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1.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between protein intake and prostate cancer risk remains unclear. AIMS: To prospectively investigate the associations of dietary intakes of total protein, protein from different dietary sources, and amino acids with prostate cancer risk and mortality. METHODS: In 131,425 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, protein and amino acid intakes were estimated using validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14.2 years, 6939 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 914 died of the disease. Dairy protein was positively associated with overall prostate cancer risk in the three highest fifths compared to the lowest (HRQ3 =1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.23); HRQ 4=1.09 (1.01-1.18); HRQ5 =1.10 (1.02-1.19)); similar results were observed for yogurt protein (HRQ3 =1.14 (1.05-1.24); HRQ4 =1.09 (1.01-1.18); HRQ5 =1.12 (1.04-1.21)). For egg protein intake and prostate cancer mortality, no association was observed by fifths, but there was suggestive evidence of a positive association in the analysis per standard deviation increment. There was no strong evidence of associations with different tumour subtypes. DISCUSSION: Considering the weak associations and many tests, the results must be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide strong evidence for an association of intakes of total protein, protein from different dietary sources or amino acids with prostate cancer risk or mortality. However, our results may suggest some weak positive associations, which need to be confirmed in large-scale, pooled analyses of prospective data.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053839

RESUMO

Experimental evidence suggests that alcohol induces cutaneous carcinogenesis, yet epidemiological studies on the link between alcohol intake and skin cancer have been inconsistent. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were assessed using validated country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in Cox models. A total of 14 037 skin cancer cases (melanoma: n = 2457; basal-cell carcinoma (BCC): n = 8711; squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC): n = 1928; unknown: n = 941) were identified among 450 112 participants (average follow-up: 15 years). Baseline alcohol intake was positively associated with SCC (>15 vs 0.1-4.9 g/day: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.17-1.77; Ptrend  = .001), BCC (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23; Ptrend  = .04), and melanoma risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.95-1.44; Ptrend  = .17), while associations were more modest in women (SCC: HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.90-1.30; Ptrend  = .13; BCC: HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, Ptrend  = .03; melanoma: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.80-1.08, Ptrend  = .13). Associations were similar for lifetime alcohol intake, with an attenuated linear trend. Lifetime liquor/spirit intake was positively associated with melanoma (fourth vs first quartile: HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.08-1.99; Ptrend  = .0009) and BCC risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.31; Ptrend  = .14). Baseline and lifetime intakes of wine were associated with BCC risk (HR = 1.25 in men; HR = 1.11-1.12; in women). No statistically significant associations were found between beverage types and SCC risk. Intake of beer was not associated with skin cancer risk. Our study suggests positive relationships between alcohol intake and skin cancer risk, which may have important implications for the primary prevention of skin cancer.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, there is limited knowledge on whether changing alcohol drinking habits during adulthood modifies CRC risk. OBJECTIVE: Leveraging longitudinal exposure assessments on alcohol intake at different ages, we examined the relationship between change in alcohol intake and subsequent CRC risk. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, changes in alcohol intake comparing follow-up with baseline assessments were investigated in relation to CRC risk. The analysis included 191,180, participants and 1530 incident CRC cases, with exclusion of the first three years of follow-up to minimize reverse causation. Trajectory profiles of alcohol intake, assessed at ages 20, 30, 40, 50 years, at baseline and during follow-up, were estimated using latent class mixed models and related to CRC risk, including 407,605 participants and 5,008 incident CRC cases. RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 50.2 years and the follow-up assessment occurred on average 7.1 years later. Compared to stable intake, a 12 g/day increase in alcohol intake during follow-up was positively associated with CRC risk (HR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04, 1.25), while a 12 g/day reduction was inversely associated with CRC risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78, 0.95). Trajectory analysis showed that compared to low alcohol intake, men who increased their alcohol intake from early- to mid- and late-adulthood by up to 30 g/day on average had significantly increased CRC risk (HR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.08, 1.42), while no associations were observed in women. Results were consistent by anatomical subsite. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake during mid-to-late adulthood raised CRC risk, while reduction lowered risk.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078596

RESUMO

(1) Background: Global incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is rising and nearly half occurred in adults. However, it is unclear if certain early-life childhood T1D risk factors were also associated with adult-onset T1D. This study aimed to assess associations between birth order, delivery mode or daycare attendance and type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk in a population-based cohort and whether these were similar for childhood- and adult-onset T1D (cut-off age 15); (2) Methods: Data were obtained from the German National Cohort (NAKO Gesundheitsstudie) baseline assessment. Self-reported diabetes was classified as T1D if: diagnosis age ≤ 40 years and has been receiving insulin treatment since less than one year after diagnosis. Cox regression was applied for T1D risk analysis; (3) Results: Analyses included 101,411 participants (100 childhood- and 271 adult-onset T1D cases). Compared to "only-children", HRs for second- or later-born individuals were 0.70 (95% CI = 0.50-0.96) and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.45-0.94), respectively, regardless of parental diabetes, migration background, birth year and perinatal factors. In further analyses, higher birth order reduced T1D risk in children and adults born in recent decades. Caesarean section and daycare attendance showed no clear associations with T1D risk; (4) Conclusions: Birth order should be considered in both children and adults' T1D risk assessment for early detection.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Ordem de Nascimento , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Front Nutr ; 9: 982369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118743

RESUMO

Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a healthy diet with a potential to lower the incidence of several types of cancer, but there is no data regarding thyroid cancer (TC). We investigated the association between MD adherence, and its components, and the differentiated TC risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Over 450,000 men and women from nine European countries were followed up for a mean of 14.1 years, during which 712 differentiated TC cases were identified. Adherence to MD was estimated using the relative MD (rMED) score, an 18-point scale including alcohol, and the adapted rMED (arMED) score, a 16-point scale excluding alcohol. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with the risk of differentiated TC (HRhigh vs. low adherence = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.70-1.25; p-trend 0.27), while a suggestive, but non-statistically significant inverse relationship was observed with rMED (HRhigh vs. low adherence = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.68-1.14; p-trend 0.17). Low meat (HRlow vs. high meat intake = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.99; p-trend = 0.04) and moderate alcohol (HRmoderate vs. non-moderate intake = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75-1.03) intake were related with lower differentiated TC risk. Conclusions: Our study shows that a high adherence to MD is not strongly related to differentiated TC risk, although further research is required to confirm the impact of MD and, especially, meat intake in TC risk.

6.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014812

RESUMO

Three metabolite patterns have previously shown prospective inverse associations with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Here, we investigated dietary and lifestyle correlates of these three prostate cancer-related metabolite patterns, which included: 64 phosphatidylcholines and three hydroxysphingomyelins (Pattern 1), acylcarnitines C18:1 and C18:2, glutamate, ornithine, and taurine (Pattern 2), and 8 lysophosphatidylcholines (Pattern 3). In a two-stage cross-sectional discovery (n = 2524) and validation (n = 518) design containing 3042 men free of cancer in EPIC, we estimated the associations of 24 dietary and lifestyle variables with each pattern and the contributing individual metabolites. Associations statistically significant after both correction for multiple testing (False Discovery Rate = 0.05) in the discovery set and at p < 0.05 in the validation set were considered robust. Intakes of alcohol, total fish products, and its subsets total fish and lean fish were positively associated with Pattern 1. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with Pattern 2, which appeared to be driven by a strong positive BMI-glutamate association. Finally, both BMI and fatty fish were inversely associated with Pattern 3. In conclusion, these results indicate associations of fish and its subtypes, alcohol, and BMI with metabolite patterns that are inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Peixes , Glutamatos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary pattern analysis has gained particular interest, because it reflects the complexity of dietary intake. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between a posteriori dietary patterns, derived using a data-driven approach, and the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) in Europe. METHODS: This investigation included 450,064 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Dietary intake was assessed using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. A posteriori dietary patterns were computed using principal component analyses. Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 14 years, 712 first differentiated TCs were diagnosed. In the fully adjusted model, a dietary pattern characterized by alcohol consumption (basically beer and wine) was negatively associated with differentiated TC risk (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.75; 95% CI:0.60-0.94, P-trend = 0.005), while a dietary pattern rich in sweetened beverages was positively associated with differentiated TC risk (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 1.26; 95% CI:0.99-1.61; P-trend = 0.07). The remaining 8 dietary patterns were not related to differentiated TC risk. The intake of sweetened beverages was positively associated with differentiated TC risk (HR100mL/d = 1.05; 95% CI:1.00-1.11), especially with papillary TC risk (HR100mL/d = 1.07; 95% CI:1.01-1.13). Similar results were observed with sugary and artificially sweetened beverages. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation of dietary patterns detected that the consumption of sweetened beverages was associated with a higher risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Our results are in line with the general dietary recommendations of reducing the consumption of sweetened beverages.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830197

RESUMO

It is unclear whether diet, and in particular certain foods or nutrients, are associated with lung cancer risk. We assessed associations of 92 dietary factors with lung cancer risk in 327,790 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) per standard deviation (SD) higher intake/day of each food/nutrient. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate and identified associations were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In EPIC, 2,420 incident lung cancer cases were identified during a median of 15 years of follow-up. Higher intakes of fibre (HR per 1 SD higher intake/day=0.91, 95%CI 0.87-0.96), fruit (HR=0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.96), and vitamin C (HR=0.91, 95%CI 0.86-0.96) were associated with a lower risk of lung cancer, whereas offal (HR=1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.14), retinol (HR=1.06, 95%CI 1.03-1.10), and beer/cider (HR=1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.07) intakes were positively associated with lung cancer risk. Associations did not differ by sex and there was less evidence for associations among never smokers. None of the six associations with overall lung cancer risk identified in EPIC were replicated in the NLCS (2,861 cases), however in analyses of histological subtypes, inverse associations of fruit and vitamin C with squamous cell carcinoma were replicated in the NLCS. Overall, there is little evidence that intakes of specific foods and nutrients play a major role in primary lung cancer risk, but fruit and vitamin C intakes seem to be inversely associated with squamous cell lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745207

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies have indicated that cruciferous vegetables can influence the cancer risk; therefore, we examined with a cross-sectional approach the correlation between the frequent consumption of the total cruciferous vegetables and the formation of bulky DNA damage, a biomarker of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk, in the Gen-Air study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. DNA damage measurements were performed in the peripheral blood of 696 of those apparently healthy without cancer controls, including 379 never-smokers and 317 former smokers from seven European countries by the 32P-postlabeling assay. In the Gen-Air controls, the median intake of cruciferous vegetables was 6.16 (IQR 1.16-13.66) g/day, ranging from 0.37 (IQR 0-6.00) g/day in Spain to 11.34 (IQR 6.02-16.07) g/day in the UK. Based on this information, participants were grouped into: (a) high consumers (>20 g/day), (b) medium consumers (3-20 g/day) and (c) low consumers (<3.0 g/day). Overall, low cruciferous vegetable intake was correlated with a greater frequency of bulky DNA lesions, including benzo(a)pyrene, lactone and quinone-adducts and bulky oxidative lesions, in the adjusted models. Conversely, a high versus low intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with a reduction in DNA damage (up to a 23% change, p = 0.032); this was particularly evident in former smokers (up to a 40% change, p = 0.008). The Generalized Linear Regression models indicated an overall Mean Ratio between the high and the low consumers of 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.97). The current study suggests that a higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower level of bulky DNA adducts and supports the potential for cancer prevention strategies through dietary habit changes aimed at increasing the consumption of cruciferous vegetables.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Neoplasias , Dano ao DNA , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , não Fumantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Verduras
10.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 695, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of elevated pre-diagnostic C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations on mortality in individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the association between pre-diagnostic high-sensitivity CRP concentrations and CRP genetic variation associated with circulating CRP and CRC-specific and all-cause mortality based on data from 1,235 individuals with CRC within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 455 CRC-specific deaths were recorded, out of 590 deaths from all causes. Pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations were not associated with CRC-specific (hazard ratio, HR highest versus lowest quintile 0.92, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.66, 1.28) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68, 1.21). Genetic predisposition to higher CRP (weighted score based on alleles of four CRP SNPs associated with higher circulating CRP) was not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality (HR per CRP-score unit 0.95, 95% CI 0.86, 1.05) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.90, 1.07). Among four investigated CRP genetic variants, only SNP rs1205 was significantly associated with CRC-specific (comparing the CT and CC genotypes with TT genotype, HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.35, 0.83 and HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38, 0.88, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40, 0.85 and 0.64, 95% CI 0.44, 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this prospective cohort study do not support a role of pre-diagnostic CRP concentrations on mortality in individuals with CRC. The observed associations with rs1205 deserve further scientific attention.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(7): 3625-3635, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is thought to initiate or promote differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and previous studies have shown that diet can modulate this inflammatory process. We aimed to evaluate the association of several dietary scores reflecting the inflammatory potential of the diet with DTC risk. METHODS: Within the EPIC cohort, 450,063 participants were followed during a mean period of 14 years, and 712 newly incident DTC cases were identified. Associations between four dietary inflammatory scores [the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and two energy-adjusted derivatives (the E-DIIr and the E-DIId), and the Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD)] and DTC risk were evaluated in the EPIC cohort using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between DTC risk and the DIIs (HR for 1 SD increase in DII: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.23, similar results for its derivatives), but not with the ISD (HR for 1 SD increase: 1.04, 95% CI 0.93, 1.16). CONCLUSION: Diet-associated inflammation, as estimated by the DII and its derivatives, was weakly positively associated with DTC risk in a European adult population. These results suggesting that diet-associated inflammation acts in the etiology of DTC need to be validated in independent studies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
12.
J Crohns Colitis ; 16(8): 1187-1196, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate the association between protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: A total of 413 593 participants from eight European countries were included. Dietary data were collected at baseline from validated food frequency questionnaires. Dietary data were calibrated to correct errors in measures related to each country-specific questionnaire. Associations between proteins [total, animal, and vegetable] or food sources of animal proteins, and IBD risk were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 16 years, 177 patients with Crohn's disease [CD] and 418 with ulcerative colitis [UC], were identified. There was no association between total protein, animal protein, or vegetable protein intakes and CD or UC risks. Total meat and red meat intakes were associated with UC risk (hazard ratio [HR] for the 4th vs 1st quartile = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-1.98, p-trend = 0.01; and 1.61, 95% CI = 1.10-2.36, p-trend = 0.007, respectively]. There was no association between other food sources of animal protein [processed meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, poultry] and UC. We found no association between food sources of animal proteins and CD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Meat and red meat consumptions are associated with higher risks of UC. These results support dietary counselling of low meat intake in people at high-risk of IBD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
13.
Environ Int ; 163: 107213, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have demonstrated endocrine disrupting properties. Several of these chemicals are carcinogenic and positive associations have been suggested with breast cancer risk. In general population, diet represents the main source of exposure. METHODS: Associations between dietary intake of 17 dioxins and 35 PCBs and breast cancer were evaluated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from nine European countries using multivariable Cox regressions. The present study included 318,607 women (mean ± SD age: 50.7 ± 9.7) with 13,241 incident invasive breast cancers and a median follow-up of 14.9 years (IQR = 13.5-16.4). Dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs was assessed combining EPIC food consumption data with food contamination data provided by the European Food Safety Authority. RESULTS: Exposure to dioxins, dioxins + Dioxin-Like-PCBs, Dioxin-Like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), and Non-Dioxin-Like-PCBs (NDL-PCBs) estimated from reported dietary intakes were not associated with breast cancer incidence, with the following hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for an increment of 1 SD: HRdioxins = 1.00 (0.98 to 1.02), HRdioxins+DL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), HRDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), and HRNDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03). Results remained unchanged when analyzing intakes as quintile groups, as well as when analyses were run separately per country, or separating breast cancer cases based on estrogen receptor status or after further adjustments on main contributing food groups to PCBs and dioxins intake and nutritional factors. CONCLUSIONS: This large European prospective study does not support the hypothesis of an association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dioxinas/efeitos adversos , Dioxinas/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(7): 1359-1367, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer but whether metabolic dysfunction is associated with endometrial cancer independent of body size is not known. METHODS: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with endometrial cancer risk was investigated in a nested case-control study (817 cases/ 817 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of C-peptide were used to define metabolically healthy (MH; <1st tertile) and metabolically unhealthy (MU; ≥1st tertile) status among the control participants. These metabolic health definitions were combined with normal weight (NW); body mass index (BMI)<25 kg/m2 or waist circumference (WC)<80 cm or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)<0.8) and overweight (OW; BMI≥25 kg/m2 or WC≥80 cm or WHR≥0.8) status, generating four phenotype groups for each anthropometric measure: (i) MH/NW, (ii) MH/OW, (iii) MU/NW, and (iv) MU/OW. RESULTS: In a multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression model, compared with MH/NW individuals, endometrial cancer risk was higher among those classified as MU/NW [ORWC, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-2.10 and ORWHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.21-2.35] and MU/OW (ORBMI, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.73-3.27; ORWC, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.92-3.77 and ORWHR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32-2.54). MH/OW individuals were also at increased endometrial cancer risk compared with MH/NW individuals (ORWC, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.24-3.04). CONCLUSIONS: Women with metabolic dysfunction appear to have higher risk of endometrial cancer regardless of their body size. However, OW status raises endometrial cancer risk even among women with lower insulin levels, suggesting that obesity-related pathways are relevant for the development of this cancer beyond insulin. IMPACT: Classifying women by metabolic health may be of greater utility in identifying those at higher risk for endometrial cancer than anthropometry per se.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Peptídeo C , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 29(12): 1618-1629, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403197

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with and without CHD risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPIC-CVD is a case-cohort study of 29 333 participants that included 13 582 incident CHD cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Self-reported physical activity was summarized using the Cambridge physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Participants were categorized into sub-groups based on the presence or the absence of the following risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥6.2 mmol/L), history of diabetes, hypertension (self-reported or ≥140/90 mmHg), and current smoking. Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to assess the association between physical activity and incident CHD events (non-fatal and fatal).Compared to inactive participants without the respective CHD risk factor (referent), excess CHD risk was highest in physically inactive and lowest in moderately active participants with CHD risk factors. Corresponding excess CHD risk estimates amongst those with obesity were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32-64%] and 21% (95%CI 2-44%), with hypercholesterolaemia were 80% (95%CI 55-108%) and 48% (95%CI 22-81%), with hypertension were 80% (95%CI 65-96%) and 49% (95%CI 28-74%), with diabetes were 142% (95%CI 63-260%), and 100% (95%CI 32-204%), and amongst smokers were 152% (95%CI 122-186%) and 109% (95%CI 74-150%). CONCLUSIONS: In people with CHD risk factors, moderate physical activity, equivalent to 40 mins of walking per day, attenuates but does not completely offset CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensão , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Cancer ; 151(5): 708-716, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisteína , Homocisteína , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfato de Piridoxal , Vitamina B 6
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(7): e2952-e2961, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated reproductive aging, in women indicated by early natural menopause, is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in observational studies. Conversely, an adverse CHD risk profile has been suggested to accelerate menopause. OBJECTIVES: To study the direction and evidence for causality of the relationship between reproductive aging and (non-)fatal CHD and CHD risk factors in a bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) approach, using age at natural menopause (ANM) genetic variants as a measure for genetically determined reproductive aging in women. We also studied the association of these variants with CHD risk (factors) in men. DESIGN: Two-sample MR, using both cohort data as well as summary statistics, with 4 methods: simple and weighted median-based, standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression, and MR-Egger regression. PARTICIPANTS: Data from EPIC-CVD and summary statistics from UK Biobank and publicly available genome-wide association studies were pooled for the different analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CHD, CHD risk factors, and ANM. RESULTS: Across different methods of MR, no association was found between genetically determined reproductive aging and CHD risk in women (relative risk estimateIVW = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.01), or any of the CHD risk factors. Similarly, no associations were found in men. Neither did the reversed analyses show evidence for an association between CHD (risk factors) and reproductive aging. CONCLUSION: Genetically determined reproductive aging is not causally associated with CHD risk (factors) in women, nor were the genetic variants associated in men. We found no evidence for a reverse association in a combined sample of women and men.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Envelhecimento/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(4): 1317-1327, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between blood pressure and kidney cancer risk is well established but complex and different study designs have reported discrepant findings on the relative importance of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). In this study, we sought to describe the temporal relation between diastolic and SBP with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in detail. METHODS: Our study involved two prospective cohorts: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and UK Biobank, including >700 000 participants and 1692 incident RCC cases. Risk analyses were conducted using flexible parametric survival models for DBP and SBP both separately as well as with mutuality adjustment and then adjustment for extended risk factors. We also carried out univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses (DBP: ninstruments = 251, SBP: ninstruments = 213) to complement the analyses of measured DBP and SBP. RESULTS: In the univariable analysis, we observed clear positive associations with RCC risk for both diastolic and SBP when measured ≥5 years before diagnosis and suggestive evidence for a stronger risk association in the year leading up to diagnosis. In mutually adjusted analysis, the long-term risk association of DBP remained, with a hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation increment 10 years before diagnosis (HR10y) of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10-1.30), whereas the association of SBP was attenuated (HR10y: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.91-1.10). In the complementary multivariable MR analysis, we observed an odds ratio for a 1-SD increment (ORsd) of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.08-1.67) for genetically predicted DBP and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.88) for genetically predicted SBP. CONCLUSION: The results of this observational and MR study are consistent with an important role of DBP in RCC aetiology. The relation between SBP and RCC risk was less clear but does not appear to be independent of DBP.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Hipertensão , Neoplasias Renais , Pressão Sanguínea , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Age Ageing ; 51(2)2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: lifestyle behaviours and chronic co-morbidities are leading risk factors for premature mortality and collectively predict wide variability in individual life expectancy (LE). We investigated whether a pre-selected panel of five serum markers of biological ageing could improve predicting the long-term mortality risk and LE in middle-aged and older women and men. METHODS: we conducted a case-cohort study (n = 5,789 among which there were 2,571 deaths) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Heidelberg cohort, a population cohort of middle-aged and older individuals, followed over a median duration of 18 years. Gompertz models were used to compute multi-adjusted associations of growth differentiation factor-15, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, glycated haemoglobin A1c, C-reactive protein and cystatin-C with mortality risk. Areas under estimated Gompertz survival curves were used to estimate the LE of individuals using a model with lifestyle-related risk factors only (smoking history, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol, physical inactivity, diabetes and hypertension), or with lifestyle factors plus the ageing-related markers. RESULTS: a model including only lifestyle-related factors predicted a LE difference of 16.8 [95% confidence interval: 15.9; 19.1] years in men and 9.87 [9.20; 13.1] years in women aged ≥60 years by comparing individuals in the highest versus the lowest quintiles of estimated mortality risk. Including the ageing-related biomarkers in the model increased these differences up to 22.7 [22.3; 26.9] years in men and 14.00 [12.9; 18.2] years in women. CONCLUSIONS: serum markers of ageing are potentially strong predictors for long-term mortality risk in a general population sample of older and middle-aged individuals and may help to identify individuals at higher risk of premature death, who could benefit from interventions to prevent further ageing-related health declines.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Expectativa de Vida , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151425

RESUMO

The comet assay is widely used for quantification of genomic damage in humans. Peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the most often used cell type for this purpose. Since the comet assay can be performed in an enhanced throughput format, it can be applied to large sample collections such as biobanks. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study is one of the largest existing prospective cohort studies, and the German Cancer Research Institute (DKFZ) in Heidelberg is a participating center with 25.000 frozen blood samples stored from around 25 years ago, enabling retrospective assessment of disease risk factors. However, experience with decades long frozen samples in the comet assay is so far missing. In Heidelberg, 800 study participants were re-invited twice between 2010 and 2012 to donate further blood samples. Here, we analyzed 299 Heidelberg-EPIC samples, compiled from frozen PBMC and buffy coat preparations selected from the different sampling time points. In addition, 47 frozen PBMC samples from morbidly obese individuals were included. For buffy coat samples, we observed a poor correlation between DNA damage in the same donors assessed at two sampling time points. Additionally, no correlation between DNA damage in buffy coat samples and PBMCs was found. For PBMCs, a good correlation was observed between samples of the same donors at the two time points. DNA damage was not affected by age and smoking status, but high BMI (>30; obesity) was associated with increased DNA damage in PBMCs. There was no indication for a threshold of a certain BMI for increased DNA damage. In conclusion, while 25 year-long stored buffy coat preparations may require adaptation of certain experimental parameters such as cell density and electrophoresis conditions, frozen PBMC biobank samples can be analyzed in the comet assay even after a decade of storage.


Assuntos
Ensaio Cometa , Criopreservação , Dano ao DNA , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
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