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1.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187192

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to assess the prognostic role of copeptin in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute symptoms and increased high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. METHODS: A total of 3890 patients presenting with acute symptoms to the emergency department of Heidelberg University Hospital were assessed for increased hs-cTnT (>14 ng/L) from three cohorts: the Heidelberg Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Registry (n = 2477), the BIOPS Registry (n = 320), and the ACS OMICS Registry (n = 1093). In a pooled analysis, 1956 patients remained, comprising of 1600 patients with ACS and 356 patients with non-ACS. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 1468 days in the ACS cohort and 709 days in the non-ACS cohort. Elevated copeptin levels (>10 pmol/L) were found in 1174 patients (60.0%) in the entire cohort (58.1% in ACS and 68.5% in non-ACS, respectively) and mortality rates were significantly higher than in patients with normal copeptin levels (29.0% vs. 10.7%, p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression, elevated copeptin was independently associated with all-cause death in the ACS (HR = 1.7, 1.3-2.3, p = 0.002) and non-ACS cohort (HR = 2.7, 1.4-5.0, p = 0.0018). CONCLUSION: Copeptin may aid in identifying patients at risk for adverse outcomes in patients with increased levels of hs-cTnT in ACS patients and in non-ACS conditions.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early recognition of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) is a major clinical challenge for preventing thromboembolic events. In this prospective and multicentric study we evaluated prediction scores for the presence of pAF, calculated from non-invasive medical history and echocardiographic parameters, in patients with unknown AF status. METHODS: The 12-parameter score with parameters age, LA diameter, aortic root diameter, LV,ESD, TDI A', heart frequency, sleep apnea, hyperlipidemia, type II diabetes, smoker, ß-blocker, catheter ablation, and the 4-parameter score with parameters age, LA diameter, aortic root diameter and TDI A' were tested. Presence of pAF was verified by continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring for up to 21 days in 305 patients. RESULTS: The 12-parameter score correctly predicted pAF in all 34 patients, in which pAF was newly detected by ECG monitoring. The 12- and 4-parameter scores showed sensitivities of 100% and 82% (95%-CI 65%, 93%), specificities of 75% (95%-CI 70%, 80%) and 67% (95%-CI 61%, 73%), and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.84 (95%-CI 0.80, 0.88) and 0.81 (95%-CI 0.74, 0.87). Furthermore, properties of AF episodes and durations of ECG monitoring necessary to detect pAF were analysed. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction scores adequately detected pAF using variables readily available during routine cardiac assessment and echocardiography. The model scores, denoted as ECHO-AF scores, represent simple, highly sensitive and non-invasive tools for detecting pAF that can be easily implemented in the clinical practice and might serve as screening test to initiate further diagnostic investigations for validating the presence of pAF. Prospective validation of a novel prediction model for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation based on echocardiography and medical history parameters by long-term Holter ECG.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107214

RESUMO

AIMS: Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) via MitraClip (MC) has emerged as a feasible treatment strategy for these high-risk patients. However, as HF often further progresses, there is a frequent need for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation in these patients. We aimed to investigate whether prior MC implantation affects the subsequent LVAD implantation and outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with advanced HF and significant MR who underwent LVAD implantation were retrospectively analysed. Follow-up data were collected at 1 year after LVAD implantation. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoint included peri-operative parameters and clinical development depicted as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) level. Seventeen patients initially received a MC device (MC group), resulting in a significant reduction in MR grade. After MC, NYHA class and INTERMACS level further worsened, leading to subsequent LVAD implantation after a median time of 475 days in the MC group. At LVAD implantation, overall characteristics were comparable with those of the patients undergoing LVAD implantation without prior MC placement (no-MC group). Procedural data revealed a higher incidence of right ventricular (RV) failure needing mechanical RV assistance and a longer need for nitric oxide ventilation in the MC group after LVAD implantation. One-year survival was slightly better in the no-MC group compared with the MC group [41% (n = 7/17) vs. 65% (n = 13/20); P = 0.15], albeit event-free survival was comparable between both groups, MC and no-MC. CONCLUSIONS: LVAD implantation after MC is feasible and safe. However, in patients with advanced HF and severe MR, PMVR may only delay a needed LVAD implantation and thereby lead to poorer peri-operative RV function and impaired outcome. Arguably, these patients might benefit from the timely management of advanced HF by the means of early LVAD implantation or heart transplantation.

4.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023321

RESUMO

Background: Mutations in the human desmin gene cause myopathies and cardiomyopathies. Aim of this study was to elucidate molecular mechanisms initiated by the heterozygous R406W-desmin mutation in the development of a severe and early-onset cardiac phenotype. Methods: We report an adolescent patient, who underwent cardiac transplantation due to restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by a heterozygous R406W-desmin mutation. Sections of the explanted heart were analyzed with antibodies specific to 406W-desmin and to intercalated disc proteins. Effects of the R406W mutation on the molecular properties of desmin were addressed by cell transfection and in vitro assembly experiments. To prove the genuine deleterious impact of the mutation on heart tissue, we further generated and analyzed R405W-desmin knock-in mice harboring the orthologous form of the human R406W-desmin. Results: Microscopic analysis of the explanted heart revealed desmin aggregates and the absence of desmin filaments at intercalated discs. Structural changes within intercalated discs were revealed by the abnormal organization of desmoplakin, plectin, N-cadherin, and connexin-43. Next generation sequencing confirmed the DES variant c.1216C>T (p.R406W) as the sole disease-causing mutation. Cell transfection studies disclosed a dual behavior of R406W-desmin with both its integration into the endogenous intermediate filament system and segregation into protein aggregates. In vitro, R406W-desmin formed unusually thick filaments that organized into complex filament aggregates and fibrillar sheets. In contrast, assembly of equimolar mixtures of mutant and wild-type desmin generated chimeric filaments of seemingly normal morphology but with occasional prominent irregularities. Heterozygous and homozygous R405W-desmin knock-in mice develop both a myopathy and a cardiomyopathy. In particular, the main histopathological results from the patient are recapitulated in the hearts from R405W-desmin knock-in mice of both genotypes. Moreover, while heterozygous knock-in mice have a normal life span, homozygous animals die at three months of age due to a smooth muscle-related gastrointestinal phenotype. Conclusions: We demonstrate that R406W-desmin provokes its severe cardiotoxic potential by a novel pathomechanism, where the concurrent dual functional states of mutant desmin assembly complexes underlie the uncoupling of desmin filaments from intercalated discs and their structural disorganization.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041757, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fast diagnostic algorithms using high-sensitivity troponin (hsTn) in suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are regarded as beneficial to expedite diagnosis and safe discharge of patients in crowded emergency departments (ED). This study investigates the effects of crowding on process times related to the diagnostic protocol itself or other time delays, and outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective single-centre observational study. SETTING: ED (Germany). PARTICIPANTS: Final study population of 2525 consecutive patients with suspected ACS within 12 months, after exclusion of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, missing blood samples, referral from other hospitals or repeated visits. INTERVENTIONS: Use of fast algorithms as per 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Crowding was defined as mismatch between patient numbers and monitoring capacities, or mean physician time per case, categorised as normal, high and very high crowding. Outcome measures were length of ED stay, direct discharge from ED, laboratory turn around times (TAT), utilisation of fast algorithms, absolute and relative non-laboratory time, as well as mortality. RESULTS: Crowding was associated with increased length of ED stay (3.75-4.89 hours, p<0.001). While median TAT of the first hsTnT increased (53-57 min, p<0.001), total TAT of serial hsTnT did not increase significantly with higher crowding (p=0.170). Lower utilisation of fast algorithms (p=0.009) and increase of additional hsTnT measurements after diagnosis (p=0.001) were observed in higher crowding. Most importantly, crowding was significantly associated with prolonged absolute (p<0.001), and particularly relative non-laboratory time (63.3%-71.3%, p<0.001). However, there was no significant effect of crowding on mortality, even after adjustment for relevant clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Process times, and particularly non-laboratory times, are prolonged in a crowded ED diminishing some positive effects of fast diagnostic algorithms in suspected ACS. Higher crowding levels were not significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03111862.

6.
J Immunol ; 205(8): 2276-2286, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938726

RESUMO

The number and activity of T cell subsets in the atherosclerotic plaques are critical for the prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome. ß2 Integrin activation is pivotal for T cell recruitment and correlates with future cardiac events. Despite this knowledge, differential regulation of adhesiveness in T cell subsets has not been explored yet. In this study, we show that in human T cells, SDF-1α-mediated ß2 integrin activation is driven by a, so far, not-described reactive oxidative species (ROS)-regulated calcium influx. Furthermore, we show that CD4+CD28null T cells represent a highly reactive subset showing 25-fold stronger ß2 integrin activation upon SDF-1α stimulation compared with CD28+ T cells. Interestingly, ROS-dependent Ca release was much more prevalent in the pathogenetically pivotal CD28null subset compared with the CD28+ T cells, whereas the established mediators of the classical pathways for ß2 integrin activation (PKC, PI3K, and PLC) were similarly activated in both T cell subsets. Thus, interference with the calcium flux attenuates spontaneous adhesion of CD28null T cells from acute coronary syndrome patients, and calcium ionophores abolished the observed differences in the adhesion properties between CD28+ and CD28null T cells. Likewise, the adhesion of these T cell subsets was indistinguishable in the presence of exogenous ROS/H2O2 Together, these data provide a molecular explanation of the role of ROS in pathogenesis of plaque destabilization.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(9): e010628, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FAP (fibroblast activation protein) plays an important role in cardiac wound healing and remodeling. Although initially developed as a theranostic ligand for metastasized cancer, FAPI (FAP inhibitor) tracers have recently been used to study cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction in small-animal models. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of FAP via FAPI-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans in human hearts. METHODS: FAPI-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans of 229 patients of 2 consecutive cohorts (modeling cohort: n=185; confirmatory cohort: n=44) suffering from metastasized cancer were analyzed applying the American Heart Association 17-segment model of the left ventricle. Logistic regression models were created using data from the modeling cohort. Multivariate regression models were established using Akaike information criterion in a step-down approach. RESULTS: Fourteen percent of patients had preexisting coronary artery disease (n=31), 33% arterial hypertension (n=75), and 12% diabetes mellitus type II (n=28). Forty-three percent had been treated with platin derivatives (n=100), 14% with anthracyclines (n=32), and 10% had a history of prior radiation to the chest (n=23). High left ventricular FAPI signals correlated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio [OR], 4.3, P=0.0029), a focal myocardial signal pattern (OR, 3.9, P=0.0068), diabetes mellitus type II (OR, 4.1, P=0.046), and beta-blocker use (OR, 3.8, P=0.049) in univariate regression models. In a multivariate analysis, increased signal intensity was significantly higher in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (overweight [OR, 2.6, P=0.023], diabetes mellitus type II [OR, 2.9, P=0.041], certain chemotherapies [platinum derivatives; OR, 3.0, P=0.034], and a history of radiation to the chest [OR, 3.5, P=0.024]). A focal enrichment pattern was more frequently observed in patients with known cardiovascular risk factors (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: FAPI-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans represent a new imaging modality to investigate cardiac FAP. High signal intensities correlate with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic disease.

8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of transcatheter and surgical aortic valve implantation in chronic dialysis patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: Chronic dialysis patients undergoing heart valve surgery are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Whether interventional techniques can reduce this risk is unclear because dialysis patients have thus far been excluded from randomized trials. METHODS: Chronic dialysis patients with AS enrolled in the German Aortic Valve Registry (GARY) between 2012 and 2015 were analyzed to compare transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI n = 661) with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR n = 457). Propensity scores for inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to adjust the comparison of the two treatment groups for potential confounders. RESULTS: TAVI patients were older (78 ± 7.3 vs. 69 ± 10.2 years, p < 0.01, unadjusted) and had more comorbidities. Mortality at 1 year was the same (TAVI: 33.4% vs. SAVR 35.0%, p = 0.72, IPTW-adjusted) while it was lower with TAVI at 30 days (8.6% vs. 15.0%, p = 0.02, IPTW-adjusted). TAVI patients required more pacemaker implantation and showed more aortic regurgitation. SAVR patients required more blood transfusions and had longer hospital stay. Diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, previous PCI, urgent procedure and EuroSCORE were associated with elevated 30-day mortality. Atrial fibrillation and older age were independent risk factor of 1-year mortality in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic dialysis patients with AS undergoing TAVI or SAVR had the same 1-year mortality, although survival at 30 days was better with TAVI. These results suggest that TAVI may improve peri-procedural outcomes.

9.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783099

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart transplantation may represent a particular risk factor for severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to chronic immunosuppression and frequent comorbidities. We conducted a nation-wide survey of all heart transplant centers in Germany presenting the clinical characteristics of heart transplant recipients with COVID-19 during the first months of the pandemic in Germany. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multicenter survey of all heart transplant centers in Germany evaluating the current status of COVID-19 among adult heart transplant recipients was performed. A total of 21 heart transplant patients with COVID-19 was reported to the transplant centers during the first months of the pandemic in Germany. Mean patient age was 58.6 ± 12.3 years and 81.0% were male. Comorbidities included arterial hypertension (71.4%), dyslipidemia (71.4%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), chronic kidney failure requiring dialysis (28.6%) and chronic-obstructive lung disease/asthma (19.0%). Most patients received an immunosuppressive drug regimen consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor (71.4%), mycophenolate mofetil (85.7%) and steroids (71.4%). Eight of 21 patients (38.1%) displayed a severe course needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Those patients showed a high mortality (87.5%) which was associated with right ventricular dysfunction (62.5% vs. 7.7%; p = 0.014), arrhythmias (50.0% vs. none; p = 0.012), and thromboembolic events (50.0% vs. none; p = 0.012). Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T- and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide were significantly associated with the severe form of COVID-19 (p = 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Severe course of COVID-19 was frequent in heart transplanted patients. High mortality was associated with right ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and markedly elevated cardiac biomarkers.

11.
Cells ; 9(7)2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635460

RESUMO

For decades, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death throughout most developed countries. Several studies relate RNA splicing, and more recently also circular RNAs (circRNAs), to CVD. CircRNAs originate from linear transcripts and have been shown to exhibit tissue-specific expression profiles. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of sequence, structure, modification, and cardiac circRNA interactions. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs), human healthy and diseased (ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy) cardiac tissue, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to profile circRNAs. We identified shared circRNAs across all samples, as well as model-specific circRNA signatures. Based on these circRNAs, we identified 63 positionally conserved and expressed circRNAs in human, pig, and mouse hearts. Furthermore, we found that the sequence of circRNAs can deviate from the sequence derived from the genome sequence, an important factor in assessing potential functions. Integration of additional data yielded evidence for m6A-methylation of circRNAs, potentially linked to translation, as well as, circRNAs overlapping with potential Argonaute 2 binding sites, indicating potential association with the RISC complex. Moreover, we describe, for the first time in cardiac model systems, a sub class of circRNAs containing the start codon of their primary transcript (AUG circRNAs) and observe an enrichment for m6A-methylation for AUG circRNAs.

12.
Europace ; 22(9): 1409-1418, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676673

RESUMO

AIMS : Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The efficacy of NOACs has been attributed in part to pleiotropic effects that are mediated through effects on thrombin, factor Xa, and their respective receptors. Direct pharmacological effects of NOACs and cardiac ion channels have not been addressed to date. We hypothesized that the favourable clinical outcome of NOAC use may be associated with previously unrecognized effects on atrial repolarizing potassium channels. METHODS AND RESULTS : This study was designed to elucidate acute pharmacological effects of NOACs on cloned ion channels Kv11.1, Kv1.5, Kv4.3, Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and K2P2.1 contributing to IKr, IKur, Ito, IK1, and IK2P K+ currents. Human genes, KCNH2, KCNA5, KCND3, KCNJ2, KCNJ12, and KCNK2, were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and currents were recorded using voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban applied at 1 µM did not significantly affect peak current amplitudes of Kv11.1, Kv1.5, Kv4.3, Kir2.1, Kir2.2, or K2P2.1 K+ channels. Furthermore, biophysical characterization did not reveal significant effects of NOACs on current-voltage relationships of study channels. CONCLUSION : Apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban did not exhibit direct functional interactions with human atrial K+ channels underlying IKr, IKur, Ito, IK1, and IK2P currents that could account for beneficial clinical outcome associated with the drugs. Indirect or chronic effects and potential underlying signalling mechanisms remain to be investigated.

13.
Eur J Radiol ; 130: 109136, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634756

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate contemporary indications, safety and diagnostic impact of cardiac CTA in patients undergoing cardiac CTA examinations for non-coronary clinical indications. METHOD: We analyzed 1097 consecutive patients from the German Cardiac CT Registry who underwent cardiac CTA between 2009 and 2014 due to clinically indicated non-coronary reasons using 64-slice or newer CT systems in twelve tertiary German heart centers in order to evaluate the impact of clinical indications on procedure-associated parameters. All participating centers electronically submitted patient and examination data including detailed indications, clinical symptoms, procedural parameters, complications and diagnostic results in a predefined template. RESULTS: The most frequent indication for non-coronary cardiac CTA was the evaluation of pulmonary vein anatomy (65.9 %, 723/1097). In the remaining cases, most frequent indications were planning before TAVI (44.5 %, 69/155), evaluation of valvular disease (31.6 %, 49/155), and evaluation of implants (5.8 %, 9/155). Non-coronary cardiac CTA required a median amount of iodinated contrast agent of 100.0 mL (IQR 95.0-110.0 mL). Prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition was the most frequently used protocol (74.0 %), followed by retrospectively ECG-gated acquisition with and without tube current modulation (19.9 % and 6.0 %, respectively), resulting in a mean estimated effective dose of 5.2 mSv (IQR 2.9-9.5 mSv, average conversion factor k = 0.026). Overall, complication rate was very low (1.5 %). Non-coronary cardiac CTA revealed a new clinical diagnostic aspect in 3.2 % of all patients, and a new main clinical diagnosis in 2.2 %. CONCLUSIONS: Non-coronary cardiac CTA as a routinely applied diagnostic modality is associated with a very low procedure-related rate of complications and reasonably low radiation exposure using contemporary CT systems.

14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2082-2092, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608191

RESUMO

AIMS: Amiodarone and digitalis are frequently used drugs in patients with heart failure. Both have separately been linked to reduced post-transplant survival, but their combined impact on mortality after HTX remains uncertain. This study investigated the effects of combined amiodarone and digitalis use before HTX on post-transplant outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: This registry study analysed 600 patients receiving HTX at Heidelberg Heart Center between 1989 and 2016. Patients were stratified by amiodarone and digitalis use before HTX. Analysis included patient characteristics, medication, echocardiographic features, heart rates, permanent pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation, and post-transplant survival including causes of death. One hundred eighteen patients received amiodarone before HTX (19.7%), hereof 67 patients with digitalis (56.8%) and 51 patients without digitalis before HTX (43.2%). Patients with and without amiodarone before HTX showed a similar 1 year post-transplant survival (72.0% vs. 78.4%, P = 0.11), but patients with combined amiodarone and digitalis before HTX had a worse 1 year post-transplant survival (64.2%, P = 0.01), along with a higher percentage of death due to transplant failure (P = 0.03). Echocardiographic analysis of these patients showed a higher percentage of an enlarged right ventricle (P = 0.02), left atrium (P = 0.02), left ventricle (P = 0.03), and a higher rate of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis indicated combined amiodarone and digitalis use before HTX as a significant risk factor for 1 year mortality after HTX (hazard ratio: 1.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.77; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Combined pre-transplant amiodarone and digitalis therapy is associated with increased post-transplant mortality.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553901

RESUMO

TWIK-related K+ channel (TREK-1) two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels mediate background potassium currents and regulate cellular excitability in many different types of cells. Their functional activity is controlled by a broad variety of different physiological stimuli, such as temperature, extracellular or intracellular pH, lipids and mechanical stress. By linking cellular excitability to mechanical stress, TREK-1 currents might be important to mediate parts of the mechanoelectrical feedback described in the heart. Furthermore, TREK-1 currents might contribute to the dysregulation of excitability in the heart in pathophysiological situations, such as those caused by abnormal stretch or ischaemia-associated cell swelling, thereby contributing to arrhythmogenesis. In this review, we focus on the functional role of TREK-1 in the heart and its putative contribution to cardiac mechanoelectrical coupling. Its cardiac expression among different species is discussed, alongside with functional evidence for TREK-1 currents in cardiomyocytes. In addition, evidence for the involvement of TREK-1 currents in different cardiac arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, is summarized. Furthermore, the role of TREK-1 and its interaction partners in the regulation of the cardiac heart rate is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the significance of TREK-1 in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and heart failure.

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488586

RESUMO

AIMS: Upon suspicion of infective endocarditis, the causative microorganism must be identified to optimize treatment. Blood cultures and culturing of removed valves are the mainstay of this diagnosis and should be complemented by growth-independent methods. We assessed the diagnostic benefit of examining removed endocarditis valves by broad-range bacterial PCR to detect causative bacteria in cases where culturing was not available, negative, or inconclusive because a skin commensal was detected, in patients from our clinical routine practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from Heidelberg University Hospital with suspicion of endocarditis, followed by valve replacement and analysis by 16S rDNA PCR, between 2015 and 2018, were evaluated. 146 patients with definite infective endocarditis, confirmed by the valve macroscopics and/or histology, were included. Valve PCRs were compared to corresponding blood and valve culture results. Overall, valve PCR yielded an additional diagnostic benefit in 34 of 146 cases (23%) and was found to be more sensitive than valve culture. In 19 of 38 patients with both negative blood and valve cultures, valve PCR was the only method rendering a pathogen. In 23 patients with positive blood cultures detecting skin commensals, 4 patients showed discordant valve PCR results, detecting a more plausible pathogen, and in 11 of 23 cases, valve PCR confirmed commensals in blood culture as true pathogens. Only the remaining 8 patients had negative valve PCRs. CONCLUSION: Valve PCR was found to be a valuable diagnostic tool in surgical endocarditis cases with negative blood cultures or positive blood cultures of unknown significance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: S-440/2017 on 28.08.2017 retrospectively registered. Subdividing of all infective endocarditis patients in this study, showing that valve PCR yields valuable information for patients with skin commensals in blood cultures, which were either confirmed by the same detection in valve PCR or refuted by the detection of a different and typical pathogen in valve PCR. Additionally, benefit was determined in patients with negative or not available blood cultures and only positive detection in valve PCR. +: Positive; -: negative; n/a: not available results.

17.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(9): 898-907, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is a predictor of rehospitalization and mortality. However, the complex bidirectional relationships between these two conditions are barely understood. We investigated the course of depression and markers of CHF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class, N-terminal-prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]) in a longitudinal study over a period of 2 years, using three assessment points. METHODS: Data of n = 446 patients with documented CHF were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Specifically, a Bayesian cross-lagged structural equation model was applied. RESULTS: Our study revealed that an aggravation of depression predicted an increase in NYHA functional class (significant cross-lagged effect γh = 0.103, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.017; 0.194]), whereas an increase in NYHA functional class did not predict an aggravation of depression (γd = 0.002 95% CI [-0.057; 0.194]). This association was found only for NYHA functional class and depression-not for NT-proBNP and LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing depression and associated symptoms, such as lack of energy and fatigue, may lead to a further decrease of functional capacity, and consequently to a higher NYHA functional class in CHF patients. As NYHA functional class is associated with higher mortality, this may be a critical development for affected patients. Further studies are required to investigate whether or not this association could be an essential key that explains the pathway from depression to increased mortality in heart failure patients.

18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac graft denervation causes inadequate sinus tachycardia in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) which is associated with reduced survival. This study investigated the 5-year results of heart rate control with ivabradine or metoprolol succinate in patients after HTX. METHODS: This registry study analyzed 104 patients receiving either ivabradine (n = 50) or metoprolol succinate (n = 54) within 5 years after HTX. Analysis included patient characteristics, medication, echocardiographic features, cardiac catheterization data, cardiac biomarkers, heart rates, and post-transplant survival including causes of death. RESULTS: Demographics and post-transplant medication revealed no significant differences except for ivabradine and metoprolol succinate use. At 5-year follow-up, patients with ivabradine had a significantly lower heart rate (73.3 bpm) compared to baseline (88.6 bpm; P < 0.01) and to metoprolol succinate (80.4 bpm; P < 0.01), a reduced left ventricular mass (154.8 g) compared to baseline (179.5 g; P < 0.01) and to metoprolol succinate (177.3 g; P < 0.01), a lower left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP; 12.0 mmHg) compared to baseline (15.5 mmHg; P < 0.01) and to metoprolol succinate (17.1 mmHg; P < 0.01), and a reduced NT-proBNP level (525.4 pg/ml) compared to baseline (3826.3 pg/ml; P < 0.01) and to metoprolol succinate (1038.9 pg/ml; P < 0.01). Five-year post-transplant survival was significantly better in patients with ivabradine (90.0%) versus metoprolol succinate (68.5%; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients receiving ivabradine showed a superior heart rate reduction and a better left ventricular diastolic function along with an improved 5-year survival after HTX.

19.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, patient selection in TAVI is based upon a multidisciplinary heart team assessment of patient comorbidities and surgical risk stratification. In an era of increasing need for precision medicine and quickly expanding TAVI indications, machine learning has shown promise in making accurate predictions of clinical outcomes. This study aims to predict different intrahospital clinical outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI using a machine learning-based approach. The main clinical outcomes include all-cause mortality, stroke, major vascular complications, paravalvular leakage, and new pacemaker implantations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The dataset consists of 451 consecutive patients undergoing elective TAVI between February 2014 and June 2016. The applied machine learning methods were neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests. Their performance was evaluated using five-fold nested cross-validation. Considering all 83 features, the performance of all machine learning models in predicting all-cause intrahospital mortality (AUC 0.94-0.97) was significantly higher than both the STS risk score (AUC 0.64), the STS/ACC TAVR score (AUC 0.65), and all machine learning models using baseline characteristics only (AUC 0.72-0.82). Using an extreme boosting gradient, baseline troponin T was found to be the most important feature among all input variables. Overall, after feature selection, there was a slightly inferior performance. Stroke, major vascular complications, paravalvular leakage, and new pacemaker implantations could not be accurately predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning has the potential to improve patient selection and risk management of interventional cardiovascular procedures, as it is capable of making superior predictions compared to current logistic risk scores.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9673, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541655

RESUMO

Non-cardiac surgery is associated with significant cardiovascular complications. Reported mortality rate ranges from 1.9% to 4% in unselected patients. A postoperative surge in pro-inflammatory cytokines is a well-known feature and putative contributor to these complications. Despite much clinical research, little is known about the biomolecular changes in cardiac tissue following non-cardiac surgery. In order to increase our understanding, we analyzed whole-transcriptional and metabolic profiling data sets from hearts of mice harvested two, four, and six weeks following isolated thoracotomy. Hearts from healthy litter-mates served as controls. Functional network enrichment analyses showed a distinct impact on cardiac transcription two weeks after surgery characterized by a downregulation of mitochondrial pathways in the absence of significant metabolic alterations. Transcriptional changes were not detectable four and six weeks following surgery. Our study shows distinct and reversible transcriptional changes within the first two weeks following isolated thoracotomy. This coincides with a time period, in which most cardiovascular events happen.

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