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J Clin Oncol ; 39(24): 2710-2719, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929874


PURPOSE: BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), particularly in recipients of alternative donor transplants, which are being performed in increasing numbers. BKV-HC typically results in painful hematuria, urinary obstruction, and renal dysfunction, without a definitive therapeutic option. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial ( identifier: NCT02479698) to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of administering most closely HLA-matched third-party BKV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), generated from 26 healthy donors and banked for off-the-shelf use. The cells were infused into 59 patients who developed BKV-HC following AHSCT. Comprehensive clinical assessments and correlative studies were performed. RESULTS: Response to BKV-CTL infusion was rapid; the day 14 overall response rate was 67.7% (40 of 59 evaluable patients), which increased to 81.6% among evaluable patients at day 45 (40 of 49 evaluable patients). No patient lost a previously achieved response. There were no cases of de novo grade 3 or 4 graft-versus-host disease, graft failure, or infusion-related toxicities. BKV-CTLs were identified in patient blood samples up to 3 months postinfusion and their in vivo expansion predicted for clinical response. A matched-pair analysis revealed that, compared with standard of care, after accounting for prognostic covariate effects, treatment with BKV-CTLs resulted in higher probabilities of response at all follow-up timepoints as well as significantly lower transfusion requirement. CONCLUSION: Off-the-shelf BKV-CTLs are a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with BKV-HC after AHSCT.

Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Hemorrágicos/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
N Engl J Med ; 382(6): 545-553, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023374


BACKGROUND: Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in B-cell cancers. However, CAR T cells can induce substantial toxic effects, and the manufacture of the cells is complex. Natural killer (NK) cells that have been modified to express an anti-CD19 CAR have the potential to overcome these limitations. METHODS: In this phase 1 and 2 trial, we administered HLA-mismatched anti-CD19 CAR-NK cells derived from cord blood to 11 patients with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive cancers (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL]). NK cells were transduced with a retroviral vector expressing genes that encode anti-CD19 CAR, interleukin-15, and inducible caspase 9 as a safety switch. The cells were expanded ex vivo and administered in a single infusion at one of three doses (1×105, 1×106, or 1×107 CAR-NK cells per kilogram of body weight) after lymphodepleting chemotherapy. RESULTS: The administration of CAR-NK cells was not associated with the development of cytokine release syndrome, neurotoxicity, or graft-versus-host disease, and there was no increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, over baseline. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Of the 11 patients who were treated, 8 (73%) had a response; of these patients, 7 (4 with lymphoma and 3 with CLL) had a complete remission, and 1 had remission of the Richter's transformation component but had persistent CLL. Responses were rapid and seen within 30 days after infusion at all dose levels. The infused CAR-NK cells expanded and persisted at low levels for at least 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Among 11 patients with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive cancers, a majority had a response to treatment with CAR-NK cells without the development of major toxic effects. (Funded by the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center CLL and Lymphoma Moonshot and the National Institutes of Health; number, NCT03056339.).

Antígenos CD19 , Células Matadoras Naturais/transplante , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Retroviridae/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 31(4): 456-470, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28173624


The present study has been designed to investigate the possible role of histaminergic pathway in neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning (iPoCo). Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed to produce I/R-induced cerebral injury in National Institutes of Health mice mice. iPoCo involving three episodes of carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion of 10 sec each was instituted immediately after BCAO just before prolonged reperfusion. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was evaluated using Morris water maze test. Rotarod test, inclined beam-walking test, and neurological severity score (NSS) were performed to assess motor incoordination and sensorimotor abilities. Brain acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, brain myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS), and glutathione level (GSH) were also estimated. BCAO produced a significant rise in cerebral infarct size and NSS along with impairment of memory and motor coordination and biochemical alteration (↑AChE, ↑MPO ↓GSH, and ↑TBARS). iPoCo attenuated the deleterious effect of BCAO on infarct size, memory, NSS, motor coordination, and biochemical markers. Pretreatment of carnosine (a histamine [HA] precursor) potentiated the neuroprotective effects of iPoCo, whereas pretreatment of ketotifen (HA H1 receptor blocker and mast cell stabilizer) abolished the protective effects of iPoCo as well as that of carnosine on iPoCo. It may be concluded that neuroprotective effect of iPoCo probably involves activation of histaminergic pathways.

Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Histamina/metabolismo , Pós-Condicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos
Cytotherapy ; 18(10): 1312-24, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27497700


Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a fundamental role in the maintenance of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Defects in Treg function and/or frequencies have been reported in multiple disease models. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Compelling evidence supports a neuroprotective role for Tregs in this disease. Indeed, rapid progression in ALS patients is associated with decreased FoxP3 expression and Treg frequencies. Thus, we propose that strategies to restore Treg number and function may slow disease progression in ALS. In this study, we developed a robust, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant procedure to enrich and expand Tregs from ALS patients. Tregs isolated from these patients were phenotypically similar to those from healthy individuals but were impaired in their ability to suppress T-cell effector function. In vitro expansion of Tregs for 4 weeks in the presence of GMP-grade anti-CD3/CD28 beads, interleukin (IL)-2 and rapamcyin resulted in a 25- to 200-fold increase in their number and restored their immunoregulatory activity. Collectively, our data facilitate and support the implementation of clinical trials of adoptive therapy with ex vivo expanded and highly suppressive Tregs in patients with ALS.

Transferência Adotiva/normas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Separação Celular , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/normas , Cultura Primária de Células , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Transferência Adotiva/métodos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Separação Celular/métodos , Separação Celular/normas , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos , Cultura Primária de Células/normas , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
Cytotherapy ; 16(8): 1153-7, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24582458


BACKGROUND AIMS: Umbilical cord blood (CB) is used with increasing frequency to restore hematopoiesis in patients with bone marrow transplant who lack a suitable human leukocyte antigen-matched donor. CB transplantation is limited by low cell doses and delays in neutrophil and platelet engraftment. CB progenitors expanded ex vivo before transplantation provide more rapid hematopoietic and immune reconstitution as well as less engraftment failure compared with unmanipulated CB. However, the safety of infusing double and ex vivo-expanded CB has not been systematically examined. METHODS: We reviewed the immediate adverse events (AE) associated with the infusion of CB occurring within 24 hours in 137 patients enrolled in clinical CB transplant trials at the MD Anderson Cancer Center from February 2004 to May 2010. All patients received an unmanipulated CB unit followed by infusion of a second unmanipulated CB unit or a second CB unit expanded ex vivo with the use of cytokines in a liquid culture system or in mesenchymal stromal cell co-cultures. RESULTS: A total of three grade 2 and two grade 3 infusion reactions occurred within 24 hours of CB transplantation. This resulted in an AE rate of 3.7%. The majority of AEs manifested as signs of hypertension. No association with patient age, sex, disease status, premedication, ABO compatibility or total infusion volume was observed. In summary, the incidence of infusion-related toxicities in patients who receive unmanipulated and ex vivo-expanded double CB transplantation is low. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the infusion of unmanipulated followed by expanded CB products is a safe procedure associated with a low probability of inducing severe reactions.

Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade