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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to understand how much of the gender difference in mental health service use could be due to the joint mediation of employment, behavioural and material factors, social support and mental health need. METHODS: We used data from employed individuals aged 18-65 years who participated in the 2015-2017 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The exposure (male, female) and confounders were measured in 2015, mediators in 2016 and the outcome-whether a person had seen a mental health professional in the previous year-was measured in 2017. We estimated natural mediation effects using weighted counterfactual predictions from a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Men were less likely to see a mental health care provider than women. The total causal effect on the risk difference scale was - 0.045 (95% CI - 0.056, - 0,034). The counterfactual of men taking the mediator values of women explained 28% (95% CI 1.7%, 54%) of the total effect, with the natural direct effect estimated to represent an absolute risk difference of - 0.033 (95% CI - 0.048, - 0.018) and the natural indirect effect - 0.012 (95% CI - 0.022, - 0.0027). CONCLUSION: Gendered differences in the use of mental health services could be reduced by addressing inequalities in health, employment, material and behavioural factors, and social support.

3.
Health Promot Int ; 35(1): 27-41, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916577

RESUMO

This systematic review sought to evaluate the impact of gender equality on the health of both women and men in high-income countries. A range of health outcomes arose across the 48 studies included. Gender equality was measured in various ways, including employment characteristics, political representation, access to services, and with standard indicators (such as the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure). The effects of gender equality varied depending on the health outcome examined, and the context in which gender equality was examined (i.e. employment or domestic domain). Overall, evidence suggests that greater gender equality has a mostly positive effect on the health of males and females. We found utility in the convergence model, which postulates that gender equality will be associated with a convergence in the health outcomes of men and women, but unless there is encouragement and support for men to assume more non-traditional roles, further health gains will be stymied.

4.
Epidemiology ; 31(2): 282-289, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International comparisons of social inequalities in health outcomes and behaviors are challenging. Due to the level of disaggregation often required, data can be sparse and methods to make adequately powered comparisons are lacking. We aimed to illustrate the value of a hierarchical Bayesian approach that partially pools country-level estimates, reducing the influence of sampling variation and increasing the stability of estimates. We also illustrate a new way of simultaneously displaying the uncertainty of both relative and absolute inequality estimates. METHODS: We used the 2014 European Social Survey to estimate smoking prevalence, absolute, and relative inequalities for men and women with and without disabilities in 21 European countries. We simultaneously display smoking prevalence for people without disabilities (x-axis), absolute (y-axis), and relative inequalities (contour lines), capturing the uncertainty of these estimates by plotting a 2-D normal approximation of the posterior distribution from the full probability (Bayesian) analysis. RESULTS: Our study confirms that across Europe smoking prevalence is generally higher for people with disabilities than for those without. Our model shifts more extreme prevalence estimates that are based on fewer observations, toward the European mean. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the utility of partial pooling to make adequately powered estimates of inequality, allowing estimates from countries with smaller sample sizes to benefit from the increased precision of the European average. Including uncertainty on our inequality plot provides a useful tool for evaluating both the geographical patterns of variation in, and strength of evidence for, differences in social inequalities in health.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802134

RESUMO

Objectives A considerable proportion of the working population reports a disability. These workers may be at risk of adverse outcomes, including longer periods of sickness absence. This study examined the causal effect of disability on sickness absence and the role of psychosocial job stressors and gender as effect modifiers. Methods Data on paid and unpaid sick leave, disability (yes/no) and psychosocial job stressors were available from 2005 to 2017 from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Negative binomial models were used to model the rate of sickness absence in a year. Results In the random effects model, workers with disability had 1.20 greater rate of sickness absence in a year [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.23, P<0.001] after adjustment for confounders. The rate was slightly lower in the fixed effects model. There was evidence of multiplicative interaction of the effect by gender and job control. The effect of disability on sickness absence was greater among men than women, and higher for people with low job control compared to those with high job control. Conclusions There is a need for more research about the factors that can reduce sickness leave among workers with disabilities.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to discrimination can have a negative impact on health. There is little robust evidence on the prevalence of exposure of people with disabilities to discrimination, the sources and nature of discrimination they face, and the personal and contextual factors associated with increased risk of exposure. METHODS: Secondary analysis of de-identified cross-sectional data from the three waves of the UK's 'Life Opportunities Survey'. RESULTS: In the UK (i) adults with disabilities were over three times more likely than their peers to be exposed to discrimination, (ii) the two most common sources of discrimination were strangers in the street and health staff and (iii) discrimination was more likely to be reported by participants who were younger, more highly educated, who were unemployed or economically inactive, who reported financial stress or material hardship and who had impairments associated with hearing, memory/speaking, dexterity, behavioural/mental health, intellectual/learning difficulties and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination faced by people with disabilities is an under-recognised public health problem that is likely to contribute to disability-based health inequities. Public health policy, research and practice needs to concentrate efforts on developing programs that reduce discrimination experienced by people with disabilities.

9.
Med J Aust ; 211(10): C1-C2, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734947
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Longitudinal studies have suggested a causal relationship between disability acquisition and mental health, but there is substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect. Previous studies have provided evidence that socioeconomic characteristics can buffer the effect but have not examined the role of employment characteristics. METHODS: We used data from 17 annual waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey to compare the mental health of working age individuals before and after disability acquisition, using the Mental Health Inventory, a subscale of the SF-36 health questionnaire. Linear fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. We tested for effect modification by two characteristics of people's employment prior to disability acquisition: occupational skill level and contract type. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to handle missing data. RESULTS: Disability acquisition was associated with a substantial decline in mental health score (estimated mean difference: - 4.3, 95% CI - 5.0, - 3.5). There was evidence of effect modification by occupational skill level, with the largest effects seen for those in low-skilled jobs (- 6.1, 95% CI - 7.6, - 4.5), but not for contract type. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the need for social and health policies that focus on increasing employment rates, improving the sustainability of employment, and providing employment services and education and training opportunities for people who acquire a disability, particularly for people in low-skilled occupations, to reduce the mental health inequalities experienced by people with disabilities.

11.
J Health Soc Behav ; 60(3): 344-361, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526020

RESUMO

This study examined how cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and bullying victimization influences the health of Australian adolescents (n = 2802) aged 10 to 11 years (19.3% visible ethnic minorities [nonwhite, non-Indigenous]; 2.6% Indigenous) using data from three waves (2010-2014) of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and bullying victimization had incremental negative effects on socioemotional difficulties. Higher accumulated exposure to both stressors across time was associated with increased body mass index z-scores and risk of overweight/obesity. Studies that examine exposure to single risk factors such as bullying victimization or racial discrimination at one time point only are likely to miss key determinants of health for adolescents from stigmatized racial-ethnic backgrounds and underestimate their stressor burden.

12.
J Sex Med ; 16(11): 1749-1757, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473129

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies on sexual function in men with disabilities have mainly relied on clinical samples; population-based evidence on this topic is limited. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare aspects of sexual function between disabled and nondisabled men using a representative sample. METHODS: We used data from Ten to Men, a national cohort study of Australian men aged 18-55 years. We first compared the prevalence of 15 sexual function-related difficulties in disabled vs non-disabled men. Next, we used Poisson regression to examine associations between disability and sexual function. The main analytic sample had 8,496 men. Weights and adjustments appropriate to the sampling methodology were applied. Models adjusted for potential confounders. Results were reported as prevalence ratios (PRs). P values of < .05 were considered statistically significant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Outcomes were 15 individual items from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles-Sexual Function, a validated measure of sexual function with items in 3 domains: physio-psychological aspect; relational aspect; and global self-rating (the 16th item on help-seeking was excluded). These were coded as binary variables denoting past-year sexual problems. RESULTS: Disabled men had higher prevalence of all outcomes than nondisabled men. 25.6% of men with disabilities and 15.1% of nondisabled men experienced at least 2 of 15 difficulties. The most prevalent problems were "orgasmed too early" (43.8% of disabled men, 37.1% of nondisabled men), imbalance of sexual desire between partners (47.6% of disabled men, 39.2% of nondisabled men), and overall sexual dissatisfaction (39.4% of disabled men, 26.7% of nondisabled men). All adjusted PRs were > 1.00 for disability; associations were statistically significant except "partner experienced sexual difficulties" (PR = 1.23; 95% CI = 0.99-1.53; P = .058) and "orgasmed too early" (PR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.00-1.35; P = .050). "Presence of discomfort/pain" had the largest adjusted PR for disability (PR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.89-4.06; P < .001). CLINICAL IMPLICATION: This population-based analysis on the relationship between disability and sexual function contextualizes evidence from clinical studies. Findings suggest that disparities between men with and without disability exist but are not uniform across different aspects of sexual function. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Two major strengths of this study are that the sample included a nondisabled reference group and results are generalizable to Australian men. A key limitation is that disability and sexual function measures are self-reported. CONCLUSION: This study provides a broad foundation of population-based evidence about sexual function in men with disabilities, relative to men without, showing positive associations between disability and 13 of 15 sexual difficulties. Bollier A-M, King T, Shakespeare T, et al. Sexual Functioning in Men With and Without Disabilities: Findings From a Representative Sample of Australian Men. J Sex Med 2019;16:1749-1757.

13.
SSM Popul Health ; 9: 100464, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453312

RESUMO

Disability is a key social identity or social category that is associated with significant social disadvantage. For men, having a disability can be discordant with their masculine identity. Self-reliance is one component of masculinity that is known to be important to men with disabilities, however it is also known to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes in the broader adult male population. Intersectionality approaches offer a means of examining the way that the effect of self-reliance on mental health might vary between those with and without a disability. Among a sample of 12,052 men aged 18-55 years from the Ten-to-Men study, we used effect measure modification (EMM) to examine the way that self-reliance modifies the relationship between disability and depressive symptoms. Disability was assessed using the Washington Group Short Set of questions, which capture functional limitations. Results showed that men with disabilities who reported higher conformity to self-reliance norms had much worse mental health than non-disabled men with low conformity to self-reliance, as measured in terms of depressive symptoms (PRR: 9.40, 95%CI 7.88, 11.22, p-value<0.001). We found evidence of positive EMM of depressive symptoms by conformity to self-reliance on the additive scale (RERI: 2.84, 95%CI 1.26, 4.42, p-value<0.001). These results provide evidence that high conformity to self-reliance norms exerts a particularly damaging effect on the mental health of men with disabilities. Given that men with disabilities are more likely to rely on help and support from others, these results provide important insights for the delivery of services to men with disability.

14.
J Occup Rehabil ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392475

RESUMO

Purpose This prospective international study aimed to assess the changes in employment, and predictors thereof, and associated change in mental health quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods People with MS were recruited online through social media, forums and newsletters to complete an online English-language survey in 2012 and again in 2015, to assess changes in employment and clinical characteristics. Results 1276 people with MS of working age were included of whom 35.9% were employed full time, 25.6% part-time, 3.1% were unemployed and seeking employment, 19.7% were retired due to disability and 15.7% were not in the labour force. Part/full time employment decreased from 61.4 to 57.1% of the sample 2.5 years later, and 25.5% experienced some change in employment status. Lower level of education and higher level of disability at baseline predicted loss of employment at follow-up. 62.0% of the sample indicated that MS impacted on employment over their lifetime, associated with a lower level of education and progressive MS at time of diagnosis. Retiring due to disability was predictive of a decreased mental health related QOL score. Conclusion Employment status was negatively impacted by MS for most participants. We showed for the first time that employment loss was prospectively associated with poorer mental health related quality of life. Employment support including vocational services, reasonable flexibility in the workplace, and legal protection against discrimination should be widely available to assist people with MS, especially for those with progressive onset MS, higher disability and lower levels of education who are at higher risk of employment loss.

17.
Disabil Health J ; 12(4): 581-587, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of emotional difficulties and self-harm among adolescents with a disability. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of emotional difficulties and self-harm among British adolescents with and without disability; (2) to determine whether prevalence varies by gender, severity of disability and type of functional limitation associated with disability. METHODS: Secondary analysis of age 14 data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. RESULTS: Adolescents with disability reported significantly higher rates of emotional difficulties and self-harm than their non-disabled peers. Among participants with and without disability, prevalence rates were notably higher among girls for most outcomes. The strength of the association between disability and emotional difficulties and self-harm was greater for: maternal report of adolescent emotional difficulties; disabled adolescents with moderate/severe activity limitations; and adolescents with psychosocial impairments. CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear need for providers of all mental health services to ensure that reasonable accommodations are made to services to ensure that they are responsive to the specific needs of adolescents with disabilities. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which our results can be generalised to adolescents in other settings, to specific subgroups of adolescents with disabilities, to other measures of emotional difficulties and to other informants. Future research is also needed to further explore the consistency and determinants of the intersection between gender by disability regarding adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Emoções , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Grupo Associado , Prevalência , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939787

RESUMO

Both gender and employment are critical and intersecting social determinants of mental and physical health. This paper describes the protocol used to conduct a systematic literature review of the relationship between "gendered working environments" and mental health. Gendered working environments (GWE) are conceptualised as involving: (1) differences in selection into work, and more specifically, occupations; (2) variation in employment arrangements and working hours; (3) disparities in psychosocial exposures at work, and; (4) differences in selection out of work. Methods/design: The review will adhere to a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) search procedure. Key words will be identified that are specific to each of the four domains of GWE. The databases used for the search will be Scopus, Pubmed, Proquest, and Web of Science. Keywords will be adapted for the specific requirements of each electronic database. Inclusion criteria are: Using a validated scale to measure mental health (outcome); including exposures related to the four domains of GWE; reporting estimates for both men and women; and use of a cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional design. Studies will be excluded if they were published more than 10 years ago, are not in English or do not present extractable data on the relationship between GWE and mental health. Discussion: The proposed review will provide evidence about the numerous and complex ways in which employment and gender intersect (and are reinforced) to influence mental health over the life course.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Fatores Sexuais , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Prev Med Rep ; 14: 100826, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886814

RESUMO

The health and human care workforce comprise a substantial and increasing proportion of the employed population in high income countries. This diverse workforce is comprised of high skilled workers, such as doctors and nurses, as well as lower skilled workers such as carers and support workers. This paper assessed psychosocial working conditions among health and human care workers compared to other workers. We also examined the effects of psychosocial working conditions on mental health. The data source was 16 waves of the Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The exposure was a multidimensional, previously validated psychosocial job quality index. The outcome was changes in the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5). The effect modifier was a multicategory health and human care occupational variable. Random and fixed effects linear regression models were used to unpack between- versus within- person differences. Time varying confounders were controlled for. We found evidence of effect modification. Carers and support workers experienced a 4.90-point decline (95% CI -6.23 to 3.57) on the MHI-5 when reporting 3 or more job stressors compared to no stressors. These workers also reported lower levels of mental health than other occupational groups and had greater exposure to poor psychosocial working environments. Health workers also reported substantial declines on the MHI-5 when exposed to 3 or more job stressors (-3.50, 95% CI -5.05 to -1.94). Understanding the quality of employment in this workforce, and consequent impacts of this employment on mental health is critical to ensuring sustainable individual, organizational and client-related outcomes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that acquiring a disability is associated with a reduction in mental health, but they have not considered the cumulative impact of having a disability on mental health. We used acquisition of a non-psychological disability to estimate the association of each additional year lived with disability on mental health (measured using the Mental Component Summary score of the Short Form Health Survey). METHODS: We used the first 13 waves of data (years 2001-2013) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. The sample included 4113 working-age (18-65 years) adults who were disability-free at waves 1 and 2. We fitted marginal structural models with inverse probability weights to estimate the association of each additional year of living with disability on mental health, employing multiple imputation to handle the missing data. RESULTS: Of the 4113 participants, 7.7 percent acquired a disability. On average, each additional year lived with disability was associated with a decrease in the mean Mental Component Summary score (ß = - 0.42; 95% CI - 0.71, - 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that each additional year lived with non-psychological disability is associated with a decline in mental health among working-age Australians.

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