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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

2.
Acta Odontol Scand ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689688

RESUMO

AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can present either as an asymptomatic carrier state or an acute respiratory disease, with or without severe pneumonia. The asymptomatic carriers are a challenge for the dental profession as the infection could be transmitted via virus-laden, and saliva in dental settings through aerosol-generating procedures (AGPSs). The aim of this review was to perform a systematic review of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of asymptomatic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Google scholar, and MedRxiv databases were searched between and a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available data were performed to assess the viral burden in the saliva of asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2. All investigators of the included studies used qRT-PCR to detect SARS-CoV-2 and yield quantitative data (the Ct values) appertaining to the viral load. RESULTS: A total of 322 records in the English literature were identified, and eight studies with 2642 SARS-CoV-2-positive and asymptomatic individuals were included in the final analysis. Of these, 16.7% (95% CI: 11-23%) yielded SARS-CoV-2-positive saliva samples in comparison to 13.1% (95% CI: 12-17%) of the respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal or nose-throat swabs). CONCLUSION: As approximately 1 in 5 to 1 in 10 asymptomatic individuals harbour SARS-CoV-2 in either saliva or respiratory secretions, our results highlight the need for continued vigilance and the critical importance of maintaining strict, additional infection control regimens for the foreseeable future to mitigate the potential risks of COVID-19 transmission in dentistry.

3.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 413-419, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608115

RESUMO

Human brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic problem worldwide with a high degree of morbidity in humans and is mostly overlooked due to other febrile conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sero-prevalence and risk factors of human brucellosis among subjects living in Punjab, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, human blood samples were collected from seven districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Information regarding personal data, demographic data and potential risk factors was collected through a structured questionnaire. Detection of anti-Brucella antibodies was done through Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Descriptive analysis, Chi square test and Odds ratio was applied using STATA software version 12. The sero-prevalence of human brucellosis was 13.13% with significantly higher percentage in males 17.23% and age group 25-40 years 16.50% (P=< 0.001). The demographic factors positively associated with human brucellosis were lack of education (P = 0.003; OR = 1.85) and farming as an occupation (P =<0.001; OR = 2.50) Similarly, among the risk factors studied, keeping animals at home (P =<0.001; OR = 2.03), slaughtering of animals (P =<0.001; OR = 15.87) and consuming raw milk (P =<0.001; OR = 5.42) were the factors strongly connected with human brucellosis. A massive awareness should be given to livestock farmers and individuals directly linked to animals regarding risk factors and transmission of brucellosis. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and its products should be condemned to curtail this neglected disease.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076166

RESUMO

Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 3, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan reports the highest stillbirth rate in the world at 43 per thousand births with more than three-quarters occurring in rural areas. The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health maintains a Maternal and Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) in 14 study clusters of district Thatta, Sindh Pakistan. For the last 10 years, the MNHR has recorded a high stillbirths rate with a slow decline. This exploratory study was designed to understand the perspectives of women and traditional birth attendants regarding the high occurrence of stillbirth in Thatta district. METHODS: We used an exploratory qualitative study design by conducting in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) using semi-structured interview guide with rural women (FGDs = 4; n = 29) and traditional birth attendants (FGDs = 4; n = 14) who were permanent residents of Thatta. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with women who had experienced a stillbirth (IDIs = 4). This study presents perceptions and experiences of women and TBAs regarding high rate of stillbirth in Thatta district, Karachi. RESULTS: Women showed reluctance to receive skilled/ standard care when in need due to apprehensions towards operative delivery, poor attitude of skilled health care providers, and poor quality of care as service delivery factors. High cost of care, far distance to facility, lack of transport and need of an escort from the family or village to visit a health facility were additional important factors for not seeking care resulting in stillbirth. The easy availability of unskilled provider in the form of traditional birth attendant is then preferred over a skilled health care provider. TBAs shared their husband or family members restrict them to visit or consult a doctor during pregnancy. According to TBAs after delivering a macerated fetus, women are given herbs to remove infection from woman's body and uterus. Further women are advised to conceive soon so that they get rid of infections. CONCLUSION: Women of this rural community carry lots of apprehension against skilled medical care and as a result follow traditional practices. Conscious efforts are required to increase the awareness of women to develop positive health seeking behavior during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period. Alongside, provision of respectful maternity care needs to be emphasized especially at public health facilities.


Assuntos
Parto Domiciliar/psicologia , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Natimorto/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 22(7): 963-977, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630356

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common primary tumor of the nervous system, and approximately 50% of patients exhibit the most aggressive form of the cancer, glioblastoma. Currently, considerable research in glioblastoma therapeutics is aimed at developing vaccines or drugs to target key molecules for combating this disease. Studies on plant natural products from spices, vegetables, fruits, teas, and traditional medicinal herbs display that these plant-derived natural products can act as effective antioxidant and anti-tumor agents. The advancements in metabolomics and in genomics have enabled researchers to better evaluate the potential use of immunomodulatory natural plant products for treatment of different cancerous diseases. The glioblastoma protective activities of the different natural plant products lie in their effects on cellular defenses such as antioxidant enzyme systems, detoxification and the stimulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-metastasis responses and by modifying epigenetic alterations, often through targeting specific key transcription factors such as activator protein, nuclear factor kappa B, signal transducers and activators of transcription and so on. Here, we review recent knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which different inflammatory activities are linked to progression of glioblastoma and the particular immunomodulatory plant products that may reduce inflammation and the associated progression and metastasis of glioblastoma both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, their impact on the epigenetic alterations will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Produtos Biológicos , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Metilação de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epigênese Genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Código das Histonas , Humanos , MicroRNAs , Neovascularização Patológica
7.
Bull Entomol Res ; 107(6): 839-846, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28436337

RESUMO

The E2F transcription factor family is distributed widely in eukaryotes and has been well studied among mammals. In the present study, the E2F transcription factor 4 (E2F4) gene was isolated from fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi and sequenced. E2F4 comprised a 795 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 264 amino acid residues. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (Transetta DE3), and anti-E2F4 antibodies were prepared. The deduced amino acid sequence displayed significant homology to an E2F4-like protein from Bombyx mori L. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that E2F4 expression was highest in the integument, followed by the fat body, silk glands, and haemocytes. The expression of E2F4 was upregulated in larvae challenged by bacterial (Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus), viral (nuclear polyhedrosis virus), and fungal (Beauveria bassiana) pathogens. These observations indicated that E2F4 is an inducible protein in the immune response of A. pernyi and probably in other insects.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição E2F4/genética , Mariposas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Beauveria , Fator de Transcrição E2F4/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Micrococcus luteus , Mariposas/imunologia , Mariposas/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Pupa/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Pak J Med Sci ; 32(4): 911-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aga Khan University, a private medical college, had a vision of producing physicians who are not only scientifically competent, but also socially sensitive, the latter by exposure of medical students to a broad-based curriculum. The objective of this study was to identify the genesis of broad-based education and its integration into the undergraduate medical education program as the Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS) course. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was used for this study. Sources of data included document review and in-depth key informant interviews. Nvivo software was utilized to extract themes. RESULTS: The study revealed the process of operationalization of the institutional vision to produce competent and culturally sensitive physicians. The delay in the establishment of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which was expected to take a lead role in the delivery of a broad-based education, led to the development of an innovative HASS course in the medical curriculum. The study also identified availability of faculty and resistance from students as challenges faced in the implementation and evolution of HASS. CONCLUSIONS: The description of the journey and viability of integration of HASS into the medical curriculum offers a model to medical colleges seeking ways to produce socially sensitive physicians.

9.
Med Teach ; 33(12): 974-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22225434

RESUMO

The 5-year undergraduate medical curriculum at Aga Khan University integrates basic sciences with clinical and community health sciences. Multimodal strategies of teaching and learning, with an emphasis on problem-based learning, are utilized to equip students with knowledge, skills, behaviours, attitudes and values necessary for a high-calibre medical graduate. Bioethics teaching was introduced in the medical curriculum in 1988 and has since undergone several changes. In 2009, a multidisciplinary voluntary group began review of undergraduate bioethics teaching and invested over 350 man-hours in curricular revision. This involved formulating terminal objectives, delineating specific objectives and identifying instructional methodologies and assessment strategies appropriate for the contents of each objective. Innovative strategies were specially devised to work within the time constraints of the existing medical curriculum and importantly, to increase student interest and engagement. The new bioethics curriculum is designed to be comprehensive and robust, and strives to develop graduates who, in addition to being technically skilled and competent, are well-versed in the history and philosophy of ethics and bioethics and are ethical in their thinking and practice, especially in the context of a developing country like Pakistan where health indicators are among the worst in the region, and clinical practices are not effectively regulated to ensure quality of care.


Assuntos
Bioética/educação , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/ética , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Ensino/métodos , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Paquistão , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
10.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 17 Suppl 1: 357-60, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18296378

RESUMO

Tawana Pakistan Project, a multifaceted pilot project (Sept. 2002 to June 2005) was funded by the Government of Pakistan to address poor nutritional status and school enrollment of primary school age girls. The core strategy was to create safe environment empowering village women to take collective decisions. Through reflective learning process women learnt to plan balanced menus, purchase food, prepare and serve a noon meal at school from locally available foods at nominal costs (USD 0.12/child). Aga Khan University partnered the government for the design, management, monitoring and evaluation of the project, 11 NGO's facilitated implementation in 4035 rural government girls' schools. Training was provided to 663 field workers, 4383 community organizers, 4336 school teachers and around 95 thousand rural women. Height and weight were recorded at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Wasting, underweight and stunting decreased by 45%, 22% and 6% respectively. Enrollment increased by 40%. Women's' ability to plan balanced meals improved and >76% of all meals provided the basic three food groups by end of project. Government bureaucracy issues, especially at the district level proved to be the most challenging bottlenecks. Success can be attributed to synergies gained by dealing with nutrition, education and empowerment issues simultaneously.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil/educação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Planejamento de Cardápio , Paquistão , Saúde da População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 11(10): SR21-5, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16192917

RESUMO

At its inception in 1987, the Aga Khan University introduced the idea of community-based medical education in Pakistan, at a time when this model was being introduced and adapted internationally. Human resource development has been a major objective in the Department of Community Health Sciences (CHS). CHS has contributed to developing a medical curriculum that addresses the health needs of the community at large. This paper narrates the department's experience in working directly with under-served communities, leading to the development of specialized courses and degree programs. CHS emphasizes operational research and development of managerial skills among front-line public health professionals, in both the public and private sectors. Training is provided by people from diverse backgrounds, such as public health, community development, social sciences, law, epidemiology, economy, biostatistics, demography, theater, and film. The lessons we have learned show that the mode of training depends on the overall objectives of the program, the clients and the setting. However, in the spirit of the participatory approach, the recipients of the training must be involved during all stages so as to ensure the sustainability of the training program. Training must focus on the communities at the grass roots level or community based organizations, where the communities identify their own capacity and needs. Wide dissemination of training materials, courses and manuals is also useful to replicate successful experience.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Paquistão
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 52(10): 471-5, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12553677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an audit of breech deliveries at or beyond 28 weeks gestation to determine the neonatal outcome at different gestations in relation to the mode of delivery. SETTING: MCH Centre, PIMS, Islamabad. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Records of 171 consecutive singleton breech deliveries > or = 28 weeks gestation were retrieved and stratified into 3 groups by gestational age, 28-33 completed weeks, 34-36 completed weeks and beyond 37 weeks. The main outcome measures were the incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality of the three gestation groups in relation to the mode of delivery. RESULTS: Of 171 cases, 20 women (11.7%) delivered at 28 to 33 weeks, 17 of whom were delivered vaginally. The main birth weight (MBW) was 1.4 kg. Perinatal deaths occurred in 15 cases, these included 4 intrauterine deaths (IUDs) and 6 infants with congenital anomalies. Thirty three women (19.3%) delivered at 34 to 36 weeks gestation, of whom 17 (51.5%) delivered vaginally. The MBW was 2 kg with 6 perinatal deaths (one with cephalhaematoma and 4 IUD and 2 congenital anomalies). Sixteen women (48.5%) had caesarean sections. The MBW was 2.2 kg with only 2 perinatal deaths due to IUD and congenital pneumonia. One hundred and eighteen (69%) women delivered at term. The MBW of the 45 (38.1%) vaginally delivered infants was 2.2 kg with 9 perinatal deaths (1 IUD and 7 congenital anomalies). Seventy three (61.9%) had caesarean sections, 41 emergency and 32 elective. The MBW was 2.9 kg with 4 perinatal deaths (1 IUD, 2 congenital anomalies and 1 sepsis). CONCLUSION: There was significant association of breech presentation with congenital anomalies. After the exclusion of congenital anomalies, greater recourse to caesarean section beyond 34 weeks seems to confer a survival advantage to the new born infant.


Assuntos
Apresentação Pélvica , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Internato e Residência , Paquistão , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Met Based Drugs ; 7(1): 17-22, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18475919

RESUMO

2-Aminothiazole undergoes condensation reactions with furane-, thiophene- and pyrrole-2-carboxylaldehyde to give tridentate NNO, NNS and NNN Schiff bases respectively. These tridentate Schiff bases formed complexes of the type [M (L)(2)]X(2) where [M=Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) or Zn(II), L=N-(2-furanylmethylene)-2-aminothiazole (L(1)), N-(2-thiophenylmethylene)-2-aminothiazole (L(2), N-(2-pyrrolylmethylene)-2-aminothiazole (L(3)) and X=Cl. The structures of these Schiff bases and of their complexes have been determined on the basis of their physical, analytical and spectral data. The screening results of these compounds indicated them to possess excellent antibacterial activity against tested pathogenic bacterial organisms e.g., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureous and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, in comparison, their metal chelates have been shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the uncomplexed Schiff bases.

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