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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: An increasing body of evidence suggests that excreting a generous volume of diluted urine is associated with short- and long-term beneficial health effects, especially for kidney and metabolic function. However, water intake and hydration remain under-investigated and optimal hydration is poorly and inconsistently defined. This review tests the hypothesis that optimal chronic water intake positively impacts various aspects of health and proposes an evidence-based definition of optimal hydration. METHODS: Search strategy included PubMed and Google Scholar using relevant keywords for each health outcome, complemented by manual search of article reference lists and the expertise of relevant practitioners for each area studied. RESULTS: The available literature suggest the effects of increased water intake on health may be direct, due to increased urine flow or urine dilution, or indirect, mediated by a reduction in osmotically -stimulated vasopressin (AVP). Urine flow affects the formation of kidney stones and recurrence of urinary tract infection, while increased circulating AVP is implicated in metabolic disease, chronic kidney disease, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: In order to ensure optimal hydration, it is proposed that optimal total water intake should approach 2.5 to 3.5 L day-1 to allow for the daily excretion of 2 to 3 L of dilute (< 500 mOsm kg-1) urine. Simple urinary markers of hydration such as urine color or void frequency may be used to monitor and adjust intake.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32260197

RESUMO

Research on hyponatremia during mountain marathons is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia during a 44-km trail running race that reached an altitude of 2780 m (Olympus Marathon). Sixty-two runners (five women) who completed the race participated in the study (age: 34.4 ± 8.6 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m; and weight: 75.3 ± 10.0 kg). Anthropometric characteristics, blood, and urine samples were collected pre- and post-race. Food and fluid intake were recorded at each checkpoint. Due to race regulations, the runners could not carry any additional food and fluids besides the ones provided at specific checkpoints. Five runners (8%) exhibited asymptomatic hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mmol∙L-1). Serum sodium in the hyponatremic runners decreased from 138.4 ± 0.9 (pre) to 131.4 ± 5.0 mmol∙L-1 (post), p < 0.05. Plasma osmolality increased only in the eunatremic runners (pre: 290 ± 3; post: 295 ± 6 mmol∙kg-1; p < 0.05). Plasma volume decreased more in the hyponatremic compared to eunatremic runners (-4.4 ± 2.0 vs. -3.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.05). Lastly, dietary sodium intake was lower in the hyponatremic runners compared to eunatremic (789 ± 813 vs. 906 ± 672 mg; p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia among the athletes was relatively low, possibly due to race conditions.

3.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(2): 225-229, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. METHODS: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18-65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. RESULTS: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (Padjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (Padjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (Padjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. CONCLUSIONS: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.

4.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(5): 683-686, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329074

RESUMO

Background: Proper hydration is vital for both exercise and general health. Although various methods for hydration assessment exist, many are not valid for either use or never tested. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the uChek© smart phone application can be used to diagnose underhydration based on elevated urine specific gravity (USG) assessed by refractometry. Methods: One hundred forty-seven (n = 147) fresh human urine samples from young and middle-age adults were analyzed for USG with a refractometer and the uChek© application by reading the Siemens Multistix 10G urine reagent strip. Results: Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement of the two methods of assessment. Overall diagnostic ability of the uChek© to identify underhydration was fair (area under the curve 79%). However, the sensitivity to correctly identify underhydration was poor (60%) as well as the specificity of correctly identifying euhydration (53%). Conclusion: The uChek© application does not accurately detect underhydration.

5.
Front Nutr ; 6: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681787

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this observational study was to examine the incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in a 246-km continuous ultra-marathon. Methods: Over 2 years, 63 male finishers of the annual Spartathlon ultra-marathon foot race from Athens to Sparta, Greece were included in the data analysis. A blood sample was drawn from an antecubital vein the day before the race as well as within 15 min post-race and analyzed for sodium concentration. During the second year of data collection, blood was also drawn at the 93-km checkpoint (n = 29). Height and weight were measured pre and post-race. Results: Mean race time of all subjects was 33 ± 3 h with a range of 23.5 and 36.0 h. Of the 63 finishers recruited, nine began the race with values indicative of mild hyponatremia. Seven runners were classified as hyponatremic at the 93-km checkpoint, three of whom had sodium levels of severe hyponatremia. After the race, 41 total finishers (65%) developed either mild (n = 27, 43%) or severe hyponatremia (n = 14, 22%). Mean change in bodyweight percentage and serum sodium from pre-race to post-race was -3.6 ± 2.7% (-2.5 ± 1.9 kg) and -6.6 ± 5.6 mmol·L-1, respectively. Pre-race serum sodium level was not a significant predictor of post-race serum sodium levels (ß = 0.08, R 2 = 0.07, P = 0.698), however, there was a significant negative association between change in bodyweight percentage and post-race serum sodium concentration (ß = -0.79, R 2 = 0.29, P = 0.011). Conclusion: The incidence of EAH of 52 and 65%, when excluding or including these individuals with pre-race hyponatremia, was the highest reported in current literature.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766680

RESUMO

The motivation to seek and consume water is an essential component of human fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, optimal function, and health. This review describes the evolution of concepts regarding thirst and drinking behavior, made possible by magnetic resonance imaging, animal models, and novel laboratory techniques. The earliest thirst paradigms focused on single factors such as dry mouth and loss of water from tissues. By the end of the 19th century, physiologists proposed a thirst center in the brain that was verified in animals 60 years later. During the early- and mid-1900s, the influences of gastric distention, neuroendocrine responses, circulatory properties (i.e., blood pressure, volume, concentration), and the distinct effects of intracellular dehydration and extracellular hypovolemia were recognized. The majority of these studies relied on animal models and laboratory methods such as microinjection or lesioning/oblation of specific brain loci. Following a quarter century (1994-2019) of human brain imaging, current research focuses on networks of networks, with thirst and satiety conceived as hemispheric waves of neuronal activations that traverse the brain in milliseconds. Novel technologies such as chemogenetics, optogenetics, and neuropixel microelectrode arrays reveal the dynamic complexity of human thirst, as well as the roles of motivation and learning in drinking behavior.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While daily hydration is best assessed in 24-h urine sample, spot sample is often used by health care professionals and researchers due to its practicality. However, urine output is subject to circadian variation, with urine being more concentrated in the morning. It has been demonstrated that afternoon spot urine samples are most likely to provide equivalent urine concentration to 24-h urine samples in adults. The aim of the present study was to examine whether urine osmolality (UOsm) assessed from a spot urine sample in specific time-windows was equivalent to 24-h UOsm in free-living healthy children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 541 healthy children (age: 3-13 years, female: 45%, 77% non-Hispanic white, BMI:17.7 ± 4.0 kg m-2), UOsm at specific time-windows [morning (0600-1159), early afternoon (1200-1559), late afternoon (1600-1959), evening (2000-2359), overnight (2400-0559), and first morning] was compared with UOsm from the corresponding pooled 24-h urine sample using an equivalence test. RESULTS: Late afternoon (1600-1959) spot urine sample UOsm value was equivalent to the 24-h UOsm value in children (P < 0.05; mean difference: 62 mmol kg-1; 95% CI: 45-78 mmol kg-1). The overall diagnostic ability of urine osmolality assessed at late afternoon (1600-1959) to diagnose elevated urine osmolality on the 24-h sample was good for both cutoffs of 800 mmol kg-1 [area under the curve (AUC): 87.4%; sensitivity: 72.6%; specificity: 90.5%; threshold: 814 mmol kg-1] and 500 mmol kg-1 (AUC: 83.5%; sensitivity: 75.0%; specificity: 80.0%; threshold: 633 mmol kg-1). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in free-living healthy children, 24-h urine concentration may be approximated from a late afternoon spot urine sample. This data will have practical implication for health care professionals and researchers.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1344-1352, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies in humans show increased concentrations of copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP), to be associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the acute and independent effect of osmotically stimulated AVP, measured via the surrogate marker copeptin, on glucose regulation in healthy adults. METHODS: Sixty subjects (30 females) participated in this crossover design study. On 2 trial days, separated by ≥7 d (males) or 1 menstrual cycle (females), subjects were infused for 120 min with either 0.9% NaCl [isotonic (ISO)] or 3.0% NaCl [hypertonic (HYPER)]. Postinfusion, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g) was administered. RESULTS: During HYPER, plasma osmolality and copeptin increased (P < 0.05) and remained elevated during the entire 6-h protocol, whereas renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hormones were within the lower normal physiological range at the beginning of the protocol and declined following infusion. Fasting plasma glucose did not differ between trials (P > 0.05) at baseline and during the 120 min of infusion. During the OGTT the incremental AUC for glucose from postinfusion baseline (positive integer) was greater during HYPER (401.5 ± 190.5 mmol/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (354.0 ± 205.8 mmol/L·min; P < 0.05). The positive integer of the AUC for insulin during OGTT did not differ between trials (HYPER 55,850 ± 36,488 pmol/L·min compared with ISO 57,205 ± 31,119 pmol/L·min). Baseline values of serum glucagon were not different between the 2 trials; however, the AUC of glucagon during the OGTT was also significantly greater in HYPER (19,303 ± 3939 ng/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (18,600 ± 3755 ng/L·min; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that acute osmotic stimulation of copeptin induced greater hyperglycemic responses during the oral glucose challenge, possibly due to greater glucagon concentrations.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02761434.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Plasma/química , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
9.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324008

RESUMO

Personalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine both the athlete's fluid needs during sport and his/her opportunity to address them; these are often specific to the environment, the event and the individual athlete. In this paper we address the major considerations for assessing hydration status in athletes and practical solutions to overcome obstacles of a given sport. Based on these solutions, practitioners can better advise athletes to develop practices that optimize hydration for their sports.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Esportes , Água , Atletas , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Humanos
10.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(5): 686-695, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659665

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of mild hypohydration on exercise performance with subjects blinded to their hydration status. Eleven male cyclists (weight 75.8 ± 6.4 kg, VO2peak : 64.9 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min, body fat: 12.0 ± 5.8%, Powermax : 409 ± 40 W) performed three sets of criterium-like cycling, consisting of 20-minute steady-state cycling (50% peak power output), each followed by a 5-km time trial at 3% grade. Following a familiarization trial, subjects completed the experimental trials, in counter-balanced fashion, on two separate occasions in dry heat (30°C, 30% rh) either hypohydrated (HYP) or euhydrated (EUH). In both trials, subjects ingested 25 mL of water every 5 minutes during the steady-state and every 1 km of the 5-km time trials. In the EUH trial, sweat losses were fully replaced via intravenous infusion of isotonic saline, while in the HYP trial, a sham IV was instrumented. Following the exercise protocol, the subjects' bodyweight was changed by -0.1 ± 0.1% and -1.8 ± 0.2% for the EUH and HYP trial, respectively (P < 0.05). During the second and third time trials, subjects averaged higher power output (309 ± 5 and 306 ± 5 W) and faster cycling speed (27.5 ± 3.0 and 27.2 ± 3.1 km/h) in the EUH trial compared to the HYP trial (Power: 287 ± 4 and 276 ± 5 W, Speed: 26.2 ± 2.9 and 25.5 ± 3.3 km/h, all P < 0.05). Core temperature (Tre ) was higher in the HYP trial throughout the third steady-state and 5-km time trial (P < 0.05). These data suggest that mild hypohydration, even when subjects were unaware of their hydration state, impaired cycle ergometry performance in the heat probably due to greater thermoregulatory strain.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Peso Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Ergometria , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Percepção , Gravidade Específica , Sudorese , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(6): 506-508, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic ability of urine reagent strips to identify hypohydration based on urine specific gravity (USG). DESIGN: This study examined the agreement of USG between strips and refractometry with Bland-Altman, whereas the diagnostic ability of the strips to assess hypohydration was performed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. SETTING: Arkansas high school football preseason practice. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred fourteen fresh urine samples were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine specific gravity was assessed by both reagent strips and refractometry. Cutoffs of >1.020 and >1.025 were used for identifying hypohydration. RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement of the 2 methods. Overall diagnostic ability of the urine strip to identify hypohydration was fair (area under the curve 72%-78%). However, the sensitivity to correctly identify hypohydration was poor (63%-71%), and the specificity of correctly identifying euhydration was poor to fair (68%-83%). CONCLUSION: The urine strip method is not valid for assessing hypohydration.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Fitas Reagentes/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Refratometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravidade Específica , Luta Romana/fisiologia
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 475-496, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although low water intake has been associated with adverse health outcomes, available literature indicated that the majority of children do not meet the water intake guidelines and they are underhydrated based on elevated hydration biomarkers. This review examined the water intake habits and hydration status in children from 32 observational studies (n = 36813). METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL were used to identify relevant articles. Total water/fluid intake from 25 countries was compared with water intake recommendations and underhydration (urine osmolality greater than 800 mmol kg-1) was assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using customized categories following the review guideline for observational studies. RESULTS: From 32 studies, only 11 studies reported both water intake and hydration status. 12 out of 24 studies reported mean/median water/fluid intake below the guidelines, while 4 out of 13 studies that assessed hydration status indicated underhydration based on urine osmolality (greater than 800 mmol kg-1). Among the 19 countries that reported comparison of water/fluid intake with guidelines, 60 ± 24% of children (range 10-98%) failed to meet them. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that children are not consuming enough water to be adequately hydrated.


Assuntos
Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Criança , Desidratação/urina , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Concentração Osmolar , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
14.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(8): 1703-1713, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity and hypohydration independently affect postsynaptic endothelial function, but it is unknown if hypohydration affects lean and obese individuals differently. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of hypohydration on postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in men with high and low adiposity (HI- and LO-BF, respectively). METHODS: Ten males with LO-BF and ten with HI-BF were instrumented for forearm microdialysis when euhydrated and hypohydrated. Changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) with intradermal infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and methacholine chloride (MCh) were assessed. Local sweat rate (LSR) was simultaneously assessed at the MCh site. At the end of the last dose, maximal CVC was elicited by delivering a maximal dose of SNP for 30 min to both sites with simultaneous local heating at the SNP site. The concentration of drug needed to elicit 50% of the maximal response (EC50) was compared between groups and hydration conditions. RESULTS: When euhydrated, EC50 of MCh-induced CVC was not different between LO- vs. HI-BF [- 3.04 ± 0.12 vs. - 2.98 ± 0.19 log (MCh) M, P = 0.841]. EC50 of SNP-induced CVC was higher in euhydrated HI- vs. LO-BF (- 1.74 ± 0.17 vs. - 2.13 ± 0.06 log (SNP) M, P = 0.034). Within each group, hydration status did not change MCh- or SNP-induced CVC (P > 0.05). LSR was not different between groups or hydration condition (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest reduced sensitivity of endothelium-independent vasodilation in individuals with high adiposity when euhydrated. However, hypohydration does not affect cutaneous vasodilation or local sweat rate differently between individuals with low or high adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Sudorese , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Microvasos/inervação , Microvasos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(8): 1697-1703, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (weight, 72 ± 9 kg; body fat, 14% ± 6%; peak oxygen uptake, 59.4 ± 6 mL·kg·min) exercised for 2 h on a cycle ergometer at 55% peak oxygen uptake, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity), with a nasogastric tube under euhydrated-non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated-non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions. In both trials, thirst was matched by drinking 25 mL of water every 5 min (300 mL·h). In the EUH-NT trial, sweat losses were fully replaced by water via the nasogastric tube (calculated from the familiarization trial). After the 2 h of steady state, the subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial at 4% grade. RESULTS: Body mass loss for the EUH-NT and DEH-NT after the 2 h was -0.2% ± 0.6% and -2.2% ± 0.4%, whereas after the 5-km time trial, it was -0.7% ± 0.5% and 2.9% ± 0.4%, respectively. Thirst (35 ± 30 vs 42 ± 31 mm) and stomach fullness (46 ± 21 vs 35 ± 20 mm) did not differ at the end of the 2 h of steady state between EUH-NT and DEH-NT trials (P > 0.05). Subjects cycled faster during the 5-km time trial in the EUH-NT trial compared with the DEH-NT trial (23.2 ± 1.5 vs 22.3 ± 1.8 km·h, P < 0.05), by producing higher-power output (295 ± 29 vs 276 ± 29 W, P < 0.05). During the 5-km time trial, core temperature was higher in the DEH-NT trial (39.2°C ± 0.7°C) compared with the EUH-NT trial (38.8°C ± 0.2°C; P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that hypohydration decreased cycling performance and impaired thermoregulation independently of thirst, while the subjects were unaware of their hydration status.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sede , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Percepção , Método Simples-Cego
16.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 72(2): 134-141, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393125

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the validity of published resting energy expenditure (REE) equations in Greek adults, and if indicated, develop new cohort-specific predictive REE equations. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry and anthropometric data were obtained from 226 adult volunteers of diverse age groups and body mass index ranges (18-60 years, 16.6-67.7 kg·m-2). Measured REE was compared to preexisting prediction equations via correlation, regression, and Bland-Altman analysis. Then, cohort-specific REE equations were developed using curve estimation and nonlinear regression. To reduce type I error, presently derived equations were validated by splitting the sample into a training and validation group. RESULTS: Preexisting equations over-predicted in-cohort REE. Equations by Livigston and Kohlstadt were most accurate at the individual level (63% accuracy), while formulas by Owen and collaborators elicited highest accuracy at the group level (-1.8% bias). Bland-Altman analysis showed proportional bias for most equations. Currently developed equations showed highest overall accuracy with 70% at the individual and group level (1.0% bias), with small differences between measured and predicted REE values (mean, 95% CI 36 [-15 to 88] kcal·day-1). CONCLUSION: Data indicate currently developed equations to be the most accurate and valid for estimating REE in Greek adults. Further studies should examine the developed equations in an independent sample.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(3): 420-427, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children consume various fluids to meet dietary water intake needs. However, the contribution of different fluid types on hydration is unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop fluid intake patterns and examine their association with hydration, as indicated by 24-h urine osmolality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred ten (105 girls) healthy children (height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, weight: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8%) recorded their fluid intake for two consecutive days, and collected their urine for 24-h during the 2nd day, while conducting their normal daily activities. Urine samples were analyzed for specific gravity and osmolality. Factor analysis with principal components method was applied to extract dietary patterns from six fluid groups. Linear regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and hydration based on 24-h urine osmolality. RESULTS: The analysis revealed the following six components: 1, characterized by consumption of milk and fresh juice, but not packaged juice; 2, by regular soda and other drinks, but not water; 3, by fresh juice and other drinks; 4, by packaged juice, but not regular soda; 5, by water and milk; and 6, by fresh juice. Component 5 was negatively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001) indicating better hydration, whereas component 2 was positively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A drinking pattern based on water and milk was associated with better hydration, as indicated by lower urine osmolality, whereas drinking regular soda and other drinks but not water was associated with inferior hydration.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise , Água
18.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 28(1): 75-81, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29035599

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to assess the hydration status of elite young sailing athletes during World Championship competition. Twelve young, elite, male, Laser Class sailors (age: 15.8 ± 1.1 y, height: 1.74 ± 0.1 m, weight: 65.1 ± 1.5 kg, body fat: 12.5 ± 3.1%, training experience: 7.0 ± 1.2 y) participated in this descriptive study. After three-day baseline bodyweight measurements, hydration status was assessed via pre- and post-race body weights, urine-specific gravity, and thirst ratings via a visual analog scale during four consecutive days of racing. Measurements and data collection took place at the same time each racing day, with mean environmental temperature, humidity, and wind speed at 23.0 ± 0.8°C, 64-70%, and 9 ± 1 knots, respectively. Average racing time was 130 ± 9 min. Body weight was significantly decreased following each race-day as compared to prerace values (Day 1: -1.1 ± 0.2, Day 2: -2.5 ± 0.1, Day 3: -2.8 ± 0.1, and Day 4: -3.0 ± 0.1% of body weight; p < 0.05). The participants exhibited dehydration of -2.9 ± 0.2 and -5.8 ± 0.2% of body weight before and after the fourth racing day as compared to the three-day baseline body weight. Urine-specific gravity (pre-post → Day 1: 1.014-1.017; Day 2: 1.019-1.024; Day 3: 1.021-1.026; Day 4: 1.022-1.027) and thirst (pre-post → Day 1: 2.0-5.2; Day 2: 3.2-5.5; Day 3: 3.7-5.7; Day 4: 3.8-6.8) were also progressively and significantly elevated throughout the four days of competition. The data revealed progressive dehydration throughout four consecutive days of racing as indicated by decreased body weight, elevated urine concentration, and high thirst.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desidratação , Esportes/fisiologia , Sede , Perda de Peso , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Navios , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nutr ; 147(10): 2001-2007, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878034

RESUMO

Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R2 = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Óxido de Deutério , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
20.
Front Nutr ; 4: 40, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low levels of caffeine ingestion do not induce dehydration at rest, while it is not clear if larger doses do have an acute diuretic effect. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the acute effect of low and high levels of caffeine, via coffee, on fluid balance in habitual coffee drinkers (at least one per day) at rest. METHODS: Ten healthy adults (eight males and two females; age: 27 ± 5 years, weight: 89.5 ± 14.8 kg, height: 1.75 ± 0.08 m, and body mass index: 29.1 ± 4.4 kg m-2) ingested 200 mL of water (W), coffee with low caffeine (3 mg kg-1, LCAF), or coffee with high caffeine (6 mg kg-1, HCAF) on three respective separate occasions. All sessions were performed at 09:00 in the morning in a counterbalanced, crossover manner, at least 5 days apart. Subjects remained in the laboratory while urine samples were collected every 60 min for 3 h post ingestion. RESULTS: Absolute caffeine consumption was 269 ± 45 and 537 ± 89 mg for the LCAF and HCAF, respectively. Coffee ingestion at the HCAF trial induced greater diuresis during the 3-h period (613 ± 101 mL, P < 0.05), when compared to W (356 ± 53 mL) and LCAF (316 ± 38 mL). In addition, cumulative urinary osmotic excretion was significantly greater in the HCAF (425 ± 92 mmol, P < 0.05), as compared to the W (249 ± 36 mmol) and LCAF (177 ± 16 mmol) trials. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that caffeine intake of 6 mg kg-1 in the form of coffee can induce an acute diuretic effect, while 3 mg kg-1 do not disturb fluid balance in healthy casual coffee drinking adults at rest.

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