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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 179, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 7 people in India are impacted by mental illness. The treatment gap for people with mental disorders is as high as 75-95%. Health care systems, especially in rural regions in India, face substantial challenges to address these gaps in care, and innovative strategies are needed. METHODS: We hypothesise that an intervention involving an anti-stigma campaign and a mobile-technology-based electronic decision support system will result in reduced stigma and improved mental health for adults at high risk of common mental disorders. It will be implemented as a parallel-group cluster randomised, controlled trial in 44 primary health centre clusters servicing 133 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh and Haryana. Adults aged ≥ 18 years will be screened for depression, anxiety and suicide based on Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalised Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7) scores. Two evaluation cohorts will be derived-a high-risk cohort with elevated PHQ-9, GAD-7 or suicide risk and a non-high-risk cohort comprising an equal number of people not at elevated risk based on these scores. Outcome analyses will be conducted blinded to intervention allocation. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The primary study outcome is the difference in mean behaviour scores at 12 months in the combined 'high-risk' and 'non-high-risk' cohort and the mean difference in PHQ-9 scores at 12 months in the 'high-risk' cohort. Secondary outcomes include depression and anxiety remission rates in the high-risk cohort at 6 and 12 months, the proportion of high-risk individuals who have visited a doctor at least once in the previous 12 months, and change from baseline in mean stigma, mental health knowledge and attitude scores in the combined non-high-risk and high-risk cohort. Trial outcomes will be accompanied by detailed economic and process evaluations. SIGNIFICANCE: The findings are likely to inform policy on a low-cost scalable solution to destigmatise common mental disorders and reduce the treatment gap for under-served populations in low-and middle-income country settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry India CTRI/2018/08/015355 . Registered on 16 August 2018.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e13349, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660437

RESUMO

Wnt signaling maintains diverse adult stem cell compartments and is implicated in chemotherapy resistance in cancer. PORCN inhibitors that block Wnt secretion have proven effective in Wnt-addicted preclinical cancer models and are in clinical trials. In a survey for potential combination therapies, we found that Wnt inhibition synergizes with the PARP inhibitor olaparib in Wnt-addicted cancers. Mechanistically, we find that multiple genes in the homologous recombination and Fanconi anemia repair pathways, including BRCA1, FANCD2, and RAD51, are dependent on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in Wnt-high cancers, and treatment with a PORCN inhibitor creates a BRCA-like state. This coherent regulation of DNA repair genes occurs in part via a Wnt/ß-catenin/MYBL2 axis. Importantly, this pathway also functions in intestinal crypts, where high expression of BRCA and Fanconi anemia genes is seen in intestinal stem cells, with further upregulation in Wnt-high APCmin mutant polyps. Our findings suggest a general paradigm that Wnt/ß-catenin signaling enhances DNA repair in stem cells and cancers to maintain genomic integrity. Conversely, interventions that block Wnt signaling may sensitize cancers to radiation and other DNA damaging agents.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5682, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707504

RESUMO

WNT ligands can activate several signalling cascades of pivotal importance during development and regenerative processes. Their de-regulation has been associated with the onset of different diseases. Here we investigated the role of the WNT/Calcium Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMKII) pathway in osteoarthritis. We identified Heme Oxygenase I (HMOX1) and Sox-9 as specific markers of the WNT/CaMKII signalling in articular chondrocytes through a microarray analysis. We showed that the expression of the activated form of CaMKII, phospho-CaMKII, was increased in human and murine osteoarthritis and the expression of HMOX1 was accordingly reduced, demonstrating the activation of the pathway during disease progression. To elucidate its function, we administered the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 to mice in which osteoarthritis was induced by resection of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus and of the medial collateral ligament in the knee joint. Pharmacological blockade of CaMKII exacerbated cartilage damage and bone remodelling. Finally, we showed that CaMKII inhibition in articular chondrocytes upregulated the expression of matrix remodelling enzymes alone and in combination with Interleukin 1. These results suggest an important homeostatic role of the WNT/CaMKII signalling in osteoarthritis which could be exploited in the future for therapeutic purposes.

4.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 161: 105782, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675911

RESUMO

Milling may cause undesired changes in crystal topology, due to exposure of new facets, their corresponding functional groups and surface amorphization. This study investigated effect of milling induced surface amorphous content and chemical environment on moisture sorption behavior of a model hydrophilic drug, Terbutaline Sulphate (TBS). A Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS) based analytical method was developed to detect amorphous content, with LOD and LOQ of 0.41% and 1.24%w/w, respectively. The calibration curve gave a linear regression of 0.999 in a concentration range of 0-16.36%w/w amorphous content plotted against surface area normalized % weight change, due to moisture sorption. TBS was milled using air jet mill at 8 Bars for 3 cycles (D90- 3.46µm) and analyzed using the validated DVS method prior to and post conditioning. The moisture sorption was higher in case of milled unconditioned TBS. Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) was performed to identify the cause for increased moisture sorption due to altered surface environment or amorphous content. The results implied that the new planes and functional groups exposed on milling had negligible contribution to moisture sorption and the higher moisture sorption in milled unconditioned TBS was due to surface amorphization. Conditioning under elevated humidity recrystallized the milling-induced surface amorphous content and led to decreased moisture sorption in milled conditioned TBS.

5.
Pharm Res ; 38(2): 319-333, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prednisolone Acetate (PAC) is currently marketed as micronized ophthalmic suspension. The microsuspension has poor dose accuracy and efficacy due to aggregation, slow dissolution rate and limited corneal residence. The ophthalmic nanosuspension of PAC shall show enhanced solubility, dissolution rate and corneal adhesion due to small particle size and increased surface area. METHODS: In the current work, we prepared ophthalmic formulation of PAC using a novel, spray drying based technology. Firstly, PAC nanocrystalline solid dispersions (NCSD) were prepared using Mannitol (MAN) as the crystallization inducing excipient and two separate stabilizers, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PAC_MAN_PVA) and Vitamin E Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol Sulphosuccinate (PAC_MAN_TPGS). The NCSD was dispersed in an aqueous vehicle to obtain an ophthalmic nanosuspension. RESULTS: The composition, PAC_MAN_PVA (0.3:0.67:0.03%), was pursued due to absence of crystal growth on storage at 40°C/75%RH for 3 months. The resulting nanosuspension showed crystal size, osmolality and viscosity of 590 ± 165 nm, 297 ± 6 mOsm/L and 11 ± 8cP respectively. In 1%w/v SLS media, the nanosuspension showed rapid and complete dissolution of PAC in 120 s. Ex-vivo goat corneal permeation and adhesion study revealed that in comparison to microsuspension, a higher fraction (6.2 times) of nanosuspension adhered to the cornea. Safety studies performed using corneal histopathology and Hen Egg Test- Chorio Allantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay showed no physical change in cornea or capillary damage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The NCSD can be explored for generation of ophthalmically acceptable nanosuspensions of poorly soluble drugs.

6.
Arch Microbiol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399894

RESUMO

Two different types of condensed tannins (CTs), which were extracted and purified from tilia (Tilia L.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), were studied and tested against two kinds of bacteria, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive, avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) respectively, by minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both CT extracts were significantly effective (p ≤ 0.05) at MBCs of 5-10 mg CT/ml against APEC (Gram-negative), and at 1.25-5 mg CT/ml on S. epidermidis (Gram-positive). This indicated that the CTs were more potent against the Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Further, SEM revealed that CTs caused mainly morphological deformations of the bacterial cells and some conjoined cell growth.

7.
J Med Eng Technol ; : 1-22, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302770

RESUMO

The human-machine interface (HMI) and bio-signals have been used to control rehabilitation equipment and improve the lives of people with severe disabilities. This research depicts a review of electromyogram (EMG) or electrooculogram (EOG) signal-based control system for driving the wheelchair for disabled. For a paralysed person, EOG is one of the most useful signals that help to successfully communicate with the environment by using eye movements. In the case of amputation, the selection of muscles according to the distribution of power and frequency highly contributes to the specific motion of a wheelchair. Taking into account the day-to-day activities of persons with disabilities, both technologies are being used to design EMG or EOG based wheelchairs. This review paper examines a total of 70 EMG studies and 25 EOG studies published from 2000 to 2019. In addition, this paper covers current technologies used in wheelchair systems for signal capture, filtering, characterisation, and classification, including control commands such as left and right turns, forward and reverse motion, acceleration, deceleration, and wheelchair stop.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease. Snakebite causes at least 120 000 death each year and it is estimated that there are three times as many amputations. Snakebite survivors are known to suffer from long-term physical and psychological sequelae, but not much is known on the mental health manifestations postsnakebite. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review and searched five major electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE(R), Global Health, APA PsycINFO, EMBASE classic+EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), contacted experts and conducted reference screening to identify primary studies on mental health manifestations after snakebite envenomation. Two reviewers independently conducted titles and abstract screening as well as full-text evaluation for final inclusion decision. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We extracted data as per a standardised form and conducted narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We retrieved 334 studies and finally included 11 studies that met our eligibility criteria. Of the 11 studies reported, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most commonly studied mental health condition after snakebite, with five studies reporting it. Estimate of the burden of PTSD after snakebite was available from a modelling study. The other mental health conditions reported were focused around depression, psychosocial impairment of survivors after a snakebite envenomation, hysteria, delusional disorders and acute stress disorders. CONCLUSION: There is a need for more research on understanding the neglected aspect of psychological morbidity of snakebite envenomation, particularly in countries with high burden. From the limited evidence available, depression and PTSD are major mental health manifestations in snakebite survivors.

9.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 55: 102466, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma is a barrier for help-seeking, mental health service access, and contributes to the mental health treatment gap. Because the mental health treatment gap is greatest in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective strategies to reduce stigma in these settings. To date, there has been a lack of synthesis of findings from interventions to reduce stigma related to mental disorders within India. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of the characteristics and effectiveness of stigma reduction interventions studies in India. PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for literature published up to 30th June 2020. RESULTS: From a total of 1,984 articles identified, only 9 were eligible for final inclusion, published between 1990-2020. No study was found from North, North-East, Central or East India. Most stigma-reduction interventions were multi-level, that is, using a combination of intra-personal, inter-personal and community level strategies to target changes in outcomes of individuals, environments and community groups. Three studies focused on health and stigma-related changes at the organisational/institutional level. No interventions focused on the governmental/structural level. There were only two randomised controlled trials, and two studies focused on all three stigma components of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Most interventions were delivered to community members. None focused on mental health professionals as intervention delivery target. CONCLUSION: There is a need for the development of comprehensive, culturally acceptable evidence-based interventions that act at multiple levels, and involve a mixture of various stigma reducing strategies with multiple target groups.

10.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207949

RESUMO

Based on ethnobotanical surveys, an Indian traditional plant, i.e., Baccharoides anthelmintica (L.) Moench (Family - Asteraceae) was selected for detailed phytochemical investigations. B. anthelmintica seeds, purchased from local market, were extracted exhaustively in a Soxhlet apparatus using methanol as solvent. A well-established method was adopted to obtain phenolic compounds and flavonoids rich fraction of methanol extract. This fraction yielded two isolates (AK-1 and AK-2) upon purification by column chromatographic process. AK-1 was characterized as mixture of two isomeric compounds - 3',4',5,6,7- and 3',4',5,7,8-pentahydroxy flavanone, and AK-2 as butein (chalcone derivative) by UV, IR and NMR spectral analysis. A TLC densitometric method was developed and validated to estimate the content of butein in B. anthelmintica seeds, and was found to be 1.252 mg/g. Bioactive Marker (butein) based standardized B. anthelmintica seeds will ensure reproducibility in efficacy and safety of the plant or authenticity of its products.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(21): 5709-5719, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Angiogenesis is thought to be critical for tumor metastasis. However, inhibiting angiogenesis using antibodies such as bevacizumab (Avastin), has had little impact on melanoma patient survival. We have demonstrated that both angiogenesis and metastasis are increased in older individuals, and therefore sought to investigate whether there was an age-related difference in response to bevacizumab, and if so, what the underlying mechanism could be. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed data from the AVAST-M trial of 1,343 patients with melanoma treated with bevacizumab to determine whether there is an age-dependent response to bevacizumab. We also examined the age-dependent expression of VEGF and its cognate receptors in patients with melanoma, while using syngeneic melanoma animal models to target VEGF in young versus old mice. We also examined the age-related proangiogenic factor secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) and whether it could modulate response to anti-VEGF therapy. RESULTS: We show that older patients respond poorly to bevacizumab, whereas younger patients show improvement in both disease-free survival and overall survival. We find that targeting VEGF does not ablate angiogenesis in an aged mouse model, while sFRP2 promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in young mice. Targeting sFRP2 in aged mice successfully ablates angiogenesis, while the effects of targeting VEGF in young mice can be overcome by increasing sFRP2. CONCLUSIONS: VEGF is decreased during aging, thereby reducing response to bevacizumab. Despite the decrease in VEGF, angiogenesis is increased because of an increase in sFRP2 in the aged tumor microenvironment. These results stress the importance of considering age as a factor for designing targeted therapies.

12.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114128

RESUMO

The conventional "top-down", "bottom-up" and "combination" approaches of generating drug nanocrystals produce a "nanosuspension" (NS). It requires significant downstream processing for drying the liquid by suitable means followed by its granulation to develop an oral solid dosage form (OSD). In this paper, we used a novel, spray drying-based NanoCrySP technology for the generation of drug nanocrystals in the form of nanocrystalline solid dispersion (NCSD). We hypothesized that the NCSD would require minimal downstream processing since the nanocrystals are obtained in powder form during spray drying. We further compared downstream processing of NS and NCSD of diclofenac acid (DCF) prepared by wet media milling and NanoCrySP technology, respectively. The NS and NCSD were characterized for crystallinity, crystal size, assay and dissolution. The NCSD was physically mixed with 0.3% Aerosil® 200, 1.76% croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and 0.4% sodium stearyl fumarate (SSF) and filled into size 0 hard gelatin capsules. The NS was first wet granulated using Pearlitol® SD 200 (G1 granules) and Celphere® 203 (G2 granules) in a fluidized bed processor, and the resulting granules were mixed using the same extra granular excipients as NCSD and filled into capsules. A discriminatory dissolution method was developed to monitor changes in dissolution behavior due to crystal growth during processing. Cost analysis and comparison of process efficiency was performed using an innovation radar tool. The NS and NCSD were successfully fabricated with a crystal size of 363 ± 21.87 and 361.61 ± 11.78, respectively. In comparison to NCSD-based capsules (65.13%), the G1 and G2 granules showed crystal growth and decrease in dissolution to 52.68% and 48.37%, respectively, in 120 min. The overall cost for downstream processing of NCSD was up to 80% lower than that of NS. An innovation radar tool also concluded that the one-step NanoCrySP technology was more efficient and required less downstream processing than the two-step wet media milling approach for conversion of nanocrystals to OSD.

13.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014341

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) proteins mediate immunosurveillance against pathogens and cancers by presenting antigenic or mutated peptides to antigen receptors of CD8+ T cells and by engaging receptors of natural killer (NK) cells. In humans, MHC-I molecules are highly polymorphic. MHC-I variations permit the display of thousands of distinct peptides at the cell surface. Recent mass spectrometric studies have revealed unique and shared characteristics of the peptidomes of individual MHC-I variants. The cell surface expression of MHC-I-peptide complexes requires the functions of many intracellular assembly factors, including the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP), tapasin, calreticulin, ERp57, TAP-binding protein related (TAPBPR), endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases (ERAPs), and the proteasomes. Recent studies provide important insights into the structural features of these factors that govern MHC-I assembly as well as the mechanisms underlying peptide exchange. Conformational sensing of MHC-I molecules mediates the quality control of intracellular MHC-I assembly and contributes to immune recognition by CD8 at the cell surface. Recent studies also show that several MHC-I variants can follow unconventional assembly routes to the cell surface, conferring selective immune advantages that can be exploited for immunotherapy.

14.
Rheumatol Int ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813152

RESUMO

Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is a rare familial arthropathy of childhood, commonly misdiagnosed as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is characterized by non-inflammatory arthropathy, coxa vara deformity, and sterile pericarditis. We describe two children with CACP syndrome who were referred to the rheumatology clinic for the suspicion of inflammatory arthritis. A literature search was carried out using PubMed/ Medline and Embase databases. English language reports of mutation-proven cases of CACP syndrome reported until 31 March 2020 were retrieved and analysed. Both the children had a delay in diagnosis (age at diagnosis- 12 and 13 years, respectively) and had received immunomodulatory therapy for suspected inflammatory arthritis. Presence of symmetrical arthropathy of large joints, camptodactyly, and normal inflammatory parameters are clues that indicated CACP syndrome. One child with a novel variant in PRG4 also had associated mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation. Both had severe constrictive pericarditis requiring pericardiectomy. On literature review, a total of 98 mutation-proven cases of CACP syndrome have been reported till date. Arthropathy in CACP syndrome mainly involves knees, wrists, ankles, and hips. Pericarditis is usually mild, however, can present rarely with severe symptoms requiring surgical intervention. CACP syndrome can closely mimic inflammatory arthritis and early clinical recognition is important to avoid misdiagnosis. Molecular confirmation is essential for early diagnosis and future genetic counselling for affected families.

15.
J Oral Maxillofac Pathol ; 24(1): 187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508478

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy nondiabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Setting and Design: This was a case-control study. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and 45 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients and controls were asked to come to the clinic in the morning, after 8-10 h fasting. At that time, 5 ml of venous blood and unstimulated saliva was collected from both the groups, and 2 h after meal, again, venous blood and unstimulated saliva were collected. The saliva and sera from blood samples were subjected to glucose estimation. Saliva was collected in sterilized vials, and blood was collected in test tubes. Glucose estimation was done by oxidase-peroxidase method. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient, Student's t-test and paired t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Correlation coefficient values show that there is a significant positive correlation between fasting blood and fasting salivary glucose levels and postprandial blood and postprandial salivary glucose levels. Conclusion: Salivary glucose level estimation can be used as a potential indicator in screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, it is an easy and noninvasive method.

16.
Lupus ; 29(9): 1121-1125, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515654

RESUMO

Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous multisystem autoimmune disease. Kawasaki disease is a common vasculitic disorder in children that manifests with fever and mucocutaneous involvement. While overlap of childhood SLE with other rheumatological disorders has been described, it is extremely unusual in the context of Kawasaki disease. We report two children who had SLE and developed features of Kawasaki disease simultaneously, and the second child had myocarditis which could be a manifestation of Kawasaki disease rather than SLE. Two or more rheumatological diseases may coexist at the same time and one must always be vigilant.

17.
Soft Matter ; 16(19): 4615-4624, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368775

RESUMO

The self-assembly of model [P]RWG lipopeptides (P: l-proline, R: l-arginine, W: l-tryptophan, G: l-glycine), containing one or two aliphatic octadecyl (C18) chains in water and cyclohexanone/water solutions was examined. The self-assembly of mixtures of these RWG and PRWG lipopeptides was also investigated. These materials presented a similar critical aggregation concentration of ∼4.0 × 10-4 wt% and were characterized by unordered secondary structures with some ß-sheet content. TEM and cryo-TEM revealed the presence of mainly nanotape structures with micelles observed for systems rich in PRWG(C18H37). Analysis of detailed SAXS form factor measurements revealed the presence of bilayers 3-4 nm thick while the PRWG(C18H37) micelles have a core radius of approximately 3 nm, and a shell thickness of 2 nm. For the cyclohexanone/water systems polymorphs containing cluster aggregates (with radius of 0.25 nm to 0.50 nm) and some elongated structures (with radius of 5.7 nm to 26.1 nm) were seen. Longer structures were formed with the increase of the proline-containing lipopeptide content. The catalytic activity of these peptides was assessed using a model nitro-aldol reaction. The concentration of water in the reaction system influenced the conversion, higher content promoted better efficiency for the water systems, but the opposite was observed for the cyclohexanone/water samples.

18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309282

RESUMO

The average human life expectancy has increased globally, and continues to rise, owing to the substantive progress made in healthcare, medicine, sanitation, housing and education. This ultimately enriches society with a greater proportion of elderly people. Sustaining a healthy aged population is key to diminish the societal and economic impact of age-related infirmities. This is especially challenging because tissue function, and thus wellbeing, naturally progressively decline as humans age. With age increasing the risk of developing diseases, one of the therapeutic options is to interfere with the molecular and cellular pathways involved in age-related tissue dysfunction, which is in part caused by the accumulation of senescent cells. One strategy to prevent this could be using drugs that selectively kill these cells (senolytics). In parallel, some compounds have been identified that prevent or slow down the progression of senescence or some of its features (senostatics). Senolytic and senostatic therapies have been shown to be efficient in vivo, but they also have unwanted dose-dependent side effects, including toxicity. Important advances might be made using bioactive compounds from plants and foods (nutraceuticals) if, as is proposed, they offer similar effectiveness with fewer side effects. The focus of this review is on the use of nutraceuticals in interfering with cellular senescence.

19.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 26(2): 367-377, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158141

RESUMO

The genetic transformation of plants is an important biotechnological tool used for crop improvement for many decades. The present study was focussed to investigate various factors affecting genetic transformation of potato cultivar 'Kufri Chipsona 1'. It was observed that explants pre-cultured for 2 days on MS2 medium (MS medium containing 10 µM silver nitrate, 10 µM BA, 15 µM GA3), injured with a surgical blade and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 [O.D600 (0.6)] for 2 days results in maximum transient ß-glucuronidase (GUS) expression. The addition of 100 µM acetosyringone in MS2 medium also increased rate of transient GUS expression in both the explants. Clumps of putative transgenic shoots were regenerated using the optimised culture conditions from leaf and internodal explants. The stable integration of T-DNA was established using histochemical staining for GUS and amplification of DNA fragment specific to nptII and uidA genes. Within the clumps, around 67.85% of shoots showed uniform GUS expression in all the tissues and about 32.15% shoots show intermittent GUS expression establishing chimeric nature. Uniform GUS staining of the tissue was used as initial marker of non-chimeric transgenic shoots. Quantitative expression of nptII transgene was found to be directly proportional to uniformity of GUS staining in transgenic shoots. The present investigation indicated that manipulation of culture conditions and the medium composition may help to get transgenic shoots with uniform expression of transgene in all the tissues of potato cultivar 'Kufri Chipsona 1'.

20.
Biom J ; 62(5): 1337-1342, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141095

RESUMO

In this paper, we have pointed out a major mistake in the research paper of Singh and Mathur [(2004). Unknown repeated trials in the unrelated question randomized response model, Biometrical Journal, 46:375-378]. We have corrected this mistake and proposed the corresponding corrected estimator of sensitive population proportion. Furthermore, we have obtained the variance of our proposed estimator. Likewise, Singh and Mathur, we have also compared the variance of our proposed estimator with that of the Greenberg et al.'s estimator theoretically as well as numerically.

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