Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 142
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of young childrens' reported experiences of racial discrimination and to assess whether discriminatory experiences vary by gender, religion and country of birth. METHODS: Data came from Speak Out Against Racism (SOAR), a cross-sectional study of 4664 public school students in grades 5-9 in two Australian states in 2017. An adaption of the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index (ADDI), as a measure of discrimination, was used across four Indigenous and ethnic categories (Indigenous, Asian and non-Asian visible minorities, Anglo/European). Effect-measure modification (EMM) examined how experiences of racial discrimination across ethnic groups varied by gender, country of birth and religion. RESULTS: A sizeable proportion (40%) of students reported experiencing racial discrimination. Indigenous, Asian and non-Asian visible minority students reported higher rates of experiencing racial discrimination than their Anglo-European peers. Male students reported higher rates of experiencing racial discrimination than female students. Foreign-born students reported experiencing racial discrimination more often than native-born students, and both Christian and religious minorities experienced racial discrimination more often than students identifying with the dominant "No religion" group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the prevalence of racial discrimination among adolescents and how gender, country of birth and religion can increase risk of these experiences.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compared to men, older women have poorer mental health and are more vulnerable to poverty, especially when living alone. However, few studies have examined how gender, marital status and poverty are inter-related and are associated with mental health. This study examines the gendered associations between relative poverty, marital status and mental health in older Australians. METHODS: Drawing on 17 waves of the HILDA Survey, fixed-effects longitudinal regression analysis was utilised to examine the association between: (1) relative poverty (< 50% median household income) and mental health (MHI-5); (2) marital status and poverty, in a cohort of Australians aged 65 + years. We then examined effect modification of the association between relative poverty and mental health by marital status. RESULTS: Within-person associations, stratified by gender, showed that women in relative poverty reported poorer mental health than when not in relative poverty, however no association was observed for men. Being divorced/separated was associated with increased odds of relative poverty for women, but not men. Widowhood was strongly associated with relative poverty in women, and also among men, albeit a smaller estimate was observed for men. There was no evidence of effect modification of the relationship between relative poverty and mental health by marital status for either men or women. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that relative poverty is a major determinant of mental health in older Australian women. Addressing gender inequities in lifetime savings, as well as in division of acquired wealth post marital loss, may help reduce these disparities.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have a greater impact on people with disabilities than non-disabled people. Our aim was to compare the short-term impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic and first lockdown on the employment and financial security of working age adults with and without disabilities in the UK. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 9 and the special April, May and June COVID-19 monthly surveys of 'Understanding Society', the UK's main annual household panel study. RESULTS: During the first 3 months of the introduction of the COVID-19 lockdown in the UK, respondents with disability were more likely than their peers to be working reduced hours and experience higher levels of financial stress. These differences were attenuated, but not eliminated, when estimates were adjusted to take account of pre-lockdown financial status. CONCLUSIONS: Working age adults with disability were particularly disadvantaged by the financial impact of the COVID-19 lockdown in the UK. The UN Secretary-General António Guterres has stated the need for a disability-inclusive COVID-19 government response. The results of our analysis suggest that these pleas have either not been heeded, or if measures have been implemented, they have so far been ineffectual in the UK.

4.
Disabil Health J ; 14(2): 101050, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341397

RESUMO

COVID-19 has exacerbated pre-existing difficulties children and adults with disability face accessing quality health care. Some people with disability are at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 because they require support for personal care and are unable to physically distance, e.g. those living in congregate settings. Additionally, some people with disability have health conditions that put them at higher risk of poor outcomes if they become infected. Despite this, governments have been slow to recognise, and respond to, the unique and diverse health care needs of people with disability during COVID-19. While some countries, including Australia, have improved access to high-quality health care for people with disability others, like England, have failed to support their citizens with disability. In this Commentary we describe the health care responses of England and Australia and make recommendations for rapidly improving health care for people with disability in the pandemic and beyond.

5.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between labour force status, including young people who were unemployed and having problems looking for work, and psychological distress one year later. We then assessed whether this association is modified by disability status. METHODS: We used three waves of cohort data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. We fitted logistic regression models to account for confounders of the relationship between labour force status (employed, not in the labour force, unemployed and having problems looking for work) at age 21 years and psychological distress at age 22 years. We then estimated whether this association was modified by disability status at age 21 years. RESULTS: Being unemployed and having problems looking for work at age 21 years was associated with odds of psychological distress that were 2.48 (95% CI 1.95 to 3.14) times higher than employment. There was little evidence for additive effect measure modification of this association by disability status (2.52, 95% CI -1.21 to 6.25). CONCLUSIONS: Young people who were unemployed and having problems looking for work had increased odds of poor mental health. Interventions should focus on addressing the difficulties young people report when looking for work, with a particular focus on supporting those young people facing additional barriers to employment such as young people with disabilities.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155121

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is some evidence that employed women report more time pressure and work-life penalties than employed men and other women; however little is known about whether this exerts a mental health effect. This analysis examined associations between household labour force arrangements (household-employment configuration) and the mental health of men and women. METHODS: Seventeen waves of data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Survey (2001-2017) were used. Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). A six-category measure of household-employment configuration was derived: dual full-time employed, male-breadwinner, female-breadwinner, shared part-time employment (both part-time), male full-time/female part-time (modified male-breadwinner, MMBW), and female full-time/male part-time. Using fixed-effects regression methods, we examined the within-person effects of household-employment configuration on mental health after controlling for time-varying confounders. RESULTS: For men, being in the female-breadwinner configuration was associated with poorer mental health compared to being in the MMBW configuration (ß-1.98, 95% CI - 3.36, - 0.61). The mental health of women was poorer when in the male-breadwinner configuration, compared to when in the MMBW arrangement (ß-0.89, 95% CI - 1.56, - 0.22). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the mental health of both men and women is poorer when not in the labour force, either as a man in the female-breadwinner arrangement, or as a woman in the male-breadwinner arrangement. These results are particularly noteworthy for women, because they pertain to a sizeable proportion of the population who are not in paid work, and highlight the need for policy reform to support women's labour force participation.

7.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Gendered working environments' describes the ways in which (1) differential selection into work, (2) variations in employment arrangements and working hours, (3) differences in psychosocial exposures and (4) differential selection out of work may produce varied mental health outcomes for men and women. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to understand gender differences in mental health outcomes in relation to the components of gendered working environments. METHODS: The review followed a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) search approach and focused on studies published in 2008-2018. The protocol for the review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019124066). FINDINGS: Across the 27 cohort studies included in the review, we found that (1) there was inconclusive evidence on the effect of occupational gender composition on the mental health of men and women, (2) women's mental health was more likely to be affected by long working hours than men's; however, precarious employment was more likely to be negatively associated with men's mental health, (3) exposure to traditional constructs of psychosocial job stressors negatively affected the mental health of both women and men, and (4) unemployment and retirement are associated with poorer mental health in both genders. INTERPRETATION: The findings from this review indicate that gendered working environments may affect the mental health of both men and women, but the association is dependent on the specific exposure examined. There is still much to be understood about gendered working environments, and future research into work and health should be considered with a gender lens.

8.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(4): 307-312, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the Australian Disability Support Pension (DSP) on the symptomology of depression and anxiety over and above the effects of reporting a disability itself. METHODS: We used the Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey from 2004 to 2017. We used fixed effects regression to understand mental health differences (using the Mental Health Inventory-5 [MHI-5]) when a person reported: i) a disability; or ii) a disability and receiving the DSP) compared to when they reported no disability. The models controlled for time-varying changes in the severity of the disability and other time-related confounders. RESULTS: There was a 2.97-point decline (95%CI -3.26 to -2.68) in the MHI-5 when a person reported a disability compared to waves in which they reported no disability and 4.48-point decline (95%CI -5.75 to -3.22) when a person reported both a disability and being on the DSP compared to waves in which they reported neither. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that accessing and being in receipt of the DSP can impact the mental health of people with disabilities. Implications for public health: Government income support policies should address the unintended adverse consequences in already vulnerable populations.

9.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(11): 1079-1085, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences from peer, school and societal sources, and examine associations between these experiences and socioemotional and sleep outcomes. METHODS: Data were analysed from a population representative cross-sectional study of n=4664 school students in years 5-9 (10-15 years of age) in Australia. Students reported direct experiences of racial discrimination from peers, school and societal sources; vicarious discrimination was measured according to the frequency of witnessing other students experiences of racial discrimination. Students self-reported on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, with the total difficulties, conduct, emotional and prosocial behaviour subscales examined. Sleep problems included duration, latency, and disruption. RESULTS: 41.56% (95% CI 36.18 to 47.15) of students reported experiences of direct racial discrimination; Indigenous and ethnic minority students reported the highest levels. 70.15% (95% CI 63.83 to 75.78) of students reported vicarious racial discrimination. Direct and vicarious experiences of racial discrimination were associated with socioemotional adjustment (eg, for total difficulties, total direct racism: beta=3.77, 95% CI 3.11 to 4.44; vicarious racism: beta=2.51, 95% CI 2.00 to 3.03). Strong evidence was also found for an effect of direct and vicarious discrimination on sleep (eg, for sleep duration, total direct: beta=-21.04, 95% CI -37.67 to -4.40; vicarious: beta=-9.82, 95% CI -13.78 to -5.86). CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of direct and vicarious racial discrimination are common for students from Indigenous and ethnic minority backgrounds, and are associated with socioemotional and sleep problems in adolescence. Racism and racial discrimination are critically important to tackle as social determinants of health for children and adolescents.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(12): 1512-1520, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661550

RESUMO

In Australia, as in many industrialized countries, the past 50 years have been marked by increasing female labor-force participation. It is popularly speculated that this might impose a mental-health burden on women and their children. This analysis aimed to examine the associations between household labor-force participation (household employment configuration) and the mental health of parents and children. Seven waves of data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were used, comprising 2004-2016, with children aged 4-17 years). Mental health outcome measures were the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (children/adolescents) and 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (parents). A 5-category measure of household employment configuration was derived from parental reports: both parents full-time, male-breadwinner, female-breadwinner, shared-part-time employment (both part-time) and father full-time/mother part-time (1.5-earner). Fixed-effects regression models were used to compare within-person effects, controlling for time-varying confounders. For men, the male-breadwinner configuration was associated with poorer mental health compared with the 1.5-earner configuration (ß = 0.21, 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.36). No evidence of association was observed for either women or children. This counters prevailing social attitudes, suggesting that neither children nor women are adversely affected by household employment configuration, nor are they disadvantaged by the extent of this labor-force participation. Men's mental health appears to be poorer when they are the sole household breadwinner.

11.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(4): 262-264, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583533
13.
Work ; 65(4): 775-787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continual reforms of the Australian Disability Employment Services (DES) program aim to improve employment outcomes for people with disabilities, including people with a psychosocial disability who experience high levels of unemployment. OBJECTIVE: To understand contextual factors in the lives of DES participants with a psychosocial disability that influence their engagement with and potential benefits from the DES program in the context of the 2018 reforms. METHODS: Thematic analysis of 30 qualitative interviews with DES participants with a psychosocial disability was conducted as part of the Improving Disability Employment Study between November 2017 to October 2018. RESULTS: Findings highlight diverse life challenges experienced by DES participants including disrupted education, inadequate access to mental and general health services, and financial and housing insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The life circumstances of DES participants with a psychosocial disability are often complex and undermine their engagement with employment services and access to labour markets. Despite considerable investment in ongoing reforms, these circumstances continue to undermine the effectiveness of the DES program.

14.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 660-665, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119900

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic disease is a leading cause of adult morbidity and mortality globally. There is considerable evidence that childhood adversity is associated with markers of cardiometabolic disease risk in childhood, including obesity, blood pressure trajectories, and chronic inflammation. Experiences of racial discrimination may be an important, yet under explored, form of childhood adversity influencing childhood cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to examine associations between self-reported racial discrimination and cardiometabolic risk markers among children. A total of 124 children (73 female) aged 11.4 years (SD 0.71) participated in the study. Most children (n = 79) identified as being from an Indigenous or an ethnic minority background. Markers of cardiometabolic risk were BMI, waist circumference, weight height ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and five inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α). Results showed that two or more reported experiences of racial discrimination were associated with increased BMI z-score (Beta 0.58, 95% CI 0.18, 0.99), waist circumference (Beta 4.91 cm, 95% CI 0.71, 9.1), systolic blood pressure (Beta 2.07 mmHg, 95% CI 0.43, 3.71) and IL-6 (Beta 0.13, 95% CI 0.00, 0.27) and marginally associated with TNF-α (Beta 0.22, 95% CI -0.09, 0.54) after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Findings from this study suggest the need to address racism and racial discrimination as important social determinants of cardiometabolic risk and of the inequitable burden of cardiometabolic disease experienced by those from Indigenous and minoritized ethnic backgrounds.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 325, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employment is recognised as facilitating the personal and clinical recovery of people with psychosocial disability. Yet this group continue to experience considerable barriers to work, and, constitute a significant proportion of individuals engaged with Disability Employment Services (DES). Recognition of the role of recovery-oriented practice within DES remains limited, despite these approaches being widely promoted as best-practice within the field of mental health. METHODS: The Improving Disability Employment Study (IDES) aims to gather evidence on factors influencing employment outcomes for Australians with disability. Descriptive analysis and linear regression of IDES survey data from 369 DES participants, alongside narrative analysis of data collected through 56 in-depth interviews with 30 DES participants with psychosocial disability, allowed us to explore factors influencing mental health, well-being and personal recovery within the context of DES. RESULTS: Psychosocial disability was reported as the main disability by 48% of IDES respondents. These individuals had significantly lower scores on measures of mental health and well-being (44.9, 48.4 respectively, p ≤ 0.01), compared with respondents with other disability types (52.2, 54.3 p ≤ 0.01). Within this group, individuals currently employed had higher mental health and well-being scores than those not employed (47.5 vs 36.9, 55.5 vs 45.4 respectively, p ≤ 0.01). Building on these findings, our qualitative analysis identified five personal recovery narratives: 1) Recovery in spite of DES; 2) DES as a key actor in recovery; 3) DES playing a supporting role in fluctuating journeys of recovery; 4) Recovery undermined by DES; and, 5) Just surviving regardless of DES. Narratives were strongly influenced by participants' mental health and employment status, alongside the relationship with their DES worker, and, participants' perspectives on the effectiveness of services provided. CONCLUSION: These findings re-iterate the importance of work in supporting the mental health and well-being of people with psychosocial disability. Alongside access to secure and meaningful work, personal recovery was facilitated within the context of DES when frontline workers utilised approaches that align with recovery-orientated practices. However, these approaches were not consistently applied. Given the number of people with psychosocial disability moving through DES, encouraging greater consideration of recovery-oriented practice within DES and investment in building the capacity of frontline staff to utilise such practice is warranted.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Emprego/psicologia , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Narração , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(6): 495-501, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169955

RESUMO

AIM: The inverse care law suggests that those with the greatest need for services are least likely to receive them. Our aim of this study was to test the inverse care law in relation to the use of health services by children aged 4-5 years in Australia who were developmentally vulnerable and socioeconomically disadvantaged. METHOD: Cross-sectional data were collected from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children birth cohort when the children were aged 4-5 years. Children were grouped according to the combination of developmental vulnerability (yes, no) and socioeconomic disadvantage (lower, higher), resulting in four groups (reference group: developmentally vulnerable and disadvantaged). Multivariate regression was used to examine the impact of the combination of developmental vulnerability and disadvantage on health service use, adjusting for other sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: 3967 (90%) of children had data on developmental vulnerability at 4-5 years. A third of children (32.6%) were classified as developmentally vulnerable, and 10%-25% of these children had used health services. Non-disadvantaged children who were developmentally vulnerable (middle need) had 1.4-2.0 times greater odds of using primary healthcare, specialist and hospital services; and non-disadvantaged children who were not developmentally vulnerable (lowest need) had 1.6-1.8 times greater odds of using primary healthcare services, compared with children who were developmentally vulnerable and disadvantaged (highest need). CONCLUSION: We found some evidence of the inverse care law. Equity in service delivery remains a challenge that is critically important to tackle in ensuring a healthy start for children.

17.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(10): 1311-1321, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to understand how much of the gender difference in mental health service use could be due to the joint mediation of employment, behavioural and material factors, social support and mental health need. METHODS: We used data from employed individuals aged 18-65 years who participated in the 2015-2017 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The exposure (male, female) and confounders were measured in 2015, mediators in 2016 and the outcome-whether a person had seen a mental health professional in the previous year-was measured in 2017. We estimated natural mediation effects using weighted counterfactual predictions from a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Men were less likely to see a mental health care provider than women. The total causal effect on the risk difference scale was - 0.045 (95% CI - 0.056, - 0,034). The counterfactual of men taking the mediator values of women explained 28% (95% CI 1.7%, 54%) of the total effect, with the natural direct effect estimated to represent an absolute risk difference of - 0.033 (95% CI - 0.048, - 0.018) and the natural indirect effect - 0.012 (95% CI - 0.022, - 0.0027). CONCLUSION: Gendered differences in the use of mental health services could be reduced by addressing inequalities in health, employment, material and behavioural factors, and social support.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Health Promot Int ; 35(1): 27-41, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916577

RESUMO

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo
20.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(4): e575-e577, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789375
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...