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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 42-50, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its inception in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been evolving continuously by procuring mutations, leading to emergence of numerous variants, causing second wave of pandemic in many countries including India in 2021. To control this pandemic continuous mutational surveillance and genomic epidemiology of circulating strains is very important to unveil the emergence of the novel variants and also monitor the evolution of existing variants. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 sequences were retrieved from GISAID database. Sequence alignment was performed with MAFT version 7. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using MEGA (version X) and UShER. RESULTS: In this study, we reported the emergence of a novel variant of SARS-CoV-2, named B.1.1.526, in India. This novel variant encompasses 129 SARS-CoV-2 strains which are characterized by the presence of 11 coexisting mutations including D614G, P681H, and V1230L in S glycoprotein. Out of these 129 sequences, 27 sequences also harbored E484K mutation in S glycoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strains of this novel variant emerged from the GR clade and formed a new cluster. Geographical distribution showed, out of 129 sequences, 126 were found in seven different states of India. Rest 3 sequences were observed in USA. Temporal analysis revealed this novel variant was first collected from Kolkata district of West Bengal, India. CONCLUSIONS: The D614G, P618H and E484K mutations have previously been reported to favor increased transmissibility, enhanced infectivity, and immune invasion, respectively. The transmembrane domain (TM) of S2 subunit anchors S glycoprotein to the virus envelope. The V1230L mutation, present within the TM domain of S glycoprotein, might strengthen the interaction of S glycoprotein with the viral envelope and increase S glycoprotein deposition to the virion, resulting in more infectious virion. Therefore, the new variant having D614G, P618H, V1230L, and E484K may have higher infectivity, transmissibility, and immune invasion characteristics, and thus need to be monitored closely.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
2.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-6, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The influence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be seen immediately or across the life course. CSA is also associated with increased HIV-risk behavior, and greater likelihood of an HIV/STI diagnosis. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of CSA among older adults living with HIV. METHODS: Twenty-four adults living with HIV aged 50 to 67 years (mean age = 58.5 years), with a history of CSA, receiving care from an HIV clinic in South Carolina, participated in the study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio recorded and analyzed using a thematic analytic approach. The iterative analytic process included a three-step approach: discussion of initial thoughts and key concepts, identification and reconciliation of codes, and naming of emergent themes. RESULTS: Four themes emerged: Psychological issues due to CSA, relationship challenges due to CSA, self-blame, and reliving childhood trauma (subtheme: lack of influence of CSA today). Some participants reported feeling the influence of CSA several years after the event while others noted that that there was a lack of influence of CSA at present. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma-informed intervention programs are needed for older adults living with HIV who still experience the influence of their CSA experience. Future research should delve into the design and feasibility of implementing these programs.

3.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 7334648211058718, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) among a representative sample of the adult US population. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N = 82,688, ≥45 years). Adverse childhood experiences included sexual, physical/psychological and environmental ACEs, and a score. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between ACEs and SCD, and SCD-related outcomes. RESULTS: Sexual (adjusted OR (aOR: 2.83; 95% CI: 2.42-3.31)), physical/psychological (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.83-2.29), and environmental (aOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.74-2.16) ACEs were associated with SCD in the past year. There was also a dose-response relationship between ACE score and SCD. CONCLUSION: ACEs were associated with SCD. Interventions to maximize cognitive health in aging and prevent future cognitive impairment should consider the potential role of ACEs among affected populations.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202112832, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935241

RESUMO

Many soluble proteins can self-assemble into macromolecular structures called amyloids, a subset of which are implicated in a range of neurodegenerative disorders. The nanoscale size and structural heterogeneity of prefibrillar and early aggregates, as well as mature amyloid fibrils, pose significant challenges for the quantification of amyloid morphologies. We report a fluorescent amyloid sensor AmyBlink-1 and its application in super-resolution imaging of amyloid structures. AmyBlink-1 exhibits a 5-fold increase in ratio of the green (thioflavin T) to red (Alexa Fluor 647) emission intensities upon interaction with amyloid fibrils. Using AmyBlink-1, we performed nanoscale imaging of four different types of amyloid fibrils, achieving a resolution of ≈30 nm. AmyBlink-1 enables nanoscale visualization and subsequent quantification of morphological features, such as the length and skew of individual amyloid aggregates formed at different times along the amyloid assembly pathway.

5.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(10): 3753-3759, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934676

RESUMO

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has engulfed the world, within a short span of time crippling many health systems. The disease in its ever-evolving course is exhibiting a myriad of symptoms and imaging manifestations. This retrospective study was conducted to generate evidence from the chest computed tomography (CT) findings of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia to aid in the diagnosis and disease management. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 disease who underwent chest CT between 1st June to 31st December 2020 at a tertiary care institute of North India. Anonymized data of 152 COVID-19 positive patients was used for the evaluation of the clinical profile and imaging findings. Results: The common presenting clinical symptoms were fever, cough, myalgia and sore throat. The most frequent CT imaging feature consisted of ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation and crazy paving distributed bilaterally, peripherally in subpleural location with a predilection for the posterior parts of lungs. Reverse halo sign was observed in 12 patients and halo sign in 3 patients. Dilated pulmonary vessels with mild bronchiolectasis were observed in the involved lung parenchyma. Less common findings included pleural effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pericardial effusion. The mean CT severity score gradually increased with increasing age. Conclusion: The predominant imaging finding of COVID-19 pneumonia was peripheral GGO's distributed bilaterally in peripheral subpleural region and having predilection for the posterior parts of the lungs which gradually evolve into organizing pneumonia patterns. Although COVID-19 shares imaging findings with other viral pneumonias, however in the context of the current pandemic, we must keep COVID-19 a differential diagnosis, in all patients with fever and respiratory symptoms.

6.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18784, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796071

RESUMO

Spontaneous regression of cancer is a rarely recognized entity in modern medicine. Historically, this was recognized and hypothesized that an infection causes immune activation, indirectly stimulating the body to destroy tumor cells. Similarly, immune-oncology has now become a major modality in the treatment of solid and some liquid malignancies. However, now with improved therapeutic modalities in the oncology world, one does not get to appreciate our own immune system's ability to fight cancer. We present a patient who had spontaneous regression of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). The patient is a 58-year-old female who had presented with early satiety and dysphagia for which she underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy which showed an esophageal mass and endoscopic ultrasounds (EUSs) confirmed adenocarcinoma of the GEJ with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes and left supraclavicular lymph nodes. The patient had refused to undergo any surgical, medical oncological, or holistic treatments. Interim disease monitoring positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed resolution of the metastatic sites of gastroesophageal cancer with clinical improvement of her symptoms. She continues to have this distant regression of metastatic gastroesophageal cancer six months after the initial diagnosis. In literature, spontaneous cancer regression has been reported in melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of spontaneous regression of metastatic lesions involving adenocarcinoma of the GEJ with no medical or surgical intervention.

7.
Stress Health ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799970

RESUMO

Researchers have theorized that exposure to racial discrimination may impair executive functioning. The limited existing data broadly support this notion and suggest that discrimination may exert acute and persistent effects on executive functioning, potentially because of the cognitive demands associated with responding to discrimination. However, it is unclear if discrimination is differentially associated with different core executive functions. Further, the effects may vary depending on the timing of exposure, as recent or acute exposure to discrimination may operate on executive functioning through different mechanisms than exposure across the lifetime. The current study evaluates the relations of both recent and lifetime exposure to racial discrimination to three core executive functions (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and working memory) using a racially and ethnically diverse sample (n = 319). In fully adjusted models, recent discrimination was negatively associated with cognitive flexibility and working memory but not with inhibitory control. These data are consistent with the broader literature on acute stress effects on core executive functions and may have implications for understanding the effects of discrimination on health. Further research is warranted to understand the course and mechanisms of effects of lifetime and recent discrimination on core executive functions.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834597

RESUMO

The production and consumption of nuts are increasing in the world due to strong economic returns and the nutritional value of their products. With the increasing role and importance given to nuts (i.e., walnuts, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, almond) in a balanced and healthy diet and their benefits to human health, breeding of the nuts species has also been stepped up. Most recent fruit breeding programs have focused on scion genetic improvement. However, the use of locally adapted grafted rootstocks also enhanced the productivity and quality of tree fruit crops. Grafting is an ancient horticultural practice used in nut crops to manipulate scion phenotype and productivity and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. There are complex rootstock breeding objectives and physiological and molecular aspects of rootstock-scion interactions in nut crops. In this review, we provide an overview of these, considering the mechanisms involved in nutrient and water uptake, regulation of phytohormones, and rootstock influences on the scion molecular processes, including long-distance gene silencing and trans-grafting. Understanding the mechanisms resulting from rootstock × scion × environmental interactions will contribute to developing new rootstocks with resilience in the face of climate change, but also of the multitude of diseases and pests.

10.
Contemp Clin Dent ; 12(3): 230-234, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759678

RESUMO

Background: Biomechanical preparation of root canal can damage root dentin leading to the formation of dentinal cracks which can eventually lead to fracture and failure of the treatment. Aim: The aim was to investigate the incidence of dentinal defects in root canals prepared with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Gold, and Hyflex electric discharge machining (EDM) rotary file systems using handheld USB digital microscope. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single canal were randomly divided into five groups (n = 30). Group 1: unprepared (negative control). Group 2: canal preparation done with nickel-titanium hand files (positive control), Group 3: canals prepared with ProTaper Universal rotary system, Group 4: canal preparation done with ProTaper Gold rotary system, and Group 5: canals prepared with Hyflex EDM rotary system. The specimens were sliced at 3 mm, 6 mm, and 9 mm from the apex with a slow-speed saw under water cooling. Digital images of each section were captured at ×40 magnification with the aid of a microscope. Two independent evaluators assessed the images for the presence of dentinal defects. The number of dentinal defects was recorded and Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Results: The number of specimens presenting dentinal defects was as follows: Group 3; ProTaper Universal - 9/30 (30.0%), Group 4; ProTaper Gold - 2/30 (6.7%), and Group 5; Hyflex EDM - 1/30 (3.3%). No defects were detected in the negative and positive control groups (Group 1 and Group 2). Conclusion: ProTaper Universal showed the highest percentage of defects in comparison to ProTaper Gold and Hyflex EDM.

11.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779370

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases reported in the aging population across the globe. About 46.8 million people are reported to have dementia, and AD is mainly responsible for dementia in aged people. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to occur due to the accumulation of ß-amyloid (Aß) in the neocortex portion of the brain, nitric oxide mediated dysfunctioning of blood-brain barrier, reduced activity of serine racemase enzyme, cell cycle disturbances, damage of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Modern treatment methods target the pathways responsible for the disease. To date, solely symptomatic treatments exist for this disease, all making an attempt to counterbalance the neurotransmitter disturbance. Treatments able to prevent or at least effectively modifying the course of AD, referred to as 'disease-modifying' drugs, are still under extensive research. Effective treatments entail a better indulgence of the herbal bioactives by novel drug delivery systems. The herbal bioactive administered by novel drug delivery systems have proved beneficial in treating this disease. This review provides detailed information about the role of medicinal plants and their formulations in treating Alzheimer disease which will be highly beneficial for the researchers working in this area.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22049, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764387

RESUMO

Wheat, one of the major cereal crops worldwide, get adversely affected by rising global temperature. We have identified the diploid B genome progenitor of wheat, Aegilops speltoides (SS), as a potential donor for heat stress tolerance. Therefore, the present work was planned to study the total transcriptome profile of heat stress-tolerant Ae. speltoides accession pau3809 (AS3809) and compare with that of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat cultivars PDW274 and PBW725, respectively. The comparative transcriptome was utilized to identify and validate heat stress transcription factors (HSFs), the key genes involved in imparting heat stress tolerance. Transcriptome analysis led to the identification of a total of 74 K, 68 K, and 76 K genes in AS3809, PDW274, and PBW725, respectively. There was a high uniformity of GO profiles under the biological, molecular, and cellular functions across the three wheat transcriptomes, suggesting the conservation of gene function. Twelve HSFs having the highest FPKM value were identified in the AS3809 transcriptome data, while six of these HSFs namely HSFA3, HSFA5, HSFA9, HSFB2a, HSFB2b, and HSFC1b, were validated with qRT PCR. These six HSFs were identified as an important component of thermotolerance in AS3809 as evident from their comparative higher expression under heat stress.

13.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) prevalence estimates range from 8-11% among older adults and may range from 16 to 22% among older adults living with HIV (OALH). CSA experiences can still impact the quality of life of older adults. To the best of our knowledge, however, there are no CSA-focused interventions tailored for OALH. Using a qualitative approach, this study characterized the desired components of a trauma-focused intervention for OALH who are CSA survivors. METHODS: Twenty-four (24) adults aged 50 years of age or older who were living with HIV and had experienced CSA were recruited from a large HIV immunology center in South Carolina. Participants completed in-depth, qualitative, semi-structured interviews. We iteratively examined verbatim transcripts using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: program format and modality, program content, and program coordinator. Most participants expressed a desire for a trauma-focused intervention program in which the CSA experience was addressed and they could talk to someone either individually, as a group, and/or both. CONCLUSION: A trauma-focused intervention addressing CSA may be helpful for OALH who are CSA survivors. Future research should focus on designing and implementing age-appropriate interventions addressing the CSA experience, increasing resilience, and developing adaptive coping skills.

14.
Surg J (N Y) ; 7(4): e297-e300, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703888

RESUMO

Food handlers and workers are exposed to several occupational hazards not frequented by the general population. Grinder injuries of the hand present a devastating consequence of industrial food processing that is infrequently described. Herein, we describe two cases that presented to our department with meat grinder injuries of the hand.

15.
J Dent Anesth Pain Med ; 21(5): 441-449, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703893

RESUMO

Background: The efficacy of local anesthesia decreases in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, it was proposed that the use of premedication with an anti-inflammatory drug might increase the success rate of pulpal anesthesia in mandibular posterior teeth with vital inflamed pulp. Methods: One hundred thirty-four patients who were actively experiencing pain willingly participated in this study. The Heft Parker (HP) visual analog scale (VAS) was used to record the initial pain intensity. Patients were randomly allocated to receive a placebo, 10 mg of ketorolac, and 650 mg of paracetamol. The standard inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) was administered to all patients using 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 adrenaline after one hour of medication. After 15 min, the patient was instructed to rate the discomfort during each step of the treatment procedure, such as access to remaining dentin, access to the pulp chamber, and during canal instrumentation on the HP VAS. IANB was considered successful if the patient reported no or mild pain during access preparation and instrumentation. Moderate or severe pain was classified as a failure of IANB and another method of anesthesia was used before continuing the treatment. Results: The rate of successful anesthesia in the placebo, paracetamol, and ketorolac groups was 29%, 33%, and 43%, respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. Conclusion: Preoperative administration of paracetamol or ketorolac did not significantly affect the success rate of IANB in patients with irreversible pulpitis. No significant difference was observed between the paracetamol and ketorolac groups.

16.
RSC Chem Biol ; 2(5): 1491-1498, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704054

RESUMO

Fluorescent probes for biological imaging have revealed much about the functions of biomolecules in health and disease. Fluorogenic probes, which are fluorescent only upon a bioorthogonal reaction with a specific partner, are particularly advantageous as they ensure that fluorescent signals observed in biological imaging arise solely from the intended target. In this work, we report the first series of naphthalimide tetrazines for bioorthogonal fluorogenic labelling. We establish that all of these compounds can be used for imaging through photophysical, analytical and biological studies. The best candidate was Np6mTz, where the tetrazine ring is appended to the naphthalimide at its 6-position via a phenyl linker in a meta configuration. Taking our synthetic scaffold, we generated two targeted variants, LysoNpTz and MitoNpTz, which successfully localized within the lysosomes and mitochondria respectively, without the requirement of genetic modification. In addition, the naphthalimide tetrazine system was used for the no-wash imaging of insulin amyloid fibrils in vitro, providing a new method that can monitor their growth kinetics and morphology. Since our synthetic approach is simple and modular, these new naphthalimide tetrazines provide a novel scaffold for a range of bioorthogonal tetrazine-based imaging agents for selective staining and sensing of biomolecules.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601693

RESUMO

Monitoring aquatic health from environmental pollutants is critical, none more so than bisphenol-A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC). The present study brings out the responses of selected transcripts, hormone levels, and tissue histomorphology in a widely distributed fish species Cyprinus carpio (Linn.), following exposure to environmentally relevant (10, 100 ng/L) and higher (1000 ng/L) concentration of BPA. The response of cyp19a1a, cyp19a1b, and c3 significantly decreased, while that of vtg increased in their respective tissue domains. The hematological parameters TEC, Hb, and Hct decreased significantly in contrast to TLC (p < 0.05) at all exposure concentrations, whereas none of the erythrocytic indices (MCV, MCH, and MCHC) was perturbed. The steroidogenic hormone levels, such as estradiol and progesterone, increased significantly with increasing BPA concentrations. In contrast, the testosterone and all the thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and TSH) were suppressed significantly (p < 0.05). At the histological level, the BPA induced chondrocyte proliferation, which was accompanied by hemorrhage of the gill lamellae, increased melanomacrophagic centers (MMCs), and degeneration of tubules and fluid accumulation in the kidney. In parallel, binucleated hepatocytes and inflammations were prominent in the liver. Collectively, the histomorphology confirmed induction of degenerative effects in all the tissues investigated, while the cyclic responses of biochemical markers suggest an ability to regulate the impacts. However, a chronic exposure could result in overriding the endemic reproductive pathways with potential population-level effects. In conclusion, the study identified multiple molecular, cellular, and physiological markers that could be employed to detect early signs of BPA and more broadly EDC exposures. These markers in combination with a wide distribution of C. carpio should allow comparative studies of pollutants at environmental concentrations.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 738710, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671376

RESUMO

Nitrogen is one of the most important macronutrients for crop growth and metabolism. To identify marker-trait associations for complex nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)-related agronomic traits, field experiments were conducted on nested synthetic wheat introgression libraries at three nitrogen input levels across two seasons. The introgression libraries were genotyped using the 35K Axiom® Wheat Breeder's Array and genetic diversity and population structure were examined. Significant phenotypic variation was observed across genotypes, treatments, and their interactions across seasons for all the 22 traits measured. Significant positive correlations were observed among grain yield and yield-attributing traits and root traits. Across seasons, a total of 233 marker-trait associations (MTAs) associated with fifteen traits of interest at different levels of nitrogen (N0, N60, and N120) were detected using 9,474 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Of these, 45 MTAs for 10 traits in the N0 treatment, 100 MTAs for 11 traits in the N60 treatment, and 88 MTAs for 11 traits in the N120 treatment were detected. We identified putative candidate genes underlying the significant MTAs which were associated directly or indirectly with various biological processes, cellular component organization, and molecular functions involving improved plant growth and grain yield. In addition, the top 10 lines based on N response and grain yield across seasons and treatments were identified. The identification and introgression of superior alleles/donors improving the NUE while maintaining grain yield may open new avenues in designing next generation nitrogen-efficient high-yielding wheat varieties.

19.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18125, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692335

RESUMO

A paraneoplastic syndrome, which includes glomerulopathy, is a manifestation of malignancy unexplained by direct tumor burden. Membranous nephropathy (MN) may be associated with malignancies that are primarily solid tumors of the lung, prostate and gastrointestinal tract. It is rarely associated with breast cancer. To our knowledge, we herein report the first case of MN associated with triple-negative carcinoma of the breast. The patient initially presented with MN as a paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome. Treatment resulting in a complete pathological response of the breast cancer also resolved the MN. Neither has recurred after a 48-month follow-up. The patient exhibited autoantibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor and was also antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibody positive. These results suggest that the neoplasm evoked an autoimmune response, which resolved with treatment. ANA and anti-SM positivity closely correlated with the neoplasm activity supporting this hypothesis.

20.
Genomics ; 113(6): 3989-4003, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610367

RESUMO

Genus Xanthomonas is a group of phytopathogens that is phylogenetically related to Xylella, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudoxanthomonas, having diverse lifestyles. Xylella is a lethal plant pathogen with a highly reduced genome, atypical GC content and is taxonomically related to these three genera. Deep phylo-taxono genomics reveals that Xylella is a variant Xanthomonas lineage that is sandwiched between Xanthomonas clades. Comparative studies suggest the role of unique pigment and exopolysaccharide gene clusters in the emergence of Xanthomonas and Xylella clades. Pan-genome analysis identified a set of unique genes associated with sub-lineages representing plant-associated Xanthomonas clade and nosocomial origin Stenotrophomonas clade. Overall, our study reveals the importance of reconciling classical phenotypic data and genomic findings in reconstituting the taxonomic status of these four genera. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Xylella fastidiosa is a devastating pathogen of perennial dicots such as grapes, citrus, coffee, and olives. An insect vector transmits the pathogen to its specific host wherein the infection leads to complete wilting of the plants. The genome of X. fastidiosa is significantly reduced both in terms of size (2 Mb) and GC content (50%) when compared with its relatives such as Xanthomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudoxanthomonas that have higher GC content (65%) and larger genomes (5 Mb). In this study, using systematic and in-depth genome-based taxonomic and phylogenetic criteria and comparative studies, we assert the need to unify Xanthomonas with its relatives (Xylella, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudoxanthomonas). Interestingly, Xylella revealed itself as a minor variant lineage embedded within two major Xanthomonas lineages comprising member species of different hosts.

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