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Chemosphere ; 239: 124788, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521935


Digestion of biomass derived carbonaceous materials such as biochar (BC) can be challenging due to their high chemical recalcitrance and vast variations in composition. Reports on the development of specific sample digestion methods for such materials remain inadequate and thus require considerable attention. Nine different carbonaceous materials; slow-pyrolyzed tea-waste and king coconut BC produced at 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C, sludge waste BC produced at 700 °C, wet fast-pyrolyzed Douglas-Fir BC and steam activated coconut shell BC have been tested to evaluate a relatively fast and convenient open-vessel digestion method using seven digestion reagents including nitric acid (NA), fuming nitric acid (FNA), sulfuric acid (SA), NA/SA, FNA/SA, NA/H2O2 and SA/H2O2 mixtures. From the tested digestion reagents, SA/H2O2 mixture dissolved low temperature produced BC (LTBC) within 2 h with occasional shaking and no external heating. Except peroxide mixtures, the other reagents were used to evaluate microwave digestion (MWD) efficiency. Nitric acid mixture was capable of only completely digesting LTBC in the MWD procedure whereas FNA, NA/SA and FNA/SA mixtures resulted in the successful dissolution of all tested carbonaceous materials. Amongst them, FNA provided the least matrix effect in the quantification of the four metals tested using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Tested recoveries for FNA were satisfactory as well. It was concluded that FNA is a preferable reagent for microwave digestion of BC.

Carvão Vegetal/química , Resíduos , Cocos , Indústria de Laticínios , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metais/análise , Micro-Ondas , Ácido Nítrico/química , Pirólise , Esgotos , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química
RSC Adv ; 9(31): 17612-17622, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35520596


Tea-waste is an abundant feedstock for producing biochar (BC) which is considered to be a cost effective carbonaceous adsorbent useful for water remediation and soil amendment purposes. In the present study, tea-waste BC (TWBC) produced at three different temperatures were subjected to nitric, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid modifications (abbreviated as NM, SM and HM respectively). Characteristics of the raw and modified BC such as ultimate and proximate analyses, surface morphology, surface acidity and functionality, point of zero charge, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and thermal stability were compared to evaluate the influence of pyrolysis temperature and of modifications incorporated. The amount of carboxylic and phenolic surface functionalities on TWBC was seen to decrease by 93.44% and 81.06% respectively when the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700 °C. Additionally, the yield of BC was seen to decrease by 46% upon the latter temperature increment. The elemental analysis results provided justification for high-temperature BC being more hydrophobic as was observed by the 61% increase in H/C ratio which is an indication of augmented aromatization. The CEC was the highest for the low-temperature BC and was seen to further increase by NM which is attributed to the 81.89% increase in carboxylic functionalities. The surface area was seen to significantly increase for BC700 upon NM (∼27 times). The SM led to pore wall destruction which was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. Findings would enable the rational use of these particular modifications in relevant remediation and soil amendment applications.