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1.
Elife ; 92020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223897

RESUMO

While tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor in HIV-1-infected individuals, the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) worsens HIV-1 pathogenesis remain scarce. We showed that HIV-1 infection is exacerbated in macrophages exposed to TB-associated microenvironments due to tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation. To identify molecular factors associated with TNT function, we performed a transcriptomic analysis in these macrophages, and revealed the up-regulation of Siglec-1 receptor. Siglec-1 expression depends on Mtb-induced production of type I interferon (IFN-I). In co-infected non-human primates, Siglec-1 is highly expressed by alveolar macrophages, whose abundance correlates with pathology and activation of IFN-I/STAT1 pathway. Siglec-1 localizes mainly on microtubule-containing TNT that are long and carry HIV-1 cargo. Siglec-1 depletion decreases TNT length, diminishes HIV-1 capture and cell-to-cell transfer, and abrogates the exacerbation of HIV-1 infection induced by Mtb. Altogether, we uncover a deleterious role for Siglec-1 in TB-HIV-1 co-infection and opens new avenues to understand TNT biology.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134742

RESUMO

Neutrophil accumulation is associated with lung pathology during active tuberculosis (ATB). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which neutrophils accumulate in the lung and contribute to TB immunopathology is not fully delineated. Using the well-established mouse model of TB, our new data provides evidence that the alarmin S100A8/A9 mediates neutrophil accumulation during progression to chronic TB. Depletion of neutrophils or S100A8/A9 deficiency resulted in improved Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) control during chronic but not acute TB. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that following Mtb infection, S100A8/A9 expression is required for upregulation of the integrin molecule CD11b specifically on neutrophils, mediating their accumulation during chronic TB disease. These findings are further substantiated by increased expression of S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA in whole blood in human TB progressors when compared to non-progressors, and rapidly decreased S100A8/A9 protein levels in the serum upon TB treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that S100A8/A9 serum levels along with chemokines are useful in distinguishing between ATB and asymptomatic Mtb-infected latent individuals. Thus, our results support targeting S100A8/A9 pathways as host-directed therapy for TB.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(528)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996462

RESUMO

One quarter of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Although most infected individuals successfully control or clear the infection, some individuals will progress to TB disease. Immune correlates identified using animal models are not always effectively translated to human TB, thus resulting in a slow pace of translational discoveries from animal models to human TB for many platforms including vaccines, therapeutics, biomarkers, and diagnostic discovery. Therefore, it is critical to improve our poor understanding of immune correlates of disease and protection that are shared across animal TB models and human TB. In this study, we have provided an in-depth identification of the conserved and diversified gene/immune pathways in TB models of nonhuman primate and diversity outbred mouse and human TB. Our results show that prominent differentially expressed genes/pathways induced during TB disease progression are conserved in genetically diverse mice, macaques, and humans. In addition, using gene-deficient inbred mouse models, we have addressed the functional role of individual genes comprising the gene signature of disease progression seen in humans with Mtb infection. We show that genes representing specific immune pathways can be protective, detrimental, or redundant in controlling Mtb infection and translate into identifying immune pathways that mediate TB immunopathology in humans. Together, our cross-species findings provide insights into modeling TB disease and the immunological basis of TB disease progression.

4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(4): 469-477, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647877

RESUMO

Rationale: Direct evidence for persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during asymptomatic latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in humans is currently lacking. Moreover, although a 12-week regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) is currently recommended by the CDC as treatment for LTBI, experimental evidence for 3HP-mediated clearance of persistent Mtb infection in human lungs has not been established.Objectives: Using a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of TB, we sought to assess 3HP treatment-mediated clearance of Mtb infection in latently infected macaques.Methods: Sixteen NHPs were infected via inhalation with ∼10 cfu of Mtb CDC1551, after which asymptomatic animals were either treated with 3HP or left untreated. Pharmacokinetics of the 3HP regimen were measured. Following treatment, animals were coinfected with simian immunodeficiency virus to assess reactivation of LTBI and development of active TB disease.Measurements and Main Results: Fourteen NHPs remained free of clinical signs or microbiological evidence of active TB following infection with Mtb and were subsequently either treated with 3HP (n = 7) or left untreated (n = 7). Untreated NHPs were asymptomatic for 7 months but harbored persistent Mtb infection, as shown by reactivation of latent infection following simian immunodeficiency virus coinfection. However, none of the treated animals developed TB reactivation disease, and they remained without clinical or microbiological evidence of persistent bacilli, suggesting treatment-mediated clearance of bacteria.Conclusions: Mtb can persist in asymptomatic macaques for at least 7 months. Furthermore, 3HP treatment effectively cleared bacteria and prevented reactivation of TB in latently infected macaques.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832640

RESUMO

Specific spatial organization of granulomas within the lungs is crucial for protective anti-tuberculosis (TB) immune responses. However, only large animal models such as macaques are thought to reproduce the morphological hallmarks of human TB granulomas. In this study, we show that infection of mice with clinical "hypervirulent" Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) HN878 induces human-like granulomas composed of bacilli-loaded macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and organized localization of germinal centers and B cell follicles. Conversely, infection with lab-adapted Mtb H37Rv resulted in granulomas that are characterized by unorganized clusters of macrophages scattered between lymphocytes. An in-depth exploration of the functions of B cells within these follicles suggested diverse roles and the activation of signaling pathways associated with antigen presentation and immune cell recruitment. These findings support the use of clinical Mtb HN878 strain for infection in mice as an appropriate model to study immune parameters associated with human TB granulomas.

6.
Commun Biol ; 2: 349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552302

RESUMO

Dormancy is a key characteristic of the intracellular life-cycle of Mtb. The importance of sensor kinase DosS in mycobacteria are attributed in part to our current findings that DosS is required for both persistence and full virulence of Mtb. Here we show that DosS is also required for optimal replication in macrophages and involved in the suppression of TNF-α and autophagy pathways. Silencing of these pathways during the infection process restored full virulence in MtbΔdosS mutant. Notably, a mutant of the response regulator DosR did not exhibit the attenuation in macrophages, suggesting that DosS can function independently of DosR. We identified four DosS targets in Mtb genome; Rv0440, Rv2859c, Rv0994, and Rv0260c. These genes encode functions related to hypoxia adaptation, which are not directly controlled by DosR, e.g., protein recycling and chaperoning, biosynthesis of molybdenum cofactor and nitrogen metabolism. Our results strongly suggest a DosR-independent role for DosS in Mtb.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 129(12): 5254-5260, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479428

RESUMO

HIV is a major driver of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. Depletion of CD4+ T cells is assumed to be the basis behind TB reactivation in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) coinfected with HIV. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) coinfected with a mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVΔGY) that does not cause depletion of tissue CD4+ T cells during infection failed to reactivate TB. To investigate the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion relative to other mechanisms of SIV-induced reactivation of LTBI, we used CD4R1 antibody to deplete CD4+ T cells in animals with LTBI without lentiviral infection. The mere depletion of CD4+ T cells during LTBI was insufficient in generating reactivation of LTBI. Instead, direct cytopathic effects of SIV resulting in chronic immune activation, along with the altered effector T cell phenotypes and dysregulated T cell homeostasis, were likely mediators of reactivation of LTBI. These results revealed important implications for TB control in HIV-coinfected individuals.

8.
Pathog Dis ; 77(4)2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381766

RESUMO

Animal models are important in understanding both the pathogenesis of and immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Unfortunately, we are beginning to understand that no animal model perfectly recapitulates the human TB syndrome, which encompasses numerous different stages. Furthermore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a very heterogeneous event at both the levels of pathogenesis and immunity. This review seeks to establish the current understanding of TB pathogenesis and immunity, as validated in the animal models of TB in active use today. We especially focus on the use of modern genomic approaches in these models to determine the mechanism and the role of specific molecular pathways. Animal models have significantly enhanced our understanding of TB. Incorporation of contemporary technologies such as single cell transcriptomics, high-parameter flow cytometric immune profiling, proteomics, proteomic flow cytometry and immunocytometry into the animal models in use will further enhance our understanding of TB and facilitate the development of treatment and vaccination strategies.

10.
Nature ; 570(7762): 528-532, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168092

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death by an infectious disease worldwide1. However, the involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in immune responses to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is unknown. Here we show that circulating subsets of ILCs are depleted from the blood of participants with pulmonary tuberculosis and restored upon treatment. Tuberculosis increased accumulation of ILC subsets in the human lung, coinciding with a robust transcriptional response to infection, including a role in orchestrating the recruitment of immune subsets. Using mouse models, we show that group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) accumulated rapidly in Mtb-infected lungs and coincided with the accumulation of alveolar macrophages. Notably, mice that lacked ILC3s exhibited a reduction in the accumulation of early alveolar macrophages and decreased Mtb control. We show that the C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5)-C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) axis is involved in Mtb control, as infection upregulates CXCR5 on circulating ILC3s and increases plasma levels of its ligand, CXCL13, in humans. Moreover, interleukin-23-dependent expansion of ILC3s in mice and production of interleukin-17 and interleukin-22 were found to be critical inducers of lung CXCL13, early innate immunity and the formation of protective lymphoid follicles within granulomas. Thus, we demonstrate an early protective role for ILC3s in immunity to Mtb infection.

11.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 116S: S11-S18, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072689

RESUMO

TB is a catastrophic infectious disease, affecting roughly one third of the world's population. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognize vitamin B metabolites produced by bacteria, possess effector memory phenotype, and express tissue-homing markers driving migration to sites of infection. Previous research in both Mtb and HIV infections has shown that MAIT cells are depleted in the human periphery, possibly migrating to the tissue sites of infection. We investigated this hypothesis using rhesus macaques (RMs) with active TB, latent TB (LTBI), and SIV-coinfection to explore the effects of different disease states on the MAIT cell populations in vivo. Early in infection, we observed that MAIT cells increased in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) of all infected RMs, irrespective of clinical outcome. However, the frequency of MAIT cells rapidly normalized such that they had returned to baseline levels prior to endpoint. Furthermore, following infection, the chemokines expressed on MAIT cells reflected a strong shift towards a Th1 phenotype from a shared Th1/Th17 phenotype. In conclusion, MAIT cells with enhanced Th1 functions migrating to the site of Mtb-infection. The anti-mycobacterial effector functions of MAIT cells, particularly during the early stages of Mtb infection, had been of interest in promoting protective long-term TB immunity. Our research shows, however, that they have relatively short-acting responses in the host.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Animais , Coinfecção , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/virologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus 40 dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus 40 dos Símios/patogenicidade , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/microbiologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia
12.
J Infect Dis ; 219(12): 1858-1866, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929010

RESUMO

Despite intensive research efforts, several fundamental disease processes for tuberculosis (TB) remain poorly understood. A central enigma is that host immunity is necessary to control disease yet promotes transmission by causing lung immunopathology. Our inability to distinguish these processes makes it challenging to design rational novel interventions. Elucidating basic immune mechanisms likely requires both in vivo and in vitro analyses, since Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly specialized human pathogen. The classic immune response is the TB granuloma organized in three dimensions within extracellular matrix. Several groups are developing cell culture granuloma models. In January 2018, NIAID convened a workshop, entitled "3-D Human in vitro TB Granuloma Model" to advance the field. Here, we summarize the arguments for developing advanced TB cell culture models and critically review those currently available. We discuss how integrating complementary approaches, specifically organoids and mathematical modeling, can maximize progress, and conclude by discussing future challenges and opportunities.


Assuntos
Granuloma/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Granuloma/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Organoides/imunologia , Organoides/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
13.
J Immunol ; 202(9): 2519-2526, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010841

RESUMO

Inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) is a tertiary lymphoid structure that resembles secondary lymphoid organs. iBALT is induced in the lung in response to Ag exposure. In some cases, such as infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the formation of iBALT structure is indicative of an effective protective immune response. However, with persistent exposure to Ags during chronic inflammation, allergy, or autoimmune diseases, iBALT may be associated with exacerbation of inflammation. iBALT is characterized by well-organized T and B areas enmeshed with conventional dendritic cells, follicular dendritic cells, and stromal cells, usually located surrounding airways or blood vessels. Several of the molecular signals and cellular contributors that mediate formation of iBALT structures have been recently identified. This review will outline the recent findings associated with the formation and maintenance of iBALT and their contributions toward a protective or pathogenic function in pulmonary disease outcome.


Assuntos
Brônquios/imunologia , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Animais , Brônquios/patologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/patologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/patologia
14.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875423
15.
Cell Rep ; 26(13): 3586-3599.e7, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917314

RESUMO

The tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and HIV-1 act synergistically; however, the mechanisms by which Mtb exacerbates HIV-1 pathogenesis are not well known. Using in vitro and ex vivo cell culture systems, we show that human M(IL-10) anti-inflammatory macrophages, present in TB-associated microenvironment, produce high levels of HIV-1. In vivo, M(IL-10) macrophages are expanded in lungs of co-infected non-human primates, which correlates with disease severity. Furthermore, HIV-1/Mtb co-infected patients display an accumulation of M(IL-10) macrophage markers (soluble CD163 and MerTK). These M(IL-10) macrophages form direct cell-to-cell bridges, which we identified as tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) involved in viral transfer. TNT formation requires the IL-10/STAT3 signaling pathway, and targeted inhibition of TNTs substantially reduces the enhancement of HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer and overproduction in M(IL-10) macrophages. Our study reveals that TNTs facilitate viral transfer and amplification, thereby promoting TNT formation as a mechanism to be explored in TB/AIDS potential therapeutics.

16.
Cell Rep ; 26(6): 1409-1418.e5, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726727

RESUMO

Lung interstitial CD4+ T cells are critical for protection against pulmonary infections, but the fate of this population during HIV-1 infection is not well described. We studied CD4+ T cells in the setting of HIV-1 infection in human lung tissue, humanized mice, and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) nonhuman primate co-infection model. Infection with a CCR5-tropic strain of HIV-1 or SIV results in severe and rapid loss of lung interstitial CD4+ T cells but not blood or lung alveolar CD4+ T cells. This is accompanied by high HIV-1 production in these cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, during early SIV infection, loss of lung interstitial CD4+ T cells is associated with increased dissemination of pulmonary Mtb infection. We show that lung interstitial CD4+ T cells serve as an efficient target for HIV-1 and SIV infection that leads to their early depletion and an increased risk of disseminated tuberculosis.

17.
Mucosal Immunol ; 11(6): 1727-1742, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115997

RESUMO

C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is a major chemokine axis that recruits myeloid cells including monocytes and macrophages. Thus far, CCR2-/- mice have not been found to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here, using a prototype W-Beijing family lineage 2 Mtb strain, HN878, we show that CCR2-/- mice exhibit increased susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Following exposure to Mtb HN878, alveolar macrophages (AMs) are amongst the earliest cells infected. We show that AMs accumulate early in the airways following infection and express CCR2. During disease progression, CCR2-expressing AMs exit the airways and localize within the TB granulomas. RNA-sequencing of sorted airway and non-airway AMs from infected mice show distinct gene expression profiles, suggesting that upon exit from airways and localization within granulomas, AMs become classically activated. The absence of CCR2+ cells specifically at the time of AM egress from the airways resulted in enhanced susceptibility to Mtb infection. Furthermore, infection with an Mtb HN878 mutant lacking phenolic glycolipid (PGL) expression still resulted in increased susceptibility in CCR2-/- mice. Together, these data show a novel role for CCR2 in protective immunity against clinically relevant Mtb infections.


Assuntos
Granuloma/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Receptores CCR2/genética , Transcriptoma , Virulência
18.
J Immunol ; 200(8): 3008-3019, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540577

RESUMO

Antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells are important components of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet little information is currently known regarding how the breadth, specificity, phenotype, and function of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells correlate with M. tuberculosis infection outcome in humans. To facilitate evaluation of human M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses targeting multiple different Ags, we sought to develop a high throughput and reproducible T cell response spectrum assay requiring low blood sample volumes. We describe here the optimization and standardization of a microtiter plate-based, diluted whole blood stimulation assay utilizing overlapping peptide pools corresponding to a functionally diverse panel of 60 M. tuberculosis Ags. Using IFN-γ production as a readout of Ag specificity, the assay can be conducted using 50 µl of blood per test condition and can be expanded to accommodate additional Ags. We evaluated the intra- and interassay variability, and implemented testing of the assay in diverse cohorts of M. tuberculosis-unexposed healthy adults, foreign-born adults with latent M. tuberculosis infection residing in the United States, and tuberculosis household contacts with latent M. tuberculosis infection in a tuberculosis-endemic setting in Kenya. The M. tuberculosis-specific T cell response spectrum assay further enhances the immunological toolkit available for evaluating M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses across different states of M. tuberculosis infection, and can be readily implemented in resource-limited settings. Moreover, application of the assay to longitudinal cohorts will facilitate evaluation of treatment- or vaccine-induced changes in the breadth and specificity of Ag-specific T cell responses, as well as identification of M. tuberculosis-specific T cell responses associated with M. tuberculosis infection outcomes.


Assuntos
Testes Hematológicos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Técnicas Imunológicas/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Pathogens ; 7(1)2018 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415434

RESUMO

Primary and post-primary tuberculosis (TB) are different diseases caused by the same organism. Primary TB produces systemic immunity. Post-primary TB produces cavities to support massive proliferation of organisms for transmission of infection to new hosts from a person with sufficient immunity to prevent systemic infection. Post-primary, also known as bronchogenic, TB begins in humans as asymptomatic bronchial spread of obstructive lobular pneumonia, not as expanding granulomas. Most lesions regress spontaneously. However, some undergo caseation necrosis that is coughed out through the necrotic bronchi to form cavities. Caseous pneumonia that is not expelled through the bronchi is retained to become the focus of fibrocaseous disease. No animal reproduces this entire process. However, it appears that many mammals utilize similar mechanisms, but fail to coordinate them as do humans. Understanding this makes it possible to use human tuberculous lung sections to guide manipulation of animals to produce models of particular human lesions. For example, slowly progressive and reactivation TB in mice resemble developing human bronchogenic TB. Similarly, bronchogenic TB and cavities resembling those in humans can be induced by bronchial infection of sensitized rabbits. Granulomas in guinea pigs have characteristics of both primary and post primary TB. Mice can be induced to produce a spectrum of human like caseating granulomas. There is evidence that primates can develop bronchogenic TB. We are optimistic that such models developed by coordinated study of human and animal tissues can be used with modern technologies to finally address long-standing questions about host/parasite relationships in TB, and support development of targeted therapeutics and vaccines.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 217(12): 1865-1874, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432596

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Methods: In this study, we describe the contribution of macrophages to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/SIV coinfection in a rhesus macaque model using in vivo BrdU labeling, immunostaining, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Results: We found that increased monocyte and macrophage turnover and levels of SIV-infected lung macrophages correlated with TB reactivation. All Mtb/SIV-coinfected monkeys exhibited declines in CD4+ T cells regardless of reactivation or latency outcomes, negating lower CD4+ T-cell levels as a primary cause of Mtb reactivation. Conclusions: Results suggest that SIV-related damage to macrophages contributes to Mtb reactivation during coinfection. This also supports strategies to target lung macrophages for the treatment of TB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/microbiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tuberculose Latente/microbiologia , Tuberculose Latente/virologia , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Macaca mulatta , Macrófagos Alveolares/microbiologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Masculino , Monócitos/microbiologia , Monócitos/virologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/microbiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/virologia , Carga Viral/imunologia
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