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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6078, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667177

RESUMO

The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a regulatory hub for transcription and RNA processing. Here, we identify PHD-finger protein 3 (PHF3) as a regulator of transcription and mRNA stability that docks onto Pol II CTD through its SPOC domain. We characterize SPOC as a CTD reader domain that preferentially binds two phosphorylated Serine-2 marks in adjacent CTD repeats. PHF3 drives liquid-liquid phase separation of phosphorylated Pol II, colocalizes with Pol II clusters and tracks with Pol II across the length of genes. PHF3 knock-out or SPOC deletion in human cells results in increased Pol II stalling, reduced elongation rate and an increase in mRNA stability, with marked derepression of neuronal genes. Key neuronal genes are aberrantly expressed in Phf3 knock-out mouse embryonic stem cells, resulting in impaired neuronal differentiation. Our data suggest that PHF3 acts as a prominent effector of neuronal gene regulation by bridging transcription with mRNA decay.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/química , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/química , Fosforilação , Domínios Proteicos , RNA/química , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(21): e122, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053171

RESUMO

Protein-protein interactions are essential to ensure timely and precise recruitment of chromatin remodellers and repair factors to DNA damage sites. Conventional analyses of protein-protein interactions at a population level may mask the complexity of interaction dynamics, highlighting the need for a method that enables quantification of DNA damage-dependent interactions at a single-cell level. To this end, we integrated a pulsed UV laser on a confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscope to induce localized DNA damage. To quantify protein-protein interactions in live cells, we measured Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between mEGFP- and mCherry-tagged proteins, based on the fluorescence lifetime reduction of the mEGFP donor protein. The UV-FLIM-FRET system offers a unique combination of real-time and single-cell quantification of DNA damage-dependent interactions, and can distinguish between direct protein-protein interactions, as opposed to those mediated by chromatin proximity. Using the UV-FLIM-FRET system, we show the dynamic changes in the interaction between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, amplified in liver cancer 1, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 and tripartite motif containing 33 after DNA damage. This new set-up complements the toolset for studying DNA damage response by providing single-cell quantitative and dynamic information about protein-protein interactions at DNA damage sites.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos/efeitos da radiação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Lasers , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/metabolismo
3.
Nucleus ; 9(1): 474-491, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205747

RESUMO

Fluorescence microscopy in combination with the induction of localized DNA damage using focused light beams has played a major role in the study of protein recruitment kinetics to DNA damage sites in recent years. Currently published methods are dedicated to the study of single fluorophore/single protein kinetics. However, these methods may be limited when studying the relative recruitment dynamics between two or more proteins due to cell-to-cell variability in gene expression and recruitment kinetics, and are not suitable for comparative analysis of fast-recruiting proteins. To tackle these limitations, we have established a time-lapse fluorescence microscopy method based on simultaneous dual-channel acquisition following UV-A-induced local DNA damage coupled with a standardized image and recruitment analysis workflow. Simultaneous acquisition is achieved by spectrally splitting the emitted light into two light paths, which are simultaneously imaged on two halves of the same camera chip. To validate this method, we studied the recruitment of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the chromatin remodeler ALC1. In accordance with the published data based on single fluorophore imaging, simultaneous dual-channel imaging revealed that PARP1 regulates fast recruitment and dissociation of PARG and that in PARP1-depleted cells PARG and PCNA are recruited with comparable kinetics. This approach is particularly advantageous for analyzing the recruitment sequence of fast-recruiting proteins such as PARP1 and ALC1, and revealed that PARP1 is recruited faster than ALC1. Split-view imaging can be incorporated into any laser microirradiation-adapted microscopy setup together with a recruitment-dedicated image analysis package.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , DNA Helicases/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/análise , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Lasers , Imagem Óptica , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/análise , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo
4.
Oncotarget ; 8(61): 103931-103951, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262611

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) regulate various aspects of cellular function including mitotic progression. Although PARP inhibitors have been undergoing various clinical trials and the PARP1/2 inhibitor olaparib was approved as monotherapy for BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer, their mode of action in killing tumour cells is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of PARP inhibition on mitosis in cancerous (cervical, ovary, breast and osteosarcoma) and non-cancerous cells by live-cell imaging. The clinically relevant inhibitor olaparib induced strong perturbations in mitosis, including problems with chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate, anaphase delay, and premature loss of cohesion (cohesion fatigue) after a prolonged metaphase arrest, resulting in sister chromatid scattering. PARP1 and PARP2 depletion suppressed the phenotype while PARP2 overexpression enhanced it, suggesting that olaparib-bound PARP1 and PARP2 rather than the lack of catalytic activity causes this phenotype. Olaparib-induced mitotic chromatid scattering was observed in various cancer cell lines with increased protein levels of PARP1 and PARP2, but not in non-cancer or cancer cell lines that expressed lower levels of PARP1 or PARP2. Interestingly, the sister chromatid scattering phenotype occurred only when olaparib was added during the S-phase preceding mitosis, suggesting that PARP1 and PARP2 entrapment at replication forks impairs sister chromatid cohesion. Clinically relevant DNA-damaging agents that impair replication progression such as topoisomerase inhibitors and cisplatin were also found to induce sister chromatid scattering and metaphase plate alignment problems, suggesting that these mitotic phenotypes are a common outcome of replication perturbation.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 45(16): 9741-9759, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934471

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) regulates cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) levels by rapidly cleaving glycosidic bonds between ADP-ribose units. PARG interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and is strongly recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR- and PCNA-dependent fashion. Here we identified PARG acetylation site K409 that is essential for its interaction with PCNA, its localization within replication foci and its recruitment to DNA damage sites. We found K409 to be part of a non-canonical PIP-box within the PARG disordered regulatory region. The previously identified putative N-terminal PIP-box does not bind PCNA directly but contributes to PARG localization within replication foci. X-ray structure and MD simulations reveal that the PARG non-canonical PIP-box binds PCNA in a manner similar to other canonical PIP-boxes and may represent a new type of PIP-box. While the binding of previously described PIP-boxes is based on hydrophobic interactions, PARG PIP-box binds PCNA via both stabilizing hydrophobic and fine-tuning electrostatic interactions. Our data explain the mechanism of PARG-PCNA interaction through a new PARG PIP-box that exhibits non-canonical sequence properties but a canonical mode of PCNA binding.


Assuntos
Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Acetilação , Calorimetria/métodos , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dano ao DNA , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Lasers , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/química , Conformação Proteica , Fase S/genética , Eletricidade Estática
6.
J Biol Chem ; 292(43): 17643-17657, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864776

RESUMO

N-terminal histone tails are subject to many posttranslational modifications that are recognized by and interact with designated reader domains in histone-binding proteins. BROMO domain adjacent to zinc finger 2B (BAZ2B) is a multidomain histone-binding protein that contains two histone reader modules, a plant homeodomain (PHD) and a bromodomain (BRD), linked by a largely disordered linker. Although previous studies have reported specificity of the PHD domain for the unmodified N terminus of histone H3 and of the BRD domain for H3 acetylated at Lys14 (H3K14ac), the exact mode of H3 binding by BAZ2B and its regulation are underexplored. Here, using isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy, we report that acidic residues in the BAZ2B PHD domain are essential for H3 binding and that BAZ2B PHD-BRD establishes a polyvalent interaction with H3K14ac. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the disordered interdomain linker modulates the histone-binding affinity by interacting with the PHD domain. In particular, lysine-rich stretches in the linker, which resemble the positively charged N terminus of histone H3, reduce the binding affinity of the PHD finger toward the histone substrate. Phosphorylation, acetylation, or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the linker residues may therefore act as a cellular mechanism to transiently tune BAZ2B histone-binding affinity. Our findings further support the concept of interdomain linkers serving a dual role in substrate binding by appropriately positioning the adjacent domains and by electrostatically modulating substrate binding. Moreover, inhibition of histone binding by a histone-mimicking interdomain linker represents another example of regulation of protein-protein interactions by intramolecular mimicry.


Assuntos
Histonas/química , Proteínas/química , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ligação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores Genéricos de Transcrição
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 85: 25-32, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159477

RESUMO

In the EU, chemicals with a production or import volume in quantities of one metric ton per year or more have to be tested for skin sensitizing properties under the REACH regulation. The murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and its modifications are widely used to fulfil the data requirement, as it is currently considered the first-choice method for in vivo testing to cover this endpoint. This manuscript describes a case study highlighting the importance of understanding the chemistry of the test material during testing for 'skin sensitization' of MCDA (mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-diamino-methylcyclohexane) with particular focus on the vehicle used. While the BrdU-ELISA modification of the LLNA using acetone/olive oil (AOO) as vehicle revealed expectable positive results. However, the concentration control analysis unexpectedly revealed an instability of MCDA in the vehicle AOO. Further studies on the reactivity showed MCDA to rapidly react with AOO under formation of various imine structures, which might have caused the positive LLNA result. The repetition of the LLNA using propylene glycol (PG) as vehicle did not confirm the positive results of the LLNA using AOO. Finally, a classification of MCDA as skin sensitizer according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) was not justified.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Cicloexilaminas , Excipientes/química , Haptenos , Acetona/química , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/classificação , Alérgenos/toxicidade , Animais , Cicloexilaminas/química , Cicloexilaminas/classificação , Cicloexilaminas/toxicidade , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Feminino , Haptenos/química , Haptenos/classificação , Haptenos/toxicidade , Ensaio Local de Linfonodo , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Azeite de Oliva/química , Propilenoglicol/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Cell Sci ; 129(24): 4607-4621, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875273

RESUMO

Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD-dependent deacetylase known to regulate microtubule dynamics and cell cycle progression. SIRT2 has also been implicated in the pathology of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and progeria. Here, we show that SIRT2 depletion or overexpression causes nuclear envelope reassembly defects. We link this phenotype to the recently identified regulator of nuclear envelope reassembly ANKLE2. ANKLE2 acetylation at K302 and phosphorylation at S662 are dynamically regulated throughout the cell cycle by SIRT2 and are essential for normal nuclear envelope reassembly. The function of SIRT2 therefore extends beyond the regulation of microtubules to include the regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Sirtuína 2/metabolismo , Acetilação , Biotinilação , Ciclo Celular , Forma do Núcleo Celular , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Proteômica
9.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 20(5): 547-59, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16455230

RESUMO

Based on two successfully completed ECVAM validation studies for in vitro skin corrosion testing of chemicals, the National Co-ordinators of OECD Test Guideline Programme endorsed in 2002 two new test guidelines: TG 430 'Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance assay' and TG 431 'Human Skin Model Test'. To allow all suitable in vitro human reconstructed (dermal or epidermal) models to be used for skin corrosion testing, the OECD TG 431 defines general and functional conditions that the model must meet before it will be routinely used for skin corrosion testing. In addition, the guideline requires correct prediction of 12 reference chemicals and assessment of intra- and inter-laboratory variability. To show that the OECD TG 431 concept works, in 2003 ZEBET tested several chemicals from the ECVAM validation trials on the SkinEthic reconstituted human epidermal (RHE) model. Based on knowledge that reconstructed human skin models perform similarly in toxicological studies, it was decided to adopt the validated EpiDerm skin corrosion test protocol and prediction model to the SkinEthic model. After minor technical changes, classifications were obtained in concordance with those reported for the validated human skin models EPISKIN and EpiDerm. To allow adequate determination of inter-laboratory reproducibility, a blind trial was conducted in three laboratories -- ZEBET (D), Safepharm (UK) and BASF (D), in which the 12 endorsed reference chemicals were tested. Results obtained with the SkinEthic epidermal model were reproducible, both within and between laboratories, and over time. Concordance between the in vitro predictions of skin corrosivity potential obtained with the SkinEthic model and the predictions obtained with the accepted tests of OECD TG 430 and TG 431 was very good. The new test was able to distinguish between corrosive and non-corrosive reference chemicals with an accuracy of 93%.


Assuntos
Cáusticos/toxicidade , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Cáusticos/classificação , Corrosão , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes de Toxicidade
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