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1.
Radiologe ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathologic fractures are fractures that occur without an adequate traumatic event due to focal benign or malignant skeletal lesions. The most common causes of pathologic fractures are cystic bone lesions, plasmocytoma or multiple myeloma, and the development of osseous metastases, which is increasing due to an aging general population and advances in cancer treatment. The differentiation of pathologic fractures from stress fractures, especially osteoporotic insufficiency fractures is crucial for correct treatment planning. OBJECTIVES: This review intends to explain the imaging characteristics of pathologic fractures. Moreover, it explains the role of imaging when pathologic fractures are suspected. In addition, the Mirels' score and the SINS (Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score), which are powerful yet easy-to-use tools for the assessment of the fracture risk of benign or malignant bony lesions of the extremities and the vertebral column, shall be introduced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed literature search with the following terms was conducted: "pathologic fracture", "fatigue fracture", "insufficiency fracture", "treatment of pathologic fractures", "imaging of pathologic fractures", "fracture risk", "bone metastases", "MRI of pathologic fractures", "CT of pathologic fractures", "differentiation of pathologic and insufficiency fractures", "Mirels' score", "SINS" and "spinal instability neoplastic score". RESULTS: The definitions of pathologic, fatigue, and insufficiency fractures are explained. Moreover, the role of imaging in the clinical workup of suspected pathologic fractures and the differentiation of pathologic fractures from fatigue or insufficiency fractures as well as common scoring systems to assess the fracture risk of pathologic fractures are described.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), measured at colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has been associated with postoperative complications and survival outcomes. However, BMI does not allow for a differentiation between fat and muscle mass. Computed tomography (CT)-defined body composition more accurately reflects different types of tissue and their associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during the first year of disease, but this has not been investigated yet. We studied the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA) and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) on longitudinally assessed HRQoL in CRC patients. METHODS: A total of 138 newly diagnosed CRC patients underwent CT scans at diagnosis and completed questionnaires prior to and six and twelve months post-surgery. We investigated the associations of VFA, SFA, and SMM with HRQoL at multiple time points. RESULTS: A higher VFA was associated with increased pain six and twelve months post-surgery (ß = 0.06, p = 0.04 and ß = 0.07, p = 0.01) and with worse social functioning six months post-surgery (ß = -0.08, p = 0.01). Higher SMM was associated with increased pain twelve months post-surgery (ß = 1.03, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CT-quantified body composition is associated with HRQoL scales post-surgery. Intervention strategies targeting a reduction in VFA and maintaining SMM might improve HRQoL in CRC patients during the first year post-surgery.

4.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate image quality in dual-layer CT (DLCT) compared to single-layer CT (SLCT) in the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis in a reduced-dose setting. METHODS: Intraindividual, retrospective comparisons were performed in 25 patients who received at least one acquisition of all three acquisition protocols SLCTlow (100 kVp), DLCThigh (120 kVp), and DLCTlow (120 kVp), all covering the venous-phase thorax, abdomen, and pelvis with matched CTDIvol between SLCTlow and DLCTlow. Reconstruction parameters were identical between all scans. Image quality was assessed quantitatively at 10 measurement locations in the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis by two independent observers, and subjectively with an intraindividual forced choice test between the three acquisitions. Dose-length product (DLP) and CTDIvol were extracted for dose comparison. RESULTS: Despite matched CTDIvol in acquisition protocols, CTDIvol and DLP were lower for SLCTlow compared to DLCTlow and DLCThigh (DLP 408.58, 444.68, 647.08 mGy·cm, respectively; p < 0.0004), as automated tube current modulation for DLCTlow reached the lower limit in the thorax (mean 66.1 mAs vs limit 65 mAs). Noise and CNR were comparable between SLCTlow and DLCTlow (p values, 0.29-0.51 and 0.05-0.20), but CT numbers were significantly higher for organs and vessels in the upper abdomen for SLCTlow compared to DLCTlow. DLCThigh had significantly better image quality (Noise and CNR). Subjective image quality was superior for DLCThigh, but no difference was found between SLCTlow and DLCTlow. CONCLUSIONS: DLCTlow showed comparable image quality to SLCTlow, with the additional possibility of spectral post-processing. Further dose reduction seems possible by decreasing the lower limit of the tube current for the thorax. KEY POINTS: • Clinical use of reduced-dose DLCT is feasible despite the required higher tube potential. • DLCT with reduced dose shows comparable objective and subjective image quality to reduced-dose SLCT. • Further dose reduction in the thorax might be possible by adjusting mAs thresholds.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430684

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the relationship between body fatness and colorectal cancer remain unclear. This study investigated associations of circulating metabolites with visceral (VFA), abdominal subcutaneous (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: Pre-surgery plasma samples from 212 patients (stage I-IV) from the ColoCare Study were used to perform targeted metabolomics. VFA, SFA, and TFA were quantified by computed tomography scans. Partial correlation and linear regression analyses of VFA, SFA, and TFA with metabolites were computed and corrected for multiple testing. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess 2-year survival. RESULTS: In patients with metastatic tumors, SFA and TFA were statistically significantly inversely associated with 16 glycerophospholipids (SFA: pFDR range 0.017-0.049; TFA: pFDR range 0.029-0.048), while VFA was not. Doubling of ten of the aforementioned glycerophospholipids was associated with increased risk of death in patients with metastatic tumors, but not in patients with non-metastatic tumors (phet range: 0.00044-0.049). Doubling of PC ae C34:0 was associated with ninefold increased risk of death in metastatic tumors (Hazard Ratio [HR], 9.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17-37.80); an inverse association was observed in non-metastatic tumors (HR 0.17; 95% CI 0.04-0.87; phet = 0.00044). CONCLUSION: These data provide initial evidence that glycerophospholipids in metastatic colorectal cancer are uniquely associated with subcutaneous adiposity, and may impact overall survival.

6.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275978

RESUMO

With more than 900,000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50,000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.

7.
Radiology ; : 201365, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255413

RESUMO

With more than 900,000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50,000 deaths during the first three months of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented healthcare crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, healthcare delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and healthcare workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. While mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pre-test probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing COVID-19 patients across a spectrum of healthcare environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based upon the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of CXR and CT in the management of COVID-19.

8.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 37(1): 274-282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188300

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern of osteoblastoma (OB) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment and to identify signs indicating treatment success or relapse.Materials and methods: Forty-four follow-up MRI examinations of 15 patients with OB who had undergone 19 RFA procedures were analyzed retrospectively. An early follow-up group (1-4 months after RFA) and a late follow-up group (8-131 months after RFA) were established. The groups were further subdivided according to treatment success. Images were analyzed for the presence of central nidus enhancement (CNE), peripheral nidus enhancement (PNE), perifocal bone marrow edema (PBME) and fatty nidus conversion (FNC).Results: The early follow-up MRI image from every patient in the treatment success group exhibited a target-like appearance with negative CNE and positive PNE or PBME. PNE and PBME were observed in 93% and 71% of the early follow-up images, respectively. A target-like appearance was observed in 25% of the late follow-up images, and PNE and PBME were each observed in 20% of these images. FNC was not observed in the early follow-up images, but was seen in 55% of the late follow-up images. All three MRI images of the patients exhibiting clinical recurrence demonstrated strong CNE, PNE and extensive PMBE, which was in contrast to the images of the patients exhibiting treatment success.Conclusion: A target-like appearance of OB in early follow-up MRI examination indicates treatment success. PNE and PBME typically reduce over time and can lead to FNC in successfully treated patients. CNE recurrence, PNE and extensive PBME are signs of relapse.

9.
Zentralbl Chir ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary aortic boards (mAB) are a valuable tool for decision making in patients with aortic pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mAB of a maximum care hospital with regards to total patient volume and discipline-specific presentations. Furthermore, the indications for conservative/surgical treatment and the patients' allocation were reviewed. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients discussed in the mAB of Heidelberg University Hospital (Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery [VS]/Department of Cardiac Surgery [CS]/Department of Radiology), between 01/2014 and 12/2018. RESULTS: Within a five-year period, 344 patients (median of 71 patients/year) were discussed. Of those, 262 (76%) were presented by VS, mostly recruited from the outpatient sector. Another 63 cases (18%), originated from CS and 19 patients (6%) from other disciplines. An indication for surgical treatment was defined in 153 of 344 patients (45%), whereas 191 of 344 cases (55%) were treated in a conservative fashion. Procedures performed by VS were indicated in 85/153 (55%) cases, including 25% (22/85) of non-VS-patients. Procedures performed by CS were indicated in 68/153 (45%) cases containing 84% (57/68) of non-CS-patients. Despite a dedicated indication for surgery, 59/153 patients (39%) did not receive the recommended therapy. CONCLUSION: mAB maintenance is highly dependent on the outpatient sector. With respect to patient selection, the mAB has an important filter function towards conservative treatment. The nearly balanced distribution between VS and CS underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to aortic surgery. Given the relevant number of untreated patients, a central management office with an in-hospital registry seems crucial in order to improve mAB performance.

10.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142375

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) contributes to disease burden of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, its onset and progression in infants and preschool children with CF remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and extent of CRS in young children with CF using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: MRI was performed in sedation in 67 infants and pre-school children with CF (mean age 2.3±2.1y, range 0-6y) and 30 non-CF controls (3.5±2.0y, range 0-6y). Paranasal sinus dimensions and structural abnormalities incl. mucosal swelling, mucopyoceles, and nasal polyps of the maxillary, frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, and in addition medial maxillary sinus wall deformation were assessed using a dedicated CRS MRI scoring system. RESULTS: Pneumatization and dimensions of paranasal sinuses did not differ between the two groups. MRI detected an increased prevalence of mucosal swelling (83% vs 17%, P<0.001), mucopyoceles (75% vs 2%, P<0.001), polyps (26% vs 7%, P<0.001) and maxillary sinus wall deformation (68% vs 2%, P<0.001) in infants and preschool children with CF compared to age-matched controls. Further, the extent of these abnormalities was also increased with a MRI sum score of 22.9±10.9 in CF compared to 4.5±7.6 in non-CF controls (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MRI detected normal dimensions of paranasal sinuses, and a high prevalence and severity of paranasal sinus abnormalities due to CRS in infants and preschool children with CF without radiation exposure. Our results support the development of MRI for sensitive non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of CRS in young children with CF, and as outcome measure for clinical trials.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In children with pneumonia, chest x-ray (CXR) is typically the first imaging modality used for diagnostic work-up. Repeated CXR or computed tomography (CT) are often necessary if complications such as abscesses or empyema arise, thus increasing radiation exposure. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the potential of radiation-free chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect complications at baseline and follow-up, compared to CXR with and without additional lung ultrasound (LUS). METHODS: Paired MRI and CXR scans were retrospectively reviewed by two blinded readers for presence and severity of pulmonary abscess, consolidation, bronchial wall thickening, mucus plugging and pleural effusion/empyema using a chest MRI scoring system. The scores for MRI and CXR were compared at baseline and follow-up. Furthermore, the MRI scores at baseline with and without contrast media were evaluated. RESULTS: 33 pediatric patients (6.3±4.6 years), who had 33 paired MRI and CXR scans at baseline and 12 at follow-up were included. MRI detected significantly more lung abscess formations with a prevalence of 72.7% compared to 27.3% by CXR at baseline (p = 0.001), whereas CXR+LUS was nearly as good as MRI. MRI also showed a higher sensitivity in detecting empyema (p = 0.003). At follow-up, MRI also showed a slightly better sensitivity regarding residual abscesses. The overall severity of disease was rated higher on MRI. Contrast material did not improve detection of abscesses or empyema by MRI. CONCLUSION: CXR and LUS seem to be sufficient in most cases. In cases where LUS cannot be realized or the combination of CXR+LUS might be not sufficient, MRI, as a radiation free modality, should be preferred to CT. Furthermore, the admission of contrast media is not mandatory in this context.

12.
Rofo ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative lymphatic leakage (PLL) is usually managed by conservative and/or surgical treatments but these procedures can be challenging to perform and potentially clinically ineffective. Therefore, conventional lymphangiography (CL) has emerged as an important alternative. The aim of this review is to present the available outcome data on CL in the management of PLL. METHOD: A systematic literature search (PubMed) using the MeSH term "lymphangiography" was performed and the search was restricted to literature published between January 2007 and August 2019. Identification, screening, and assessment for eligibility and inclusion were conducted in accordance with PRISMA. RESULTS: From the initially obtained 1006 articles (identification), 28 articles with a total of 201 patients were finally included (inclusion). The methodological quality of all included articles corresponds to level 4 (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine - Levels of Evidence, March 2009). PLL occurs after oncological and non-oncological surgery in the form of chylothorax, chylous ascites, and cervical, thoracic, abdominal and peripheral lymph fistula and/or lymphocele. The technical success rate of CL is 75-100 %. Access for CL is transpedal (176 patients) or intranodal (25 patients). Lipiodol is used as the contrast material in all articles, with a maximum amount of 20 ml for transpedal CL and 30 ml for intranodal CL. The X-ray imaging modalities used for CL are fluoroscopy, radiography and/or CT. Two articles report CL-associated major complications and CL-associated morbidity and mortality. The PLL cure rate is 51-70 % for transpedal CL (time to PLL cure: 2-29 days) and 33-100 % for intranodal CL (time to PLL cure: 2-< 30 days). Bailout procedures in the case of clinically ineffective CL include a range of treatments. CONCLUSION: CL is feasible, safe, and effective in the management of PLL. Lipiodol as the contrast material is essential in CL because the highly viscous iodinated poppy-seed oil has not only diagnostic but therapeutic effects. Guidelines and randomized controlled trials are further steps towards defining the ultimate value of CL. KEY POINTS: · PLL is a difficult-to-treat and potentially life-threatening surgical complication.. · CL has emerged as an alternative to conservative/surgical treatment of PLL.. · CL is feasible, safe, and effective in the management of PLL. · Lipiodol-based CL can be regarded as a therapeutic procedure.. · Guidelines and randomized controlled trials are further important steps.. CITATION FORMAT: · Sommer CM, Pieper CC, Itkin M et al. Conventional Lymphangiography (CL) in the Management of Postoperative Lymphatic Leakage (PLL): A Systematic Review. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2020; DOI: 10.1055/a-1131-7889.

13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German National Cohort (NAKO) is an interdisciplinary health study aimed at elucidating causes for common chronic diseases and detecting their preclinical stages. This article provides an overview of design, methods, participation in the examinations, and their quality assurance based on the midterm baseline dataset (MBD) of the recruitment. METHODS: More than 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years derived from random samples of the German general population were recruited in 18 study centers (2014-2019). The data collection comprised physical examinations, standardized interviews and questionnaires, and the collection of biomedical samples for all participants (level 1). At least 20% of all participants received additional in-depth examinations (level 2), and 30,000 received whole-body magnet resonance imaging (MRI). Additional information will be collected through secondary data sources such as medical registries, health insurances, and pension funds. This overview is based on the MBD, which included 101,839 participants, of whom 11,371 received an MRI. RESULTS: The mean response proportion was 18%. The participation in the examinations was high with most of the modules performed by over 95%. Among MRI participants, 96% completed all 12 MRI sequences. More than 90% of the participants agreed to the use of complementary secondary and registry data. DISCUSSION: Individuals selected for the NAKO were willing to participate in all examinations despite the time-consuming program. The NAKO provides a central resource for population-based epidemiologic research and will contribute to developing innovative strategies for prevention, screening and prediction of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921221, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058555

RESUMO

Importance: Malignancy prediction models based on participant-related characteristics and imaging parameters from low-dose computed tomography (CT) may improve decision-making regarding nodule management and diagnosis in lung cancer screening. Objective: To externally validate 5 malignancy prediction models that were developed in screening settings, compared with 3 models that were developed in clinical settings, in terms of discrimination and absolute risk calibration among participants in the German Lung Cancer Screening Intervention trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based diagnostic study, malignancy probabilities were estimated by applying 8 prediction models to data from 1159 participants in the intervention arm of the Lung Cancer Screening Intervention trial, a randomized clinical trial conducted from October 23, 2007, to April 30, 2016, with ongoing follow-up. This analysis considers end points up to 1 year after individuals' last screening visit. Inclusion criteria for participants were at least 1 noncalcified pulmonary nodule detected on any of 5 annual screening visits, receiving a lung cancer diagnosis within the active screening phase of the Lung Cancer Screening Intervention trial, and an unequivocal identification of the malignant nodules. Data analysis was performed from February 1, 2019, through December 5, 2019. Interventions: Five annual rounds of low-dose multislice CT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Discrimination ability and calibration of malignancy probabilities estimated by 5 models developed in data from screening studies (4 Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study [PanCan] models using a parsimonious approach including nodule spiculation [PanCan-1b] or a comprehensive approach including nodule spiculation [PanCan-2b], and PanCan-2b replacing the nodule diameter variable with mean diameter [PanCan-MD] or volume [PanCan-VOL], as well as a model developed by the UK Lung Cancer Screening trial) and 3 models developed in clinical settings (US Department of Veterans Affairs, Mayo Clinic, and Peking University People's Hospital). Results: A total of 1159 participants (median [range] age, 57.63 [50.34-71.89] years; 763 [65.8%] men) with 3903 pulmonary nodules were included in this study. For nodules detected in the prevalence round of CT, the PanCan models showed excellent discrimination (PanCan-1b: area under the curve [AUC], 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99]; PanCan-2b: AUC, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-0.99]; PanCan-MD: AUC, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.91-0.98]; PanCan-VOL: AUC, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.90-0.98]), and all of the screening models except PanCan-MD and PanCan-VOL showed acceptable calibration (PanCan-1b: Spiegelhalter z = -1.081; P = .28; PanCan-2b: Spiegelhalter z = 0.436; P = .67; PanCan-MD: Spiegelhalter z = 3.888; P < .001; PanCan-VOL: Spiegelhalter z = 1.978; P = .05; UK Lung Cancer Screening trial: Spiegelhalter z = -1.076; P = .28), whereas the other models showed worse discrimination and calibration, from an AUC of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.46-0.70) for the UK Lung Cancer Screening trial model to an AUC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.97) for the Mayo Clinic model. Conclusions and Relevance: This diagnostic study found that PanCan models showed excellent discrimination and calibration in prevalence screenings, confirming their ability to improve nodule management in screening settings, although calibration to nodules detected in follow-up scans should be improved. The models developed by the Mayo Clinic, Peking University People's Hospital, Department of Veterans Affairs, and UK Lung Cancer Screening Trial did not perform as well.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051182

RESUMO

In Europe, lung cancer ranks third among the most common cancers, remaining the biggest killer. Since the publication of the first European Society of Radiology and European Respiratory Society joint white paper on lung cancer screening (LCS) in 2015, many new findings have been published and discussions have increased considerably. Thus, this updated expert opinion represents a narrative, non-systematic review of the evidence from LCS trials and description of the current practice of LCS as well as aspects that have not received adequate attention until now. Reaching out to the potential participants (persons at high risk), optimal communication and shared decision-making will be key starting points. Furthermore, standards for infrastructure, pathways and quality assurance are pivotal, including promoting tobacco cessation, benefits and harms, overdiagnosis, quality, minimum radiation exposure, definition of management of positive screen results and incidental findings linked to respective actions as well as cost-effectiveness. This requires a multidisciplinary team with experts from pulmonology and radiology as well as thoracic oncologists, thoracic surgeons, pathologists, family doctors, patient representatives and others. The ESR and ERS agree that Europe's health systems need to adapt to allow citizens to benefit from organised pathways, rather than unsupervised initiatives, to allow early diagnosis of lung cancer and reduce the mortality rate. Now is the time to set up and conduct demonstration programmes focusing, among other points, on methodology, standardisation, tobacco cessation, education on healthy lifestyle, cost-effectiveness and a central registry.

17.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052170

RESUMO

In Europe, lung cancer ranks third among the most common cancers, remaining the biggest killer. Since the publication of the first European Society of Radiology and European Respiratory Society joint white paper on lung cancer screening (LCS) in 2015, many new findings have been published and discussions have increased considerably. Thus, this updated expert opinion represents a narrative, non-systematic review of the evidence from LCS trials and description of the current practice of LCS as well as aspects that have not received adequate attention until now. Reaching out to the potential participants (persons at high risk), optimal communication and shared decision-making will be key starting points. Furthermore, standards for infrastructure, pathways and quality assurance are pivotal, including promoting tobacco cessation, benefits and harms, overdiagnosis, quality, minimum radiation exposure, definition of management of positive screen results and incidental findings linked to respective actions as well as cost-effectiveness. This requires a multidisciplinary team with experts from pulmonology and radiology as well as thoracic oncologists, thoracic surgeons, pathologists, family doctors, patient representatives and others. The ESR and ERS agree that Europe's health systems need to adapt to allow citizens to benefit from organised pathways, rather than unsupervised initiatives, to allow early diagnosis of lung cancer and reduce the mortality rate. Now is the time to set up and conduct demonstration programmes focusing, among other points, on methodology, standardisation, tobacco cessation, education on healthy lifestyle, cost-effectiveness and a central registry.Key Points• Pulmonologists and radiologists both have key roles in the set up of multidisciplinary LCS teams with experts from many other fields.• Pulmonologists identify people eligible for LCS, reach out to family doctors, share the decision-making process and promote tobacco cessation.• Radiologists ensure appropriate image quality, minimum dose and a standardised reading/reporting algorithm, together with a clear definition of a "positive screen".• Strict algorithms define the exact management of screen-detected nodules and incidental findings. • For LCS to be (cost-)effective, it has to target a population defined by risk prediction models.

18.
Eur Radiol ; 30(5): 2502-2512, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by variable contributions of emphysema and airway disease on computed tomography (CT), and still little is known on their temporal evolution. We hypothesized that quantitative CT (QCT) is able to detect short-time changes in a cohort of patients with very severe COPD. METHODS: Two paired in- and expiratory CT each from 70 patients with avg. GOLD stage of 3.6 (mean age = 66 ± 7.5, mean FEV1/FVC = 35.28 ± 7.75) were taken 3 months apart and analyzed by fully automatic software computing emphysema (emphysema index (EI), mean lung density (MLD)), air-trapping (ratio expiration to inspiration of mean lung attenuation (E/I MLA), relative volume change between - 856 HU and - 950 HU (RVC856-950)), and parametric response mapping (PRM) parameters for each lobe separately and the whole lung. Airway metrics measured were wall thickness (WT) and lumen area (LA) for each airway generation and the whole lung. RESULTS: The average of the emphysema parameters (EI, MLD) increased significantly by 1.5% (p < 0.001) for the whole lung, whereas air-trapping parameters (E/I MLA, RVC856-950) were stable. PRMEmph increased from 34.3 to 35.7% (p < 0.001), whereas PRMNormal decrased from 23.6% to 22.8% (p = 0.012). WT decreased significantly from 1.17 ± 0.18 to 1.14 ± 0.19 mm (p = 0.036) and LA increased significantly from 25.08 ± 4.49 to 25.84 ± 4.87 mm2 (p = 0.041) for the whole lung. The generation-based analysis showed heterogeneous results. CONCLUSION: QCT detects short-time progression of emphysema in severe COPD. The changes were partly different among lung lobes and airway generations, indicating that QCT is useful to address the heterogeneity of COPD progression. KEY POINTS: • QCT detects short-time progression of emphysema in severe COPD in a 3-month period. • QCT is able to quantify even slight parenchymal changes, which were not detected by spirometry. • QCT is able to address the heterogeneity of COPD, revealing inconsistent changes individual lung lobes and airway generations.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1503-1513, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162856

RESUMO

In 2011, the U.S. National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) reported a 20% reduction of lung cancer mortality after regular screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), as compared to X-ray screening. The introduction of lung cancer screening programs in Europe awaits confirmation of these first findings from European trials that started in parallel with the NLST. The German Lung cancer Screening Intervention (LUSI) is a randomized trial among 4,052 long-term smokers, 50-69 years of age, recruited from the general population, comparing five annual rounds of LDCT screening (screening arm; n = 2,029 participants) with a control arm (n = 2,023) followed by annual postal questionnaire inquiries. Data on lung cancer incidence and mortality and vital status were collected from hospitals or office-based physicians, cancer registries, population registers and health offices. Over an average observation time of 8.8 years after randomization, the hazard ratio for lung cancer mortality was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.46-1.19; p = 0.21) among men and women combined. Modeling by sex, however showed a statistically significant reduction in lung cancer mortality among women (HR = 0.31 [95% CI: 0.10-0.96], p = 0.04), but not among men (HR = 0.94 [95% CI: 0.54-1.61], p = 0.81) screened by LDCT (pheterogeneity = 0.09). Findings from LUSI are in line with those from other trials, including NLST, that suggest a stronger reduction of lung cancer mortality after LDCT screening among women as compared to men. This heterogeneity could be the result of different relative counts of lung tumor subtypes occurring in men and women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mortalidade/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Eur Radiol ; 30(3): 1738-1746, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies with lung MRI (MRI) have shown high sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) for lung nodule detection and characterization relative to low-dose CT (LDCT). Using this background data, we sought to compare the potential screening performance of MRI vs. LDCT using a Markov model of lung cancer screening. METHODS: We created a Markov cohort model of lung cancer screening which incorporated lung cancer incidence, progression, and mortality based on gender, age, and smoking burden. Sensitivity (Sn) and Sp for LDCT were taken from the MISCAN Lung Microsimulation and Sn/Sp for MRI was estimated from a published substudy of the German Lung Cancer Screening and Intervention Trial. Screening, work-up, and treatment costs were estimated from published data. Screening with MRI and LDCT was simulated for a cohort of male and female smokers (2 packs per day; 36 pack/years of smoking history) starting at age 60. We calculated the screening performance and cost-effectiveness of MRI screening and performed a sensitivity analysis on MRI Sn/Sp and cost. RESULTS: There was no difference in life expectancy between MRI and LDCT screening (males 13.28 vs. 13.29 life-years; females 14.22 vs. 14.22 life-years). MRI had a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio of $258,169 in men and $403,888 in women driven by fewer false-positive screens. On sensitivity analysis, MRI remained cost effective at screening costs < $396 dollars and Sp > 81%. CONCLUSIONS: In this Markov model of lung cancer screening, MRI has a near-equivalent life expectancy benefit and has superior cost-effectiveness relative to LDCT. KEY POINTS: • In this Markov model of lung cancer screening, there is no difference in mortality between yearly screening with MRI and low-dose CT. • Compared to low-dose CT, screening with MRI led to a reduction in false-positive studies from 26 to 2.8% in men and 26 to 2.6% in women. • Due to similar life-expectancy and reduced false-positive rate, we found a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio of $258,169 in men and $403,888 in women of MRI relative to low-dose CT.

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