and without (group B) any symptomatic arrhythmia during follow-up. RESULTS: Symptomatic arrhythmias occurred in 17.2% of patients during a mean follow-up of 678 days after AVNRT ablation. The patients with symptomatic arrhythmias were more often female and suffered from structural heart disease. Arrhythmia occurrence was clinically relevant regarding symptoms and patient satisfaction. Serious adverse events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, pacemaker implantation, as well as continued use of antiarrhythmic medication occurred more often in group A. A second ablation procedure was performed in 26% of symptomatic patients to optimize the symptomatic outcome, whereas cardiovascular events or patient satisfaction were not further improved. CONCLUSION: During long-term follow-up, one out of six patients experienced symptomatic arrhythmias after AVNRT ablation, associated with an increase of serious adverse events. A subset of patients required medical or interventional antiarrhythmic therapy, possibly attributable to the co-existence of other arrhythmias. Screening for arrhythmic and cardiac co-morbidity before and after ablation may support comprehensive therapy planning and outcome.

2.
Clin Biochem ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine gender-specific reference limits of high-sensitivity (hs) cardiac troponins (cTn) and validity of hs assay designation for both genders. METHODS: After screening with a questionnaire, 827 presumably healthy individuals were further selected based on clinical criteria (n=740), clinical criteria plus cardiac imaging including stress magnetic resonance imaging or stress echocardiography (n=726), and extended cardio-pulmonary parameters (n=626). Blood samples were measured with hs-cTnT (Roche Diagnostics) on a cobas e602 analyzer as well as hs-cTnI (Abbott Diagnostics) on an ARCHITECTi2000SR. The impact of health definition, statistical methods, instrument selection and limit of detection (LoD) on overall and gender-specific 99th percentiles was assessed. RESULTS: Median age was 56 years (50.9% female) for the total study cohort. 99th percentiles for females and males ranged between 13.1-13.3 ng/L and 16.8-19.9 ng/L for hs-cTnT as well as 10.3-12.5 ng/L and 27.4-29.7 ng/L for hs-cTnI depending on health definition. Utilization of stricter health definition criteria reduced the difference of the gender-specific 99th percentiles between males and females for hs-cTnT to 3.7 ng/L (males 16.8 ng/L, females 13.1 ng/L), whereas the difference rather increased for hs-cTnI to 19.4 ng/L (males 29.7 ng/L, females 10.3 ng/L). Values >LoD could be measured in the majority of males and females using hs-TnT (81.4-83.3% and 96.5-96.9%, respectively). In contrast, values >LoD could not be observed in the majority of females using hs-cTnI (38.4-41.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In a well-phenotyped healthy cohort, reference values for hs-cTnT were slightly higher, whereas hs-cTnI cut-offs were considerably lower than previously observed. Gender differences were more pronounced in hs-cTnI than in hs-cTnT and were further reduced for hs-cTnT by application of stricter health definition criteria. Contrary to hs-cTnI, hs-cTnT fulfilled criteria for hs designation for both genders.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802644

RESUMO

Cardiac sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a large spectrum of symptoms that can mimic diseases such as dilated, hypertrophic, or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. It can be asymptomatic but can also present with ventricular arrhythmias, conduction disease, and heart failure (HF) or even sudden cardiac death (SCD). We present here the case of a patient transplanted due to end-stage arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), fulfilling the task force criteria. A few years after successful heart transplantation (HTX), the patient developed similar symptoms and morphofunctional changes of the heart, which led to critical re-evaluation of his primary diagnosis.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863563

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of aspirin on prognosis in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from the International Takotsubo (InterTAK) Registry were categorized into two groups based on aspirin prescription at discharge. A comparison of clinical outcomes between groups was performed using an adjusted analysis with propensity score (PS) stratification; results from the unadjusted analysis were also reported to note the effect of the PS adjustment. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: a composite of death, myocardial infarction, TTS recurrence, stroke or transient ischaemic attack) were assessed at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. A total of 1533 TTS patients with known status regarding aspirin prescription at discharge were included. According to the adjusted analysis based on PS stratification, aspirin was not associated with a lower hazard of MACCE at 30-day [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-3.04, P = 0.64] or 5-year follow-up (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78-1.58, P = 0.58). These results were confirmed by sensitivity analyses performed with alternative PS-based methods, i.e. covariate adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weighting. CONCLUSION: In the present study, no association was found between aspirin use in TTS patients and a reduced risk of MACCE at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. These findings should be confirmed in adequately powered randomized controlled trials. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01947621.

6.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619878075, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. We aimed to determine whether baseline inflammatory markers were associated with clinical outcomes and the observed superiority of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO study. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 16,400 patients within 24 hours of the onset of acute coronary syndrome, at the time of random assignment to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO study and prior to invasive procedures. The differential white blood cell count and plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were determined and their relationships with clinical outcomes were assessed according to quartiles and using continuous models. The substudy primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Compared to the lowest quartile, the risk of the primary endpoint was significantly elevated in patients in the highest quartile of white blood cell count (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30; P=0.01), neutrophil count (HR 1.33; P=0.007), monocyte count (HR 1.24; P=0.004), C-reactive protein (HR 1.93; P<0.001) and interleukin-6 (HR 2.29; P<0.001). This was predominantly driven by an association with cardiovascular death. Following adjustment for clinical characteristics, troponin, cystatin C and N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide, only white blood cell count and neutrophil count maintained a significant association with the primary endpoint. Ticagrelor had a consistent relative cardiovascular benefit compared to clopidogrel in each quartile of each of the inflammatory markers. CONCLUSIONS: Acute coronary syndrome patients with elevated levels of baseline inflammatory markers are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, particularly cardiovascular death. The consistent cardiovascular benefit of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel tended to confer a greater absolute risk reduction in patients with the highest levels of inflammatory markers, as they were at highest risk.

7.
Herz ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) function undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery or/and aortic valve replacement occasionally show severe mitral valve (MV) regurgitation and thus also undergo surgical mitral annuloplasty. Over time, further deterioration of LV function and additional ischemic events cause recurrence of severe MV regurgitation due to the Carpentier IIIb morphology of the MV that is not adequately addressed by the previously implanted annuloplasty ring. METHODS: Seven patients (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 7.5 ± 1.5%) with Carpentier type-IIIb recurrent severe MV regurgitation, having undergone prior cardiothoracic surgery (median: 40 months) including mitral annuloplasty, were treated with the MitraClip device. RESULTS: MitraClip implantation resulted in significantly reduced MV regurgitation and improved New York Heart Association functional state, translating into an increased exercise capability and improved cardiac biomarkers. The morphology of the MV was adequately addressed without causing relevant MV stenosis, while the MV annulus area remained unaltered. The procedure was safe with a 30-day mortality rate of 0%. CONCLUSION: MitraClip-in-the-ring is feasible and in principle safe for treating Carpentier type IIIb severe MV regurgitation after surgical MV repair using mitral annuloplasty. MitraClip-in-the-ring resulted in immediate amelioration of clinical symptoms and increased physical exercise capacity.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16787, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728028

RESUMO

Endothelial pro-inflammatory activation plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, and many pro-inflammatory and atherogenic signals converge upon mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Inhibitors of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) reduced atherosclerosis in preclinical studies, but side effects including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia limit their clinical use in this context. Therefore, we investigated PRAS40, a cell type-specific endogenous modulator of mTORC1, as alternative target. Indeed, we previously found PRAS40 gene therapy to improve metabolic profile; however, its function in endothelial cells and its role in atherosclerosis remain unknown. Here we show that PRAS40 negatively regulates endothelial mTORC1 and pro-inflammatory signaling. Knockdown of PRAS40 in endothelial cells promoted TNFα-induced mTORC1 signaling, proliferation, upregulation of inflammatory markers and monocyte recruitment. In contrast, PRAS40-overexpression blocked mTORC1 and all measures of pro-inflammatory signaling. These effects were mimicked by pharmacological mTORC1-inhibition with torin1. In an in vivo model of atherogenic remodeling, mice with induced endothelium-specific PRAS40 deficiency showed enhanced endothelial pro-inflammatory activation as well as increased neointimal hyperplasia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. These data indicate that PRAS40 suppresses atherosclerosis via inhibition of endothelial mTORC1-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling. In conjunction with its favourable effects on metabolic homeostasis, this renders PRAS40 a potential target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

9.
Nat Metab ; 1(11): 1157-1167, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742248

RESUMO

Catecholamines stimulate the first step of lipolysis by PKA-dependent release of the lipid droplet-associated protein ABHD5 from perilipin to co-activate the lipase ATGL. Here, we unmask a yet unrecognized proteolytic and cardioprotective function of ABHD5. ABHD5 acts in vivo and in vitro as a serine protease cleaving HDAC4. Through the production of an N-terminal polypeptide of HDAC4 (HDAC4-NT), ABHD5 inhibits MEF2-dependent gene expression and thereby controls glucose handling. ABHD5-deficiency leads to neutral lipid storage disease in mice. Cardiac-specific gene therapy of HDAC4-NT does not protect from intra-cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation but strikingly from heart failure, thereby challenging the concept of lipotoxicity-induced heart failure. ABHD5 levels are reduced in failing human hearts and murine transgenic ABHD5 expression protects from pressure-overload induced heart failure. These findings represent a conceptual advance by connecting lipid with glucose metabolism through HDAC4 proteolysis and enable new translational approaches to treat cardiometabolic disease.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620788

RESUMO

AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut incretin hormone inducing post-prandial insulin secretion. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were recently found to be increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of GLP-1 serum levels for cardiovascular outcome in patients with myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 918 patients presenting with myocardial infarction [321 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 597 non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)] total GLP-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score were assessed at time of hospital admission. The primary composite outcome of the study was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and univariable Cox regression analyses found GLP-1 to be associated with adverse outcome [hazard ratio (HR) of logarithmized GLP-1 values: 6.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.67-14.81; P < 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, sex, family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterinaemia, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) CKD-EPI, hs-CRP, hs-Troponin T, and NT-proBNP levels the HR remained significant at 10.98 (95% CI: 2.63-45.90; P = 0.0010). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analyses illustrated that GLP-1 levels are a strong indicator for early events. For events up to 30 days after admission, GLP-1 proved to be superior to other biomarkers including hs-Troponin T, GFR CKD-EPI, hs-CRP, and NT-proBNP. Adjustment of the GRACE risk estimate by addition of GLP-1 increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve over time in NSTEMI patients. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction, GLP-1 levels are associated with cardiovascular events.

11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac amyloidosis, caused by deposition of immunoglobulin light chains (AL) or transthyretin (ATTR), carries a poor prognosis. Established risk scores for amyloidosis may not predict outcomes in those patients who develop advanced heart failure and who are potential candidates for heart transplantation. Here, we aimed to identify predictive parameters for patients with severe heart failure due to amyloidosis. METHODS: Out of > 1000 patients with cardiac amyloidosis (AL or ATTR) admitted to our centre between September 1998 and January 2016, a cohort of 120 patients with a complete cardiac assessment at diagnosis, including right heart catheterization, echocardiography and biomarkers, was analysed retrospectively in this study. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, generated risk scores to predict outcomes in AL and ATTR amyloidosis and compared those to established risk models for amyloidosis. RESULTS: In the Cox multivariate model, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT; hazard ratio (HR) 1.003; confidence interval (CI) 1.001-1.005; p = 0.009) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (HR 1.061; CI 1.024-1.100; p = 0.001) were found to significantly and independently predict outcomes for AL amyloidosis, whereas QRS duration (HR 1.021; CI 1.004-1.039; p = 0.013), hsTnT (HR 1.021; CI 1.006-1.036; p = 0.006) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (HR 1.0003; CI 1.0001-1.0004; p = 0.002) were the best predictors for ATTR amyloidosis. A simple risk score ("HeiRisk") including these parameters for AL and ATTR allowed a more precise risk stratification in our patient population compared to established risk models. CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification for cardiac amyloidosis with the newly developed "HeiRisk" score may be superior to other staging systems for patients with advanced heart failure due to amyloid cardiomyopathy.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635148

RESUMO

Mechanosensitive hTREK-1 two-pore-domain potassium (hK2P2.1) channels give rise to background currents that control cellular excitability. Recently, TREK-1 currents have been linked to the regulation of cardiac rhythm as well as to hypertrophy and fibrosis. Even though the pharmacological and biophysical characteristics of hTREK-1 channels have been widely studied, relatively little is known about their posttranslational modifications. This study aimed to evaluate whether hTREK-1 channels are N-glycosylated and whether glycosylation may affect channel functionality. Following pharmacological inhibition of N-glycosylation, enzymatic digestion or mutagenesis, immunoblots of Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293T cell lysates were used to assess electrophoretic mobility. Two-electrode voltage clamp measurements were employed to study channel function. TREK-1 channel subunits undergo N-glycosylation at asparagine residues 110 and 134. The presence of sugar moieties at these two sites increases channel function. Detection of glycosylation-deficient mutant channels in surface fractions and recordings of macroscopic potassium currents mediated by these subunits demonstrated that nonglycosylated hTREK-1 channel subunits are able to reach the cell surface in general but with seemingly reduced efficiency compared to glycosylated subunits. These findings extend our understanding of the regulation of hTREK-1 currents by posttranslational modifications and provide novel insights into how altered ion channel glycosylation may promote arrhythmogenesis.

13.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(12): 1202-1209, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess associations between circulating IL-18 concentrations and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). HYPOTHESIS AND METHODS: Plasma IL-18 concentrations were measured at admission, discharge, 1 month, and 6 months in patients with ACS in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Associations with outcomes were evaluated with Cox regression models on the composite of CV death, spontaneous myocardial infarction (sMI), or stroke; and on CV death or sMI separately, including adjustment for clinical risk factors and biomarkers (cTnT-hs, NT-proBNP, cystatin C, CRP-hs, and GDF-15). RESULTS: Median IL-18 concentrations at baseline, discharge, 1 month, and 6 months were 237, 283, 305, and 320 ng/L (n = 16 636). Male sex, obesity, diabetes, and plasma levels of cystatin C, GDF-15, and CRP-hs were independently associated with higher IL-18 levels. Higher baseline IL-18 levels were associated with the composite endpoint and with CV death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.07 and HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.14, respectively, per 25% increase of IL-18 levels). Associations remained significant after adjustment for clinical variables but became non-significant after adjustment for all biomarkers (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.04 and HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08, respectively). There were no associations with sMI. CONCLUSIONS: In ACS patients, IL-18 concentrations increased after the acute event and remained increased for 6 months. Baseline IL-18 levels were significantly associated with CV mortality, independent of clinical characteristics and indicators of renal/cardiac dysfunction but this association was attenuated after adjustment for multiple biomarkers.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate myocardial injury and infarction (MI) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: The substantially higher analytical power of high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) assays allows detection of minor cardiac troponin (cTn) levels, which may be useful in monitoring myocardial injury and guiding therapies. METHODS: Serial hsTnT measurements were conducted in patients undergoing elective PCI and were related to the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) as reflected by the SYNTAX score risk categories and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of coronary lesions. Myocardial injury and MI were diagnosed according to the second and third versions of universal MI definition. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 530 patients, who were grouped into low (41.3%), intermediate (35.4%), and high (23.3%) SYNTAX risk categories. The treated coronary lesions were classified into A 7.8%, B1 24.1%, B2 21.1%, C1 24.6%, and C2 22.4%. Postprocedural hsTnT increases correlated significantly with the complexity of treated coronary lesions (p < 0.05) and CAD magnitude (p < 0.05). Rates of MI type 4a according to the second and third MI definition criteria were 98 (27.5%) and 15 (4.2%) cases in patients with normal baseline hsTnT values (N = 357, 67.4%), as well as 137 (79.2%) and 27 (15.6%) cases in those with elevated baseline hsTnT values (N = 173, 32.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: After elective PCI, cTn releases correlate significantly with lesion complexity and CAD extent. Use of hsTnT assay enables precise monitoring of PCI-related myocardial injury and may identify patients at higher risk for ischemic events, who may benefit from potent platelet inhibition, which needs to be investigated in randomized trials.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 381(16): 1524-1534, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative merits of ticagrelor as compared with prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom invasive evaluation is planned are uncertain. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes and for whom invasive evaluation was planned to receive either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. A major secondary end point (the safety end point) was bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 4018 patients underwent randomization. A primary end-point event occurred in 184 of 2012 patients (9.3%) in the ticagrelor group and in 137 of 2006 patients (6.9%) in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.70; P = 0.006). The respective incidences of the individual components of the primary end point in the ticagrelor group and the prasugrel group were as follows: death, 4.5% and 3.7%; myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 3.0%; and stroke, 1.1% and 1.0%. Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred in 1.3% of patients assigned to ticagrelor and 1.0% of patients assigned to prasugrel, and definite stent thrombosis occurred in 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively. Major bleeding (as defined by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium scale) was observed in 5.4% of patients in the ticagrelor group and in 4.8% of patients in the prasugrel group (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.51; P = 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who presented with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation, the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was significantly lower among those who received prasugrel than among those who received ticagrelor, and the incidence of major bleeding was not significantly different between the two groups. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research and Deutsches Herzzentrum München; ISAR-REACT 5 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01944800.).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 267: 101-109, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483261

RESUMO

One of the major obstacles for research on German medical reports is the lack of de-identified medical corpora. Previous de-identification tasks focused on non-German medical texts, which raised the demand for an in-depth evaluation of de-identification methods on German medical texts. Because of remarkable advancements in natural language processing using supervised machine learning methods on limited training data, we evaluated them for the first time on German medical reports using our annotated data set consisting of 113 medical reports from the cardiology domain. We applied state-of-the-art deep learning methods using pre-trained models as input to a bidirectional LSTM network and well-established conditional random fields for de-identification of German medical reports. We performed an extensive evaluation for de-identification and multiclass named entity recognition. Using rule based and out of domain machine learning methods as a baseline, the conditional random field improved F2-score from 70 to 93% for de-identification, the neural approach reached 96% in F2-score while keeping balanced precision and recall rates. These results show, that state-of-the-art machine learning methods can play a crucial role in de-identification of German medical reports.


Assuntos
Anonimização de Dados , Aprendizado Profundo , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Linguagem Natural
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 48(4): 563-569, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512201

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and abnormal glucose metabolism are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated the prevalence and prognostic importance of dysglycaemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Diabetes was defined as known diabetes or HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or non-fasting glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L on admission, prediabetes as HbA1c ≥ 5.7% but < 6.5%, and no diabetes as HbA1c < 5.7%. The primary endpoint was the composite of CV death, spontaneous myocardial infarction type 1 (sMI) or stroke at 12 months. Multivariable Cox regression models, adjusting for baseline characteristics, and biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I, were used to explore the association between glycaemia and outcome. On admission, 16,007 (86.1%) patients had HbA1c and/or glucose levels available and were subdivided into DM 38.5% (6160) (1501 patients had no previous DM diagnosis), prediabetes 38.8% (6210), and no DM 22.7% (3637). Kaplan Meier event rates at 12 months for CV death, sMI or stroke per subgroups were 14.5% (832), 9.0% (522), and 8.5% (293), respectively with multivariable adjusted HRs, versus no diabetes, for diabetes: 1.71 (1.50-1.95) and for prediabetes 1.03 (0.90-1.19). Corresponding event rates for CV death were 6.9% (391), 3.4% (195) and 3.0% (102), respectively, with adjusted HRs for patients with DM of: 1.92 (1.42-2.60) and for prediabetes 1.02 (0.79-1.32). Abnormal glucose metabolism is common in ACS patients, but only patients with definite DM have an increased CV risk, indicating that prediabetes is not immediately associated with worse CV outcomes.

18.
Heart Vessels ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531718

RESUMO

To compare antegrade versus retrograde recanalization, in terms of procedural time, radiation and contrast agent exposure, number and total length of implanted stents and procedural complications, in long and calcified, de novo femoropopliteal occlusions. We performed retrospective matching of prospectively acquired data by lesion length, occlusion length and lesion calcification by the peripheral arterial calcium scoring system (PACSS) score in patients who were referred for endovascular treatment due to symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). Forty-two consecutive patients with antegrade and 23 patients with retrograde after failed antegrade recanalization were identified (mean lesion length = 32.1 ± 6.9 cm; mean occlusion length = 24.6 ± 7.7 cm; PACSS score = 3.25 ± 0.91). 23% of the patients had intermittent claudication, whereas 77% exhibited critical limb ischemia (CLI). Patients who underwent retrograde versus antegrade recanalization required a significantly lower number of stents (0.9 ± 1.0 versus 1.8 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and a lower total stent length (6.8 ± 8.5 cm versus 11.7 ± 9.9 cm, p < 0.05) in the interest of more extensive coverage of the lesions using drug coated balloons (DCB) (28.5 ± 12.0 cm versus 18.2 ± 16.0 cm, p = 0.01). No re-entry device was required with the retrograde versus 9 of 42 (21%) with the antegrade recanalization group (p = 0.02). The rate of complications due to retrograde puncture was low (one patient with hematoma and one with distal pseudoaneurysm, both managed conservatively). In long and calcified femoropopliteal occlusions, the retrograde approach is associated with a lower number of re-entry devices and stents and with more extensive lesion coverage with DCB, in the interest of costs and possibly long-term patency.German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00015277.

19.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(9): e007465, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing understanding of atrial fibrillation (AF) pathophysiology, translation into mechanism-based treatment options is lacking. In atrial cardiomyocytes of patients with chronic AF, expression, and function of tandem of P domains in a weak inward rectifying TASK-1 (K+ channel-related acid-sensitive K+ channel-1) (K2P3.1) atrial-specific 2-pore domain potassium channels is enhanced, resulting in action potential duration shortening. TASK-1 channel inhibition prevents action potential duration shortening to maintain values observed among sinus rhythm subjects. The present preclinical study used a porcine AF model to evaluate the antiarrhythmic efficacy of TASK-1 inhibition by adeno-associated viral anti-TASK-1-siRNA (small interfering RNA) gene transfer. METHODS: AF was induced in domestic pigs by atrial burst stimulation via implanted pacemakers. Adeno-associated viral vectors carrying anti-TASK-1-siRNA were injected into both atria to suppress TASK-1 channel expression. After the 14-day follow-up period, porcine cardiomyocytes were isolated from right and left atrium, followed by electrophysiological and molecular characterization. RESULTS: AF was associated with increased TASK-1 transcript, protein and ion current levels leading to shortened action potential duration in atrial cardiomyocytes compared to sinus rhythm controls, similar to previous findings in humans. Anti-TASK-1 adeno-associated viral application significantly reduced AF burden in comparison to untreated AF pigs. Antiarrhythmic effects of anti-TASK-1-siRNA were associated with reduction of TASK-1 currents and prolongation of action potential durations in atrial cardiomyocytes to sinus rhythm values. Conclusions Adeno-associated viral-based anti-TASK-1 gene therapy suppressed AF and corrected cellular electrophysiological remodeling in a porcine model of AF. Suppression of AF through selective reduction of TASK-1 currents represents a new option for antiarrhythmic therapy.

20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(1): 141-147, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481236

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained arrhythmia and can lead to structural cardiac changes, known as tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC). HCN4 is implicated in spontaneous excitation of the sinoatrial node, while channel dysfunction has been associated with sinus bradycardia, AF and structural heart disease. We here asked whether HCN4 mutations may contribute to the development of TIC, as well. Mutation scanning of HCN4 in 60 independent patients with AF and suspected TIC followed by panel sequencing in carriers of HCN4 variants identified the HCN4 variant P883R [minor allele frequency (MAF): 0,88%], together with the KCNE1 variant S38G (MAF: 65%) in three unrelated patients. Family histories revealed additional cases of AF, sudden cardiac death and cardiomyopathy. Patch-clamp recordings of HCN4-P883R channels expressed in HEK293 cells showed remarkable alterations of channel properties shifting the half-maximal activation voltage to more depolarized potentials, while channel deactivation was faster compared to wild-type (WT). Co-transfection of WT and mutant subunits, resembling the heterozygous cellular situation of our patients, revealed significantly higher current densities compared to WT. In conclusion HCN4-P883R may increase ectopic trigger and maintenance of AF by shifting the activation voltage of If to more positive potentials and producing higher current density. Together with the common KCNE1 variant S38G, previously proposed as a genetic modifier of AF, HCN4-P883R may provide a substrate for the development of AF and TIC.

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